Now showing items 21-40 of 1445

    • Development of an awareness-based intervention to enhance quality of life in severe dementia: trial platform

      Clare, L.; Woods, R.T.; Whitaker, R.; Wilson, B.A.; Downs, Murna G. (2010)
      Quality of residential care for people with severe dementia is in urgent need of improvement. One reason for this may be the assumption that people with severe dementia are unaware of what is happening to them. However, there is converging evidence to suggest that global assumptions of unawareness are inappropriate. This trial platform study aims to assist care staff in perceiving and responding to subtle signs of awareness and thus enhance their practice. Methods/Design: In Stage One, a measure of awareness in severe dementia will be developed. Two focus groups and an expert panel will contribute to item and scale development. In Stage Two observational data will be used to further develop the measure. Working in four care homes, we will recruit 40 individuals with severe dementia who have no, or very limited, verbal communication. Data on inter-rater reliability and frequency of all items and exploratory factor analysis will be used to identify items to be retained. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for the new measure will be calculated. Correlations with scores for well-being and behaviour and with proxy ratings of quality of life will provide an indication of concurrent validity. In Stage Three the new measure will be used in a single blind cluster randomised trial. Eight care homes will participate, with 10 residents recruited in each giving a total sample of 80 people with severe dementia. Homes will be randomised to intervention or usual care conditions. In the intervention condition, staff will receive training in using the new measure and will undertake observations of designated residents. For residents with dementia, outcomes will be assessed in terms of change from baseline in scores for behaviour, well-being and quality of life. For care staff, outcomes will be assessed in terms of change from baseline in scores for attitudes, care practice, and well-being. Discussion: The results will inform the design of a larger-scale trial intended to provide definitive evidence about the benefits of increasing the sensitivity of care staff to signs of awareness in residents with severe dementia. Trial Registration: ISRCTN59507580
    • I don't do like I used to do': A grounded theory approach to conceptualising awareness in people with moderate to severe dementia living in long-term care

      Clare, L.; Rowlands, J.; Bruce, Errollyn; Surr, Claire; Downs, Murna G. (2008-06)
      While awareness among people with mild to moderate dementia residing in the community has been extensively studied, little evidence has been presented regarding the extent to which people with moderate to severe dementia living in residential care show awareness of their own situation and functioning. The present study aimed to explore how differing degrees of awareness are manifested in the conversations and interactions of people with dementia living in residential care settings, and to identify theoretical and practical implications. Transcripts of 304 conversations with 80 individuals with dementia living in residential care homes in England and Wales were analysed using a grounded theory approach. All 80 participants demonstrated a degree of retained awareness, and there was considerable evidence of retained awareness throughout the conversations, expressed in relation to the three domains of self, relationship, and the environmental context. Two-thirds of participants also demonstrated at least one instance of unawareness, although demonstrations of retained awareness outweighed indications of unawareness. Unawareness was evident in relation to appraisal of functioning and the meaning ascribed to the situation. A grounded theory model of awareness in people with moderate to severe dementia who still communicate verbally proposes that demonstration of awareness involves a set of analytic and behavioural processes, a scope or timescale, and a focus. Awareness is demonstrated in relation to a given focus and scope through the involvement of cognitive processes of varying degrees of complexity, ranging from registering through appraising and interpreting to reflection. Unawareness may be demonstrated in relation to some elements of process, focus or scope, while other aspects remain unaffected. Understanding more about the capacity for retained awareness and the specific ways in which awareness can be compromised may assist care staff in responding effectively to residents' needs.
    • From Classroom to Clinic: Bridging the Gap in Nursing Anatomy and Physiology Education

      Manchester, Kieran R.; Roberts, D. (2024-02-17)
      Since the 1980 s, changes in nursing education have inadvertently led to diminishing anatomy and physiology content in curricula (Taylor et al., 2015). The need for nurses to have a thorough grounding in these subjects is undisputed; however, the pedagogical principles for anatomy and physiology education have been under scrutiny (Perkins, 2019). Anatomy and physiology are typically incorporated as part of bioscience, which also encompasses genetics, microbiology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology (Horiuchi-Hirose et al., 2023). Registered nurses and nursing students often express anxiety about studying bioscience and its perceived difficulty, largely due to difficulties in applying theory to practice (Craft et al., 2013, Craft et al., 2017, Meedya et al., 2019). Despite this, there remains a recognition that bioscience knowledge is important for effective nursing practice (Danielson and Berntsson, 2007, Horiuchi-Hirose et al., 2023).
    • Dyadic influences on awareness of condition in people with dementia: findings from the IDEAL cohort

      Alexander, C.M.; Martyr, A.; Gamble, L.D.; Quinn, Catherine; Pentecost, C.; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L. (2023-12)
      The discrepancy between caregiver-ratings and self-ratings of abilities is commonly used to assess awareness in people with dementia. We investigated the contribution of caregiver and dyadic characteristics to the difference in perspective between caregiver-informants and people with dementia about difficulties experienced, when considering awareness of condition. Methods: We conducted exploratory cross-sectional analyses using data from the IDEAL cohort. Participants were 1,038 community-dwelling people with mild-to-moderate dementia, and coresident spouse/partner caregivers. The Representations and Adjustment to Dementia Index (RADIX) checklist reporting difficulties commonly experienced in dementia was completed by 960 caregiver-informants and 989 people with dementia. Difference in scores was calculated for 916 dyads. Demographic information, cognition, informant-rated functional ability and neuropsychiatric symptoms were recorded for the person with dementia. Self-reported data were collected on mood, comorbidity, religion, importance of religion, relationship quality, and caregiver stress. Results: For most dyads, caregivers reported more RADIX difficulties than people with dementia. Caregiver RADIX ratings were more closely associated with informant-rated functional ability and neuropsychiatric symptoms than with cognition. More RADIX difficulties and higher stress were reported by female caregivers. Greater RADIX difference was associated with more caregiver stress, and older age but less depression in people with dementia. Conclusion: Few dyadic characteristics were important, but caregiver stress was higher where caregivers reported more RADIX difficulties and/or the difference in perspective was greater, whereas partners with dementia reported better mood. In addition to offering information about awareness of condition, the caregiver rating and difference in perspectives could indicate where more support is needed.
    • Methods and approaches to facilitate inclusion of the views, perspectives and preferences of people with moderate-to-severe dementia in research: a mixed-methods systematic review

      Collins, R.; Martyr, A.; Hunt, A.; Quinn, Catherine; Pentecost, C.; Hughes, J.C.; Clare, L. (2024-01)
      The perspectives of people with moderate-to-severe dementia are rarely directly elicited in research studies. Objectives: This systematic review will explore methods and approaches for including the perspectives and preferences of people with moderate-to-severe dementia in research. Methods: AgeLine, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Social Policy and Practice and Web of Science were searched until June 16 2022. Study quality was assessed using the 16-item Quality Assessment Tool. We described specific communication tools, reviewed the evidence for their effectiveness and considered their strengths and limitations. We examined the more general communication skills and techniques applied to support the use of these tools using thematic synthesis. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO CRD42019130386 and the review was conducted and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: Seven studies reported in 11 publications were included. In these studies five specific communication tools were used: Talking Mats, Augmentative and Alternative Communication Flexiboard, generic photographs in combination with a preference placement board, consultation ballot and personalised communication prescriptions. Each tool identified had advantages and disadvantages depending on dementia severity, verbal or physical ability, expense, researcher training requirements and ease of use. Thematic synthesis identified five general approaches to optimising communication that were employed to support use of the tools: ensuring conversations are individual and person-centred, managing external influences, engaging others, creating structure and facilitation skills. Conclusion: All tools had some utility and there was no clear evidence to support the recommendation of any one specific tool; therefore, researchers are advised to select the tool most appropriate to their context. Implications for Practice: The findings offer general guidance for researchers and practitioners on how to facilitate communication with people with moderate-to-severe dementia.
    • Dyadic perspectives on loneliness and social isolation among people with dementia and spousal carers: findings from the IDEAL programme

      Rippon, I.; Victor, C.R.; Martyr, A.; Matthews, F.E.; Quinn, Catherine; Rusted, J.M.; Jones, R.W.; Collins, R.; van Horik, J.; Pentecost, C.; et al. (2024-06)
      This study aims to investigate the impact of self and partner experiences of loneliness and social isolation on life satisfaction in people with dementia and their spousal carers. We used data from 1042 dementia caregiving dyads in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) programme cohort. Loneliness was measured using the six-item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale and social isolation using the six-item Lubben Social Network Scale. Data were analysed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework. Self-rated loneliness was associated with poorer life satisfaction for both people with dementia and carers. The initial partner effects observed between the loneliness of the carer and the life satisfaction of the person with dementia and between social isolation reported by the person with dementia and life satisfaction of the carer were reduced to nonsignificance once the quality of the relationship between them was considered. Experiencing greater loneliness and social isolation is linked with reduced life satisfaction for people with dementia and carers. However, having a positive view of the quality of the relationship between them reduced the impact of loneliness and social isolation on life satisfaction. Findings suggest the need to consider the experiences of both the person with dementia and the carer when investigating the impact of loneliness and social isolation. Individual interventions to mitigate loneliness or isolation may enhance life satisfaction for both partners and not simply the intervention recipient.
    • Experiences of newly registered nurses transitioning from nursing student to registered nurse: a qualitative systematic review

      Brady, Jennie; Tatterton, Michael J. (2023-09)
      This is a summary of See et al.1 Newly registered nurses experience high levels of emotional exhaustion, stress and burnout, with high attrition rates in the first-year post-qualification. The purpose of this review was to consolidate the available evidence on the experiences of newly registered nurses transitioning from the role of student nurse to that of registered nurse.
    • The role of children's hospices in supporting the implementation of perinatal palliative care and advance care planning in the United Kingdom

      Tatterton, Michael J. (2023)
      Commentary on: Shaw KL, Spry J, Cummins C, et al. Advance care planning in perinatal settings: national survey of implementation using Normalisation Process Theory. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition Published Online First: 14 September 2023. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2023-325649.
    • Resilience in caregivers of people with mild-to-moderate dementia: findings from the IDEAL cohort

      Martyr, A.; Rusted, J.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Gamble, L.D.; Collins, R.; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L. (2023-12)
      Objectives: A novel model of resilience was tested in caregivers of people with mild-to-moderate dementia and was extended to explore whether including self-efficacy, optimism, and self-esteem improved its predictive value. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Data from the IDEAL cohort were used. Participants: The study comprised 1222 caregivers of people with dementia. Measurements: A composite resilience score was calculated from five measures. Multivariable regressions were used to investigate factors associated with resilience. Results: Greater resilience was associated with being older, being male, and caregiving for older people with dementia. Greater resilience was also observed when people with dementia had fewer functional difficulties and/or fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms, there was a stronger dyadic relationship, and the caregiver had fewer social restrictions, less neuroticism, and greater perceived competence. Surprisingly, caregiver self-efficacy, optimism, and self-esteem were unrelated to resilience. Conclusion: Caregivers of people with mild-to-moderate dementia generally scored well for resilience. Resilience was associated with both the personal characteristics of caregivers and level of care need among people with dementia. Future work is needed to determine whether the caregivers in this cohort appeared resilient because the care recipients had relatively low care needs and consequently placed fewer demands on caregiver well-being than would be the case where dementia is more advanced.
    • Talking about falls: a qualitative exploration of spoken communication of patients' fall risks in hospitals and implications for multifactorial approaches to fall prevention.

      McVey, Lynn; Alvarado, Natasha; Healey, F.; Montague, Jane; Todd, C.; Zaman, Hadar; Dowding, D.; Lynch, A.; Issa, B.; Randell, Rebecca (2024-03)
      Inpatient falls are the most common safety incident reported by hospitals worldwide. Traditionally, responses have been guided by categorising patients' levels of fall risk, but multifactorial approaches are now recommended. These target individual, modifiable fall risk factors, requiring clear communication between multidisciplinary team members. Spoken communication is an important channel, but little is known about its form in this context. We aim to address this by exploring spoken communication between hospital staff about fall prevention and how this supports multifactorial fall prevention practice. Data were collected through semistructured qualitative interviews with 50 staff and ethnographic observations of fall prevention practices (251.25 hours) on orthopaedic and older person wards in four English hospitals. Findings were analysed using a framework approach. We observed staff engaging in 'multifactorial talk' to address patients' modifiable risk factors, especially during multidisciplinary meetings which were patient focused rather than risk type focused. Such communication coexisted with 'categorisation talk', which focused on patients' levels of fall risk and allocating nursing supervision to 'high risk' patients. Staff negotiated tensions between these different approaches through frequent 'hybrid talk', where, as well as categorising risks, they also discussed how to modify them. To support hospitals in implementing multifactorial, multidisciplinary fall prevention, we recommend: (1) focusing on patients' individual risk factors and actions to address them (a 'why?' rather than a 'who' approach); (2) where not possible to avoid 'high risk' categorisations, employing 'hybrid' communication which emphasises actions to modify individual risk factors, as well as risk level; (3) challenging assumptions about generic interventions to identify what individual patients need; and (4) timing meetings to enable staff from different disciplines to participate.
    • Differences of corruption types in selected Western and central-eastern health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review

      Gonzalez-Aquines, Alejandro; Cordero-Perez, A.C.; Kowalska-Bobko, I. (2023-10)
      To identify, describe, and classify the cases of health corruption present in selected Western [the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK)] and Central-Eastern European (Poland and Slovakia) countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. A rapid review of the literature was conducted, evaluating data from 11 March 2020 to 15 April 2021. Information sources included MEDLINE via WoS, IBSS via ProQuest, Scopus, and gray literature. Thirteen cases were identified across the four countries. The primary type of health corruption in Western European countries was procurement corruption, while misuse of (high) level positions was the most prevalent in Central-Eastern European countries. Actors from central governments were most involved in cases. The rule of law and anti-corruption watchdogs reported most cases in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, while the media reported cases in Poland and Slovakia. The differences in types of corruption in WE and CEE countries emphasize the need to contextualize the approach to tackle corruption. Thus, further research in preventing and tackling corruption is a vital and necessary undertaking despite the inherent of conducting health corruption research.
    • Identifying the Health Concerns of Pregnant British Pakistani Women Living in Deprived Areas: A Qualitative Study

      Iqbal, Halima; West, Jane; McEachan, Rosemary; Haith-Cooper, Melanie (2023)
      Pregnant British Pakistani women have disproportionately poorer health than the wider population. Bradford has a strong Pakistani presence and a wide range of public health problems including high levels of gestational diabetes, high obesity rates and a high infant mortality rate, which is highest for babies of Pakistani origin. For women to be healthy, we need to know what concerns they have about their health so they can be addressed appropriately. The aim of this study, therefore, was to explore the health concerns of pregnant British Pakistani women living in deprived areas. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 pregnant Pakistani women in a hospital setting. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Pakistani women identified safety issues, barriers to undertaking physical activity in the areas where they live, concerns surrounding exercising during pregnancy and cultural and religious constraints that prevented them from engaging in physical activity. They reported issues around food, concerns around a lack of culturally appropriate diet information, the cost of unhealthy food locally, and the lack of healthy food options in their residences. Women were unsure on where to obtain health promotion information and reported a lack of access in obtaining that information. Language barriers in accessing health promotion information were further reported as a concern. Discussion Researchers, midwives, health providers, local authority and policy makers interested in improving the health of pregnant Pakistani women may use these findings to develop further research and interventions to improve the poor health of this population.
    • Human resource capacity for information management in selected public healthcare facilities in Meru County, Kenya.

      Kiilu, Elizabeth M.; Okero, D.C.; Muiruri, L.; Owuondo, P.A. (2015)
      Reliable health information is essential for decision making in the healthcare system. Information management in Kenya was considered the weakest area under the Health Information System pillar mainly due to inadequate health workers capacity. The study therefore aimed at assessing health workers skills and current training needs for information management in the selected healthcare facilities. Cross-section research design was adopted and both purposive sampling technique and censuses were used to establish the study participants. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and results were presented in tables, charts and graphs. It was established that capacity building was usually undertaken through on-job trainings i.e. 85.1% (103) health workers had on-job training on filling of data collection tools and only 10% (13) had received formal classroom training on the same. Further, only 9.1% (11) health workers had received information management training while 90.9% (110) had not received such training. Health workers demonstrated below average skills on information management i.e. only 17.4% (21) could check for data accuracy, only 16.5% (20) could compute trends from bar charts and only 16.5% (20) could transform the data they collected into meaningful information for use. The researcher recommended that healthcare facilities management teams develop a competency based framework for defining the desired skill mix for information management and have a yearly Training Needs Assessment for assessing training needs for information management among the health workers.
    • Prognostic factors influencing HIV-free survival among infants enrolled for HIV early infant diagnosis services in selected hospitals in Nairobi County, Kenya

      Kiilu, Elizabeth M.; Karanja, S.; Kikuvi, G.; Wanzala, P. (2023-10-04)
      Despite being a preventable disease, pediatric HIV infection continues to be a public health concern due to the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Vertical transmission of HIV occurs when a mother living with HIV passes the virus to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Globally, the vertical transmission rate of HIV is 9% with sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 90% of these infections. In Kenya, the national vertical transmission rates of HIV stood at 11.5% by the end of 2018, with a target to reduce vertical transmission rates to below 5% and 2% in breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding infants respectively, by the end of 2021. To determine the prognostic factors influencing HIV-free survival among infants enrolled for HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) services in selected hospitals in Nairobi County, Kenya. A prospective cohort study design was adopted. HIV exposed infants were recruited at six weeks to determine HIV-free survival over 12 months follow up. Simple random sampling was used to select 166 infants and data were collected from the mothers using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Log-rank tests were used to test for associations at the bi-variable level while Cox-proportional regression was used to analyze data at the multi-variable level, with the aid of STATA 14 software. Ethical approval was obtained from Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific Ethics Review Unit. The overall infant HIV incidence rate over one-year follow-up was 9 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI: 5.465-16.290). The failure event was defined as an infant with a positive PCR test during the study period with total failures being 13 (9.41%) over 12 months. Prognostic factors associated with poor infant HIV-free survival were young maternal age (18-24 years) and mothers with a recent HIV diagnosis of ≤ 2 years since a positive HIV diagnosis (HR 5.97 CI: 1.20, 29.58) and (HR 6.97 CI: 1.96, 24.76), respectively. Maternal prognostic factors associated with poor infant HIV-free survival were young maternal age (18-24 years) and recent maternal HIV diagnosis of ≤ 2 years since positive HIV diagnosis. The study recommended the development of an intervention package with more rigorous adherence counseling and close monitoring for young mothers, and mothers with recent HIV diagnoses.
    • Inclusiveness of Access Policies to Maternity Care for Migrant Women Across Europe: A Policy Review

      Pařízková, A.; Clausen, J.A.; Balaam, M.C.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Roosalu, T.; Migliorini, L.; Kasper, A. (2024)
      Introduction Despite the interconnectedness of the European Union, there are significant variations in pregnant women’s legal status as migrants and therefore their ability to access maternity care. Limited access to maternity care can lead to higher morbidity and mortality rates in migrant women and their babies. This study aimed to investigate and compare maternal health access policies and the context in which they operate across European countries for women who have migrated and are not considered citizens of the host country. Methods The study adopted a mixed-methods research design exploring policies on migrant women’s access to maternity care across the migration regimes. Data were extracted from legal documents and research reports to construct a new typology to identify the inclusiveness of policies determining access to maternity care for migrant women. Results This study found inconsistency in the categorisation of migrants across countries and significant disparities in access to maternity care for migrant women within and between European countries. A lack of connection between access policies and migration regimes, along with a lack of fit between policies and public support for migration suggests a low level of path dependency and leaves space for policy innovation. Discussion Inequities and inconsistencies in policies across European countries affect non-citizen migrant women’s access to maternity care. These policies act to reproduce structural inequalities which compromise the health of vulnerable women and newborns in reception countries. There is an urgent need to address this inequity, which discriminates against these already marginalised women.
    • We lost a lot, but something good came out of it too': Exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental wellbeing of British Muslim Pakistani women with family responsibilities

      Iqbal, Halima; Lockyer, B.; Iqbal, Syka; Dickerson, J. (2023-10-05)
      The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions caused major disruption globally, shedding light on the unprecedented strain upon the mental health and wellbeing of individuals around the world. Poor mental health in the pandemic is reported to be greater in women, with mothers being at increased risk. It is unclear whether there are differences in the impact of mental wellbeing on some ethnic groups over others. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of British Muslim Pakistani women with family responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic, two years on from the first lockdown. Methods Qualitative interviews with women were conducted via telephone using a semi-structured topic guide. The sample included 25 British Muslim Pakistani women with family responsibilities, both English and non-English speaking. Women lived in households that ranged in number and included extended family. Key themes were determined using thematic analysis. Results Results were grouped under three themes. These were (1) Community, cultural and religious contributors to poor mental wellbeing, (2) religious and cultural mediators of mental distress, and (3) perceived positive impact on lifestyle. British Muslim Pakistani women were psychologically distressed by the high rates of virus transmission and deaths in their communities and at the prospect of older members of their extended family developing the virus. The impact of restrictions on fundamental religious and cultural interactions further exacerbated poor mental wellbeing in this population. Religion, community social capital and larger household structures were all effective coping strategies for British Muslim Pakistani women. Positive impacts of the pandemic included becoming closer to family and faith, and increased work/life harmony. Conclusions An exploration of religious and cultural coping mechanisms should be used to inform future national pandemic preparedness plans, as well as effective strategies for building and maintaining social capital. This may increase adherence to physical distancing and other protective behaviours in populations.
    • Venous blood point-of-care testing (POCT) for paramedics in urgent and emergency care: protocol for a single-site feasibility study (POCTPara)

      Lightowler, Bryan; Hodge, A.; Pilbery, R.; Bell, F.; Best, P.; Hird, K.; Walker, A.; Snaith, Beverly (2023-06-01)
      The COVID-19 pandemic placed the UK healthcare system under unprecedented pressure, and recovery will require whole-system investment in innovative, flexible and pragmatic solutions. Positioned at the heart of the healthcare system, ambulance services have been tasked with addressing avoidable hospital conveyance and reducing unnecessary emergency department and hospital attendances through the delivery of care closer to home. Having begun to implement models of care intended to increase ‘see and treat’ opportunities through greater numbers of senior clinical decision makers, emphasis has now been placed upon the use of remote clinical diagnostic tools and near-patient or point-of-care testing (POCT) to aid clinical decision making. In terms of POCT of blood samples obtained from patients in the pre-hospital setting, there is a paucity of evidence beyond its utility for measuring lactate and troponin in acute presentations such as sepsis, trauma and myocardial infarction, although potential exists for the analysis of a much wider panel of analytes beyond these isolated biomarkers. In addition, there is a relative dearth of evidence in respect of the practicalities of using POCT analysers in the pre-hospital setting. This single-site feasibility study aims to understand whether it is practical to use POCT for the analysis of patients’ blood samples in the urgent and emergency care pre-hospital setting, through descriptive data of POCT application and through qualitative focus group interviews of advanced practitioners (specialist paramedics) to inform the feasibility and design of a larger study. The primary outcome measure is focus group data measuring the experiences and perceived self-reported impact by specialist paramedics. Secondary outcome measures are number and type of cartridges used, number of successful and unsuccessful attempts in using the POCT analyser, length of time on scene, specialist paramedic recruitment and retention, number of patients who receive POCT, descriptive data of safe conveyance, patient demographics and presentations where POCT is applied and data quality. The study results will inform the design of a main trial if indicated.
    • Evaluating the role of the diagnostic radiographer in identifying child safeguarding concerns: A knowledge, attitude and practice survey approach

      Beck, Jamie J.W.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Hardy, Maryann L.; Snaith, Beverly (2023-08)
      Introduction: Child safeguarding and the appropriate identification of suspected victims represents a global phenomenon. Diagnostic imaging is acknowledged as a contributory diagnostic service but the role of the radiographer in the identification and escalation process is less well understood. Method: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey was constructed to evaluate knowledge base in the context of the patient–radiographer interaction, the shaping of attitude towards child safeguarding and attitudes held towards their role plus the actual practical experiences of managing child safeguarding concerns. Results: Respondents demonstrated a inconsistent knowledge base with respect to physical, social and radiographic signs and symptoms of child safeguarding concern. A positive attitude towards the role of the radiographer in child safeguarding was demonstrated but one that was shaped more by experience than pre-registration education. Assessment of concerns was chiefly influenced by clinical history and appreciation of aetiology. Practically, radiographers have infrequent involvement with the identification and escalation of concerns. Whilst some statistically significant relationships between responses and demographics did exist, these were either sporadic or argued to be a result of natural variation. Conclusion: Assessment of physical and social signs of child safeguarding concern are argued to be becoming more challenging. Radiological signs continue to be visible to radiographers but with increasing use of other imaging modalities these signs are becoming more varied in nature and are providing new challenges. Radiographers are capable of escalation when required to do so. Implications for practice: To maximise the contribution of the profession, education needs to account for imaging modality worked with, in combination with an understanding of related aetiology. Previously existing concerns with respect to escalating processes are no longer in evidence and radiographers are both willing and able to contribute to that process.
    • Expectations of radiographer reporting roles: A multimethod evaluation across a single imaging network

      House, S.; Snaith, Beverly; Sevens, T. (2023-10)
      Prior studies have demonstrated inconsistent development and utilisation of radiographers in the reporting of radiographs, and there is ongoing consideration of the level at which such radiographers should be educated to and operating at. This study aimed to explore and evaluate expectation and utilisation of radiographers currently, or training in, reporting in projection radiography across one integrated care system (ICS). Methods: A multi-method approach was utilised, with document analysis of projection radiography reporting role job descriptions and person specifications and an online survey of managers and clinical leads. A single ICS in the north of England formed the setting for the study. Results: This study demonstrated variation in implementation and utilisation of the role across trusts within the ICS. Inconsistencies in scope, expected underpinning education and role activity were identified. Radiographers autonomously reporting in projection radiography were titled advanced practitioners, however are not expected to achieve national educational standards for such roles and are not empowered to work at this level of practice by their employers. It was acknowledged that staffing pressures hinder appropriate role utilisation and reporting capacity. Conclusion: Inconsistent development and utilisation of radiographers in such roles may hamper collaboration and service delivery across a network. Identifying variation and working towards role standardisation could promote cross-organisational working and improve career progression opportunities. Implications for practice: Scoping the reporting radiographer workforce may assist and guide future imaging service and workforce planning.
    • Software-related challenges in Swedish healthcare through the lens of incident reports: A desktop study

      Md Shafiqur Rahman, Jabin,; Pan, D. (2023)
      To identify a subset of software issues occurring in daily Swedish healthcare practice and devise a set of local solutions to overcome the challenges. Methods: A sample of 46 incident reports was collected from one of Sweden's national incident reporting repositories, ranging from June 2019 to December 2021. The reports were first subjected to an algorithm to identify if they were health information technology-related incidents and were analysed using an existing framework, i.e., the Health Information Technology Classification System, to identify the software-related incidents. The incidents associated with software issues were then subjected to thematic analysis, in which themes were extracted and presented under the category assigned by the existing framework used. Results: Of 46 reports, 45 (with one exception) were included using the algorithm. Of 45 incidents, 31 software-related incidents were identified using the classification system. Six types of software issues were identified, including software functionality (n = 10), interface with other software systems or components (n = 10), system configuration (n = 7), interface with devices (n = 2), record migration (n = 1) and increased volume of transactions (n = 1). Each issue was further categorised into different themes; for example, software interface-related problems were grouped into ‘two patients being active in the system simultaneously’ (n = 6) and ‘transfer of patient information’ (n = 4). Conclusions: The study provided some insights into software issues and relevant consequences. A set of local solutions were devised to overcome the present challenges encountered in Swedish healthcare in their daily clinical practice. Systematic identification and characterisation of such software challenges should be a routine part of clinical practice for all major health information technology implementations.