• Perceived Support as a Moderator of the Relationship between Stress and Organisational Citizenship Behaviours.

      Jain, A.K.; Giga, Sabir I.; Cooper, C.L. (2013)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of organizational stressors on organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and how perceived organizational support (POS) will moderate in the relationship between stressors and citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach – The sample for this research involves operators from call center organizations located around the national capital of India. A questionnaire survey was carried out involving 402 operator level employees from five different organizations. Findings – The results highlight a significant negative relationship between organizational stressors and OCB, a significant positive relationship between POS and OCB, and confirmation that POS moderates in the relationship between organizational stressors and OCB. Research limitations/implications – This research has been carried out in an emerging economy and in a sector which is seen as an attractive area of work. However, as this study is limited to the BPO sector in India, these results may not be generalized to other areas such as the public and manufacturing sectors and in other national contexts. Future research in this area should also consider using different data collection approaches to maximize participation and enrich findings. Practical implications – The analysis suggests that change management initiatives in organizations may not be implemented as effectively as they can under high stressor conditions because employee extra‐role work behavior and commitment may not be at full capacity. Originality/value – There is limited research examining the relationship between organizational stressors and OCB in the presence of POS, especially within high demand environments such as the Indian BPO sector.
    • Perceptions of absolute versus relative differences between personal and comparison health risk

      Mason, Dan; Prevost, A.T.; Sutton, S. (2008)
      OBJECTIVE: To explain inconsistent results in previous attempts to determine whether, when presented with health risk information, people focus primarily on information about their own risk status or on a comparison with others. DESIGN: A randomized between-groups experiment in which participants were presented with hypothetical cardiac risk information. We examined whether affective responses were primarily sensitive to the relative difference between personal and comparison risk, rather than the absolute difference. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants' negative affective response to the risk information. RESULTS: When relative differences were held constant, participants' responses were independently influenced by both personal risk and comparative standing, effects that were greatly attenuated when absolute differences were held constant. When maintaining constant absolute differences, personal and comparison risk information appeared to interact. CONCLUSION: Previous studies tended to maintain constant absolute risk differences and so may have underestimated the impact of personal risk information. Participants' responses were sensitive to the way the risk difference was constructed. Basing experimental design decisions on assumptions about the information participants will respond to can lead to misinterpretations of the basis of risk judgments.
    • Perceptions of dementia and use of services in minority ethnic communities: a scoping exercise.

      Parveen, Sahdia; Peltier, C.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2016)
      Despite the rapidly ageing population and a predicted sevenfold increase in the prevalence of dementia in minority ethnic communities, people from these communities remain under-represented in specialist dementia services. Leventhal’s Model of Self-Regulation suggests perceptions ofillness facilitate help-seeking behaviours such as the use of services. Thisscoping exercise makes use of the model to explore perceptions ofdementia in British Indian, African and Caribbean, and East and CentralEuropean communities in the United Kingdom. Between August 2013and April 2014, culturally specific dementia awareness roadshows wereattended by people living with dementia, carers and members of thepublic. During the roadshows, 62 British Indian, 50 African and Caribbean, and 63 East and Central European attenders participated indiscussion groups and a dementia knowledge quiz. Thematic andframework analysis were conducted on the discussion group data. Threemain themes are presented: Perceptions of dementia, awareness ofdementia in the wider family and community, and awareness and use ofservices. The findings suggest that although groups attributed a biologicalbasis for memory loss, a number of misconceptions prevailed regardingthe cause of dementia. Groups also made use of religion, as opposed tomedical healthcare services, as a form of personal and treatment control. Seeking help from healthcare services was hindered by lack of awarenessof services, and culturally specific barriers such as language. The findingshave a number of implications for policy and practice including thedevelopment of public health interventions and the need to focus further on reducing barriers to accessing services.
    • Perceptions of the Impact of Positive Action in EU and non-EU Countries

      Archibong, Uduak E.; Eferakorho, Jite; Darr, Aliya; Scally, Andy J.; Atkin, K.; Baxter, C.; Johnson, M.R.D.; Bell, M.; Waddington, L.; Wladasch, K.; et al. (2009)
      Abstract: Around the world, inequalities exist around boundaries of race, social class, gender, disability, religious beliefs and sexual orientation, often resulting from past and current discriminatory practices. Governments have taken certain measures, including enacting policies such as positive action, to remedy such discrimination. This paper provides a comparative analysis of perceptions of the impact of positive action in seven EU and three non-EU countries. The study adopted participatory methods including consensus workshops, interviews and policy analysis to obtain data from designers of positive action. Findings are discussed, conclusions drawn and wide-ranging recommendations are made at the EC, individual countries and organisational levels.
    • Performance of externally validated enhanced computer-aided versions of the National Early Warning Score in predicting mortality following an emergency admission to hospital in England: a cross-sectional study

      Faisal, Muhammad; Richardson, D.; Scally, Andy J.; Howes, R.; Beatson, K.; Mohammed, Mohammed A. (2019-11)
      OBJECTIVES: In the English National Health Service, the patient's vital signs are monitored and summarised into a National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to support clinical decision making, but it does not provide an estimate of the patient's risk of death. We examine the extent to which the accuracy of NEWS for predicting mortality could be improved by enhanced computer versions of NEWS (cNEWS). DESIGN: Logistic regression model development and external validation study. SETTING: Two acute hospitals (YH-York Hospital for model development; NH-Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital for external model validation). PARTICIPANTS: Adult (≥16 years) medical admissions discharged over a 24-month period with electronic NEWS (eNEWS) recorded on admission are used to predict mortality at four time points (in-hospital, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours) using the first electronically recorded NEWS (model M0) versus a cNEWS model which included age+sex (model M1) +subcomponents of NEWS (including diastolic blood pressure) (model M2). RESULTS: The risk of dying in-hospital following emergency medical admission was 5.8% (YH: 2080/35 807) and 5.4% (NH: 1900/35 161). The c-statistics for model M2 in YH for predicting mortality (in-hospital=0.82, 24 hours=0.91, 48 hours=0.88 and 72 hours=0.88) was higher than model M0 (in-hospital=0.74, 24 hours=0.89, 48 hours=0.86 and 72 hours=0.85) with higher Positive Predictive Value (PPVs) for in-hospital mortality (M2 19.3% and M0 16.6%). Similar findings were seen in NH. Model M2 performed better than M0 in almost all major disease subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: An externally validated enhanced computer-aided NEWS model (cNEWS) incrementally improves on the performance of a NEWS only model. Since cNEWS places no additional data collection burden on clinicians and is readily automated, it may now be carefully introduced and evaluated to determine if it can improve care in hospitals that have eNEWS systems.
    • Person centred care.

      Downs, Murna G. (2011)
    • Person-Centered Dementia Care in the Community: A Perspective From the United Kingdom

      Downs, Murna G.; Lord, Kathryn (2017)
      Dementia is a global concern. Although effort is being put toward finding a cure, many advances have been made in ensuring excellence in dementia care. In the United Kingdom, the concept of person-centered dementia care has transformed what is expected for individuals with dementia. Now embraced in national policy in the United Kingdom, it was pioneered by Thomas Kitwood and Kathleen Bredin and driven by a con-cern for the quality of care for indi-viduals with dementia in care homes. The purpose of the current article is to describe key concepts of Kitwood’s pioneering work in person-centered dementia care and to use them to inform current community-based supports and services for individuals with dementia in their own homes, whether alone or with family carers.
    • Person-centred communication in dementia care

      Downs, Murna G.; Collins, L. (2015)
      Communication involves the exchange of information between at least two people, a giver and a receiver. If left unaddressed, communication difficulties may have a profound effect on quality of life and quality of care. Poor communication may result in high levels of anxiety and depression for the person living with dementia. Communication breakdown contributes to high rates of depression in spouses of people living with dementia and is a major problem for family and carers. Positive and supportive communication is essential to ensure good quality dementia care. A person-centred approach focuses on supporting a person to use and retain their skills and abilities. Person-centred communication involves a commitment to including the perspective of the person living with dementia, and an understanding of who the person is, their life history and preferences.
    • Person-centredness in direct care workers caring for residents with dementia: effects of a psycho-educational intervention

      Barbosa, Ana; Nolan, M.; Sousa, L.; Figueiredo, D. (2017-02-01)
      This study assessed the effects of a psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' person-centredness during morning care to residents with dementia. A controlled pretest–posttest study was conducted in four aged-care facilities with 56 direct care workers (female, mean age 44.72 ± 9.02). Two experimental facilities received a psycho-educational intervention comprising person-centred care competences and stress management skills; control facilities received an education-only intervention, without stress support. In total, 112 video-recorded morning care sessions were coded using the Global Behaviour Scale. Both groups reported significantly higher scores on eight of 11 items of the Global Behaviour Scale and on the Global Behaviour Scale total score at posttest (F=10.59; p=0.02). Global Behaviour Scale total score improvements were higher for the experimental group, with values close to significance (F=3.90; p=0.054). The findings suggest that a psycho-educational intervention may increase care workers' person-centredness. Further research is needed to explore the long-term sustainability and extent of its benefits on workers and residents.
    • A personalized self-management rehabilitation system with an intelligent shoe for stroke survivors: a realist evaluation

      Mawson, S.; Nasr, N.; Parker, J.; Davies, R.; Zheng, H.; Mountain, Gail (2016)
      Background: In the United Kingdom, stroke is the most significant cause of adult disability. Stroke survivors are frequently left with physical and psychological changes that can profoundly affect their functional ability, independence, and social participation. Research suggests that long-term, intense, task- and context-specific rehabilitation that is goal-oriented and environmentally enriched improves function, independence, and quality of life after a stroke. It is recommended that rehabilitation should continue until maximum recovery has been achieved. However, the increasing demand on services and financial constraints means that needs cannot be met through traditional face-to-face delivery of rehabilitation. Using a participatory design methodology, we developed an information communication technology–enhanced Personalized Self-Managed rehabilitation System (PSMrS) for stroke survivors with integrated insole sensor technology within an “intelligent shoe.”. The intervention model was based around a rehabilitation paradigm underpinned by theories of motor relearning and neuroplastic adaptation, motivational feedback, self-efficacy, and knowledge transfer. Objective: To understand the conditions under which this technology-based rehabilitation solution would most likely have an impact on the motor behavior of the user, what would work for whom, in what context, and how. We were interested in what aspects of the system would work best to facilitate the motor behavior change associated with self-managed rehabilitation and which user characteristics and circumstances of use could promote improved functional outcomes. Methods: We used a Realist Evaluation (RE) framework to evaluate the final prototype PSMrS with the assumption that the intervention consists of a series of configurations that include the Context of use, the underlying Mechanisms of change and the potential Outcomes or impacts (CMOs). We developed the CMOs from literature reviews and engagement with clinicians, users, and caregivers during a series of focus groups and home visits. These CMOs were then tested in five in-depth case studies with stroke survivors and their caregivers. Results: While two new propositions emerged, the second importantly related to the self-management aspects of the system. The study revealed that the system should also encourage independent use and the setting of personalized goals or activities. Conclusions: Information communication technology that purports to support the self-management of stroke rehabilitation should give significant consideration to the need for motivational feedback that provides quantitative, reliable, accurate, context-specific, and culturally sensitive information about the achievement of personalized goal-based activities.
    • Perspectives on Management and Leadership in Social Work

      Hafford-Letchfield, T.; Lawler, John A. (2013-11-25)
      This book examines developments in management and leadership in the social work environment, from both practice-based and academic perspectives. The chapters reflect developments in a range of international settings including those of Europe, South Africa and New Zealand. They represent a range of different approaches also, from the critical to the more affirmative and liberating. The book illustrates the impact of the development of management and leadership in social work, in the current context of marketisation and globalisation, together with the need to focus on service users. Social work has altered significantly as a result of such changes, presenting particular challenges for social work managers. These are detailed and discussed in this book.
    • Pharmaceutical supply chains and management innovation?

      Papalexi, M.; Bamford, D.; Nikitas, A.; Breen, Liz; Tipi, N. (2022-05-06)
      This paper aims to evaluate the implementation of innovative programmes within the downstream domain of the pharmaceutical supply chain (PSC), with the aim of informing improved service provision. A mixed-method approach was used to assess to what extent innovation could be adopted by hospital and community pharmacies to improve the delivery process of pharmaceutical products. Unstructured interviews and 130 questionnaires were collected and analysed to identify factors that facilitate or prevent innovation within PSC processes. The analysis led to the creation of the innovative pharmaceutical supply chain framework (IPSCF) that provides guidance to health-care organisations about how supply chain management problems could be addressed by implementing innovative approaches. The results also indicated that the implementation of Lean and Reverse Logistics (RL) practices, supported by integrated information technology systems, can help health-care organisations to enhance their delivery in terms of quality (products and service quality), visibility (knowledge and information sharing), speed (response to customers and suppliers needs) and cost (minimisation of cost and waste). The study’s recommendations have potential implications for supply chain theory and practice, particularly for pharmacies in terms of innovation adoption. The IPSCF provides guidance to pharmacies and health-care organisations to develop more efficient and effective supply chain strategies. This research contributes to the academic literature as it adds novel theoretical insights to highly complex delivery process innovation.
    • Physiotherapy in Women’s Health

      Brook, G.; Brooks, T.; Coldron, Y.; Hawkes, R.; Lee, J.; Vits, K.; Whitney, Elizabeth J. (2013)
    • Pierre Bourdieu

      Small, Neil A. (2017)
    • Pilot cluster randomised trial of an evidence-based intervention to reduce avoidable hospital admissions in nursing home residents (Better Health in Residents of Care Homes with Nursing - BHiRCH-NH Study)

      Sampson, E.L.; Feast, A.; Blighe, Alan; Froggatt, K.; Hunter, R.; Marston, L.; McCormack, B.; Nurock, S.; Panca, M.; Powell, Catherine; et al. (2020-12)
      Objectives To pilot a complex intervention to support healthcare and improve early detection and treatment for common health conditions experienced by nursing home (NH) residents. Design Pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 14 NHs (7 intervention, 7 control) in London and West Yorkshire. Participants NH residents, their family carers and staff. Intervention Complex intervention to support healthcare and improve early detection and treatment of urinary tract and respiratory infections, chronic heart failure and dehydration, comprising: (1) ‘Stop and Watch (S&W)’ early warning tool for changes in physical health, (2) condition-specific care pathway and (3) Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation tool to enhance communication with primary care. Implementation was supported by Practice Development Champions, a Practice Development Support Group and regular telephone coaching with external facilitators. Outcome measures Data on NH (quality ratings, size, ownership), residents, family carers and staff demographics during the month prior to intervention and subsequently, numbers of admissions, accident and emergency visits, and unscheduled general practitioner visits monthly for 6 months during intervention. We collected data on how the intervention was used, healthcare resource use and quality of life data for economic evaluation. We assessed recruitment and retention, and whether a full trial was warranted. Results We recruited 14 NHs, 148 staff, 95 family carers and 245 residents. We retained the majority of participants recruited (95%). 15% of residents had an unplanned hospital admission for one of the four study conditions. We were able to collect sufficient questionnaire data (all over 96% complete). No NH implemented intervention tools as planned. Only 16 S&W forms and 8 care pathways were completed. There was no evidence of harm. Conclusions Recruitment, retention and data collection processes were effective but the intervention not implemented. A full trial is not warranted.
    • A pilot randomised controlled trial of a Telehealth intervention in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: challenges of clinician-led data collection

      Bentley, C.L.; Mountain, Gail; Thompson, J.; Fitzsimmons, D.A.; Lowrie, K.; Parker, S.G.; Hawley, M.S. (2014-08-06)
      Background: The increasing prevalence and associated cost of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unsustainable, and focus is needed on self-management and prevention of hospital admissions. Telehealth monitoring of patients’ vital signs allows clinicians to prioritise their workload and enables patients to take more responsibility for their health. This paper reports the results of a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of Telehealth-supported care within a community-based COPD supported-discharge service. Methods: A two-arm pragmatic pilot RCT was conducted comparing the standard service with a Telehealth-supported service and assessed the potential for progressing into a full RCT. The co-primary outcome measures were the proportion of COPD patients readmitted to hospital and changes in patients’ self-reported quality of life. The objectives were to assess the suitability of the methodology, produce a sample size calculation for a full RCT, and to give an indication of cost-effectiveness for both pathways. Results: Sixty three participants were recruited (n = 31 Standard; n = 32 Telehealth); 15 participants were excluded from analysis due to inadequate data completion or withdrawal from the Telehealth arm. Recruitment was slow with significant gaps in data collection, due predominantly to an unanticipated 60% reduction of staff capacity within the clinical team. The sample size calculation was guided by estimates of clinically important effects and COPD readmission rates derived from the literature. Descriptive analyses showed that the standard service group had a lower proportion of patients with hospital readmissions and a greater increase in self-reported quality of life compared to the Telehealth-supported group. Telehealth was cost-effective only if hospital admissions data were excluded. Conclusions: Slow recruitment rates and service reconfigurations prevented progression to a full RCT. Although there are advantages to conducting an RCT with data collection conducted by a frontline clinical team, in this case, challenges arose when resources within the team were reduced by external events. Gaps in data collection were resolved by recruiting a research nurse. This study reinforces previous findings regarding the difficulty of undertaking evaluation of complex interventions, and provides recommendations for the introduction and evaluation of complex interventions within clinical settings, such as prioritisation of research within the clinical remit.
    • Place memory and dementia: Findings from participatory film-making in long-term social care

      Capstick, Andrea; Ludwin, Katherine (2015)
      A participatory film-making study carried out in long-term social care with 10 people with Alzheimer-type dementia found that places the participants had known early in life were spontaneously foregrounded. Participants’ memories of such places were well-preserved, particularly when photo-elicitation techniques, using visual images as prompts, were employed. Consistent with previous work on the ‘reminiscence bump’ in dementia, the foregrounded memories belonged in all cases to the period of life between approximately 5 and 30 years. Frequently the remembered places were connected with major life events which continued to have a strong emotional component. The continuing significance of place in the context of long-term dementia care is considered from a psychogeographical perspective.
    • Places in the heart: nostalgia, psychogeography and late-life dementia.

      Capstick, Andrea (2010)
      It's all long gone now...they've closed the shop on the corner of Athlone Street...it was a rough one with a pub on the corner...my dad ran it a long time ago...that time... Within the dominant biomedical discourse, late-life dementia is regarded as a pathological condition characterised by disorientation in time and space, word finding difficulties and 'problem behaviours' such as 'wandering' and 'repetitive questioning'. Once taken out of its biomedical straightjacket, however, dementia emerges as a condition which has much in common with the conscious projects of surrealist and situationist arts movements. This includes the subversion of the idea of time (and history) as linear, unidirectional progress. People diagnosed with dementia frequently state a desire to return (or indeed a fear of returning) to places from the past which no longer exist in physical space, but which remain real as remembered worlds and sources of nostalgia (literally 'the pain of returning'). These are also issues central to the field of psychogeography - an interdisciplinary approach to exploring the emotional and sensory impact of specific, particularly urban, locations. Informed by the work of poets such as Blake, Baudelaire, and Rimbaud, as theorised by, for example, Walter Benjamin and Guy Debord, psychogeography privileges undirected 'wandering' through its emphasis on concepts such as the flaneur, and the dérive (or 'drift'). In this paper, such concepts will be used as a way of exploring the spatio-temporal experiences of people with dementia, using extracts from film and narrative life stories.
    • The Placing Test: Preliminary investigations of a quick and simple memory test designed to be sensitive to pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease but not normal ageing

      Anderson, Elizabeth J. (formerly Milwain); De Jager, C.; Iversen, S. (2006)
      The medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system is damaged early in Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive tests designed to help diagnose the disease must detect dysfunction in this system, but must also be insensitive to the cognitive slowing that characterizes normal ageing. On the assumption that the MTL system forms new memories by binding together the many informational aspects of events into units, The Placing Test was designed to index this function by measuring the ability to remember associations between faces and their locations. The influence of normal ageing was minimized by using procedures that compensate for the difficulties in learning and retrieval caused by the cognitive slowing of normal ageing. In two experiments The Placing Test was administered as part of a battery of neuropsychological tests to a group of healthy older people. In both studies, performance in The Placing Test correlated significantly with other measures of memory, but had weaker associations than standard memory measures with other types of cognitive function. The Placing Test appeared not to be biased by age, education or gender, although a larger sample is needed to verify this. A final study examined the performance of 16 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease. These patients showed clear impairment in The Placing Test, with 81% scoring below the 5th percentile, despite the majority having normal MMSE scores. It is concluded that The Placing Test provides a quick, simple and sensitive measure of memory that has potential to be useful in routine diagnostic investigations for Alzheimer's disease.