• Non-medical prescribing and advanced practice in children's hospices

      Tatterton, Michael J. (Together for Short Lives, 2021)
      In recent years, as the prevalence of prescribers has increased, there has been discord and confusion around exactly how to refer to prescribers who are not doctors (Nuttall and Rutt-Howard, 2020). Professional regulators continue to define prescribers by specific profession, using terms such as ‘nurse prescriber’ (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2018a), ‘pharmacist prescriber’ (General Pharmaceutical Society, 2018) and ‘allied health professional prescriber’ (Health and Care Professions Council, 2016). However, there is a broader range of literature using the collective term of ‘non-medical prescribers’ (All Wales Medicines Strategy Group, 2017; Department of Health Northern Ireland, 2020; NHS England, 2020; Scottish Government, 2020), highlighting the multidisciplinary nature of contemporary prescribing practices across the UK, and the shared responsibility of prescribers for assuring safe and effective practice. Within this chapter, we refer to prescribers collectively, as non-medical prescribers. Although this chapter has been written with the four countries of the UK in mind, it is important that you consider any country-specific, and profession-specific guidelines.
    • Not a level playing field: a qualitative study exploring structural, community and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst low-income multi-ethnic families

      Cronin de Chavez, A.; Islam, Shahid; McEachan, R.R.C. (2019-03)
      Greenspace is important for physical and mental health. Low-income, multi-ethnic populations in deprived urban areas experience several barriers to using greenspace. This may exacerbate health inequalities. The current study explored structural and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst parents of young children in an urban, deprived, multi-cultural area situated in the North of England, UK. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 parents of children aged 0–3 between December 2016 and May 2017 from a range of ethnic groups. Thematic analyses were informed by the Human Health Habitat Map and the Theoretical Domains Framework. The results show that whilst all families recognised the benefits of greenspaces, use was bounded by a variety of structural, community, and individual determinants. Individual determinants preventing use included lack of knowledge about where to go, or how to get there and confidence in managing young children whilst outdoors. Fear of crime, antisocial behaviour and accidents were the overriding barriers to use, even in high quality spaces. Social and community influences both positively encouraged use (for example, positive social interactions, and practical support by others) and prevented use (antisocial or inappropriate behaviours experienced in greenspace). The built environment was a key barrier to use. Problems related to unsuitable or unsafe playgrounds, no gardens or safe areas for children's play, poor accessibility, and lack of toilets were identified. However, the value that parents and children placed on natural blue and green features was an enabler to use. Contextual influences included external time pressures, difficulties of transporting and caring for young children and poor weather. Multi-sectoral efforts are needed to tackle the uneven playing field experienced by multi-ethnic, urban, deprived communities. Initiatives to increase use should tackle structural quality issues, addressing fears about safety, whilst simultaneously encouraging communities to reclaim their local greenspaces.
    • Nurse Education and Communities of Practice.

      Burkitt, Ian; Husband, Charles H.; Mackenzie, Jennifer; Torn, Alison (English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting., 2001)
      The processes whereby nurses develop the skills and knowledge required to deliver individualized and holistic care were examined in a 2-year study of nurses in a range of clinical settings and a university department of nursing in England. Members of two research teams of qualified nurses joined various communities of nursing practice as participating members and simultaneously "shadowed" designated nurses. At day's end, shadowers and shadowees reviewed the day's practice in critical incident interviews. The powerful processes of nurse socialization that create a strong core identity of the "good nurse" proved central to understanding the acquisition, use, and protection of nursing skills. Learning to become a nurse was always situated within particular communities of practice. Learning in such contexts, both in clinical and educational settings, entailed not just mastering a range of intellectual concepts but also learning through embodied performances involving engagement and interaction with the community of practice. The following were among the study recommendations: (1) link educational and clinical settings by helping clinical staff understand their collective role in the educational experience; (2) enhance the mentor and assessor functions; and (3) enable, support, and resource time in education for clinicians and time in practice for educators.
    • Nurses' communication skills: an evaluation of the impact of solution-focused communication training

      Mackintosh, Carolyn; Bowles, N.B.; Torn, Alison (2001)
      This paper describes the evaluation of a short training course in solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) skills. This evaluation examined the relevance of SFBT skills to nursing and the extent to which a short training course affected nurses¿ communication skills. Nurses¿ communication skills have been criticized for many years, as has the training in communication skills that nurses receive. The absence of a coherent theoretical or practical framework for communication skills training led us to consider the utility of SFBT as a framework for a short training course for qualified nurses, the majority of them are registered nurses working with adults. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected: the former using pre- and post-training scales, the latter using a focus group conducted 6 months after the training. Data were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and content analysis. Quantitative data indicated positive changes in nurses¿ practice following the training on four dimensions, and changes in nurses¿ willingness to communicate with people who are troubled reached levels of significance. Qualitative data uncovered changes to practice, centred on the rejection of problem-orientated discourses and reduced feelings of inadequacy and emotional stress in the nurses. There are indications that SFBT techniques may be relevant to nursing and a useful, cost-effective approach to the training of communication skills. Solution focused brief therapy provides a framework and easily understood tool-kit that are harmonious with nursing values.
    • Nurses’ attitudes to supporting people who are suicidal in emergency departments

      Briggs, Amanda (2018-05-10)
      The aim of this study is to determine emergency nurses’ knowledge about, and perceived ability to support, people who are suicidal. A questionnaire consisting of 34 questions was sent out to 113 adult emergency nurses employed in two emergency departments. A total of 38 responded. Findings highlight differences in attitudes and show a correlation between suicide prevention training and nurses’ perceived competence to triage people who are suicidal. The article makes recommendations for future research, as well as nurse education and training on suicide prevention, to improve attitudes and increase emergency nurses’ ability to respond effectively to people who are suicidal.
    • Nursing those at the end of life

      Taylor, Vanessa; Norris, Beverley (2016-01)
    • Obtaining Informed Consent in an Egyptian Research Study

      Rashad, A.M.; MacVane Phipps, Fiona E.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie (2004)
      This article explores the concept of internationally acceptable codes of ethics within the context of an Egyptian nurse’s PhD studies. Theoretical work, including gaining ethical approval for the project, took place in the UK, while the data collection phase of the study was done in Egypt. This highlighted areas where the Arab Muslim interpretation of some ethical principles, especially around the issue of gaining informed consent, differed from that currently accepted in British research ethics. The authors argue that it may not be possible, or even desirable, to standardize codes of ethics globally in areas such as academic research. Ethical principles develop from a unique mix of culture and religion. It may be more important to develop cultural competence that includes the ability to understand and respect the way in which ethical principles are interpreted by various societies.
    • Occupational competence strategies in old age: a mixed-methods comparison between hispanic women with different levels of daily participation

      Orellano-Colon, E.M.; Mountain, Gail; Varas, N.; Labault, N. (2014-01)
      In this pilot study, we explored the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between more active and less active older Hispanic women. Twenty-nine women who were 70 and older and lived alone participated in this study. We used a mixed-methods design by which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample in the qualitative phase. More active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicity.
    • Older Adults’ Uptake and Adherence to Exercise Classes: Instructors’ Perspectives.

      Hawley-Hague, H.; Horne, Maria; Skelton, D.A.; Todd, C. (2016)
      Exercise classes provide a range of benefits for older adults, but adherence levels are poor. We know little of instructors’ experiences of delivering exercise classes to older adults. Semi-structured interviews, informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), were conducted with instructors (n=19) delivering multi-component exercise classes to establish their perspectives on older adults’ uptake and adherence to exercise classes. Analysis revealed ‘barriers’ related to identity, choice/control, cost, venue and ‘solutions’ including providing choice, relating exercise to identity, a personal touch and social support. ‘Barriers’ to adherence included unrealistic expectations and social influences and ‘solutions’ identified were encouraging commitment, creating social cohesion and an emphasis on achieving outcomes. Older adults’ attitudes were an underlying theme, which related to all barriers and solutions. The instructor plays an important, but not isolated, role in older adults’ uptake and adherence to classes. Instructors’ perspectives help us to further understand how we can design successful exercise classes.
    • Older people's care experience in community and general hospitals: a comparative study

      Green, J.R.; Forster, A.; Young, J.; Small, Neil A.; Spink, Joanna (2008)
      Community hospitals are an important component of the post-acute care pathway for older people. The objective of this study was to describe and contrast patients' and carers' experiences of community and general hospitals. Interviews with patients and carers revealed similarities in the perceptions of care between the two settings. These included appreciation of staff sensitivity, a sense of security, encouragement of independence and lack of activity. The community hospital was appreciated for its location, atmosphere, accommodation, greater sense of freedom, quality of food and staff attitudes. UK health policy promotes the development of community hospitals. This should be progressed in a way that retains key strengths of the specific service they offer.
    • Older people's views of a good death in heart failure: implications for palliative care provision

      Gott, M.; Small, Neil A.; Barnes, S.; Payne, S.; Seamark, D. (2008)
      Palliative care in the UK has been developed to meet the needs of predominantly middle aged and younger old people with cancer. Few data are available regarding the extent to which services respond to the specific needs of an older group of people with other illnesses. This paper draws on in-depth interviews conducted with 40 people (median age 77) with advanced heart failure and poor prognosis to explore the extent to which older people's views and concerns about dying are consistent with the prevalent model of the 'good death' underpinning palliative care delivery. That prevalent model is identified as the "revivalist" good death. Our findings indicate that older people's views of a 'good death' often conflict with the values upon which palliative care is predicated. For example, in line with previous research, many participants did not want an open awareness of death preceded by acknowledgement of the potential imminence of dying. Similarly, concepts of autonomy and individuality appeared alien to most. Indeed, whilst there was evidence that palliative care could help improve the end of life experiences of older people, for example in initiating discussions around death and dying, the translation of other aspects of specialist palliative care philosophy appear more problematic. Ultimately, the study identified that improving the end of life experiences of older people must involve addressing the problematised nature of ageing and old age within contemporary society, whilst recognising the cohort and cultural effects that influence attitudes to death and dying.
    • On folk devils, moral panics and new wave public health

      Mannion, R.; Small, Neil A. (2019-12)
      New wave public health places an emphasis on exhorting individuals to engage in healthy behaviour with good health being a signifier of virtuous moral standing, whereas poor health is often associated with personal moral failings. In effect, the medical is increasingly being collapsed into the moral. This approach is consistent with other aspects of contemporary neoliberal governance, but it fuels moral panics and creates folk devils. We explore the implications and dysfunctional consequences of this new wave of public health policy in the context of the latest moral panic around obesity.
    • Online information and support for carers of people with young-onset dementia: A multi-site randomised controlled pilot study

      Metcalfe, A.; Jones, B.; Mayer, J.; Gage, H.; Oyebode, Jan R.; Boucault, S.; Aloui, S.; Schwertel, U.; Böhm, M.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.; et al. (2019-10)
      The European RHAPSODY project sought to develop and test an online information and support programme for caregivers of individuals diagnosed with young onset dementia. The objectives were to assess user acceptability and satisfaction with the programme and to test outcome measures for a larger effectiveness study. DESIGN: A pilot randomised controlled trial in England, France, and Germany was conducted with 61 caregivers for adults with young onset Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal degeneration. Evaluations at baseline, week 6, and week 12 assessed user acceptability and satisfaction. Use of the programme was measured from online back-end data. Qualitative feedback on user experiences was collected via semi-structured interviews. Measures of caregiver well-being (self-efficacy, stress, burden, frequency of patient symptoms, and caregiver reactions) were explored for use in a subsequent trial. RESULTS: Participants logged in online on average once a week over a 6-week period, consulting approximately 31% of programme content. Seventy percent of participants described the programme as useful and easy to use. Eighty-five percent expressed intent to use the resource in the future. Reductions in reported levels of stress and caregivers' negative reactions to memory symptoms were observed following use of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that the RHAPSODY programme was acceptable and useful to caregivers. The programme may be complementary to existing services in responding to the specific needs of families affected by young onset dementia. Distribution of the programme is underway in England, France, Germany, and Portugal.
    • Only available to a selected few? Is it feasible to rely on a volunteer workforce for complex intervention delivery?

      Mountain, Gail; Gossage-Worrall, R.; Cattan, M.; Bowling, A. (2017)
      This paper recounts the process of undertaking a randomised controlled trial which was designed to examine the effectiveness of an intervention for socially isolated older people aged 75 years and over. It describes the reasons for early cessation of the study and raises the implications of this outcome for policy, practice and research. The intervention under investigation was designed to alleviate loneliness and foster companionship. It involves participants being linked with a small group of others through a teleconferencing system with each group being facilitated by trained volunteers. There was a requirement to recruit and train a minimum of 30 and a maximum of 60 volunteers over 1 year to facilitate 20 friendship groups to meet the number of older people required to be recruited to the study. Problems with recruiting and retaining the volunteer workforce by the voluntary sector organisation, who were commissioned to do so, led to the study closing even though older people were recruited in sufficient numbers. The paper draws upon analysis of various data sources from the study to identify the potential reasons. The discussion raises considerations regarding the extent of infrastructure required to deliver community services to vulnerable user groups at scale, identifies some of the issues that need to be addressed if such volunteer-initiated services are to be successful and informs future research programmes in this area.
    • Optimising diagnostics through imaging informatics: Costs and opportunities

      Culpan, Gary; McIntosh, Bryan (2017)
      Increasing diagnostic capacity is a national priority to expedite the timeliness and appropriateness of patient treatment interventions. Imaging—encompassing a range of technologies including X-ray, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine and ultrasound—is a key diagnostic service and central to decision-making in most, if not all, disease pathways. However, imaging is an expensive discipline accounting for an estimated 3–5% of the annual NHS budget. As a result, it is imperative that we maximise service efficiency while optimising patient outcomes.
    • Optimising person-centred transitions in the dementia journey: A comparison of national dementia strategies.

      Fortinsky, R.H.; Downs, Murna G. (2014-04)
      The journey for people with Alzheimer’s disease or another dementia involves the need for increasing levels of support, with transitions across care settings. Although transitional care has received increasing attention in the health care arena, no widely accepted transitions typology exists for the dementia journey. At the same time, national dementia strategies are proliferating. We developed a typology containing six transitions that cover the dementia journey from symptom recognition to end-of-life care. We then critically evaluated whether and how the national dementia strategies of Australia, England, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and the United States addressed each transition. Adopting a person-centered perspective, we found that most or all of the national strategies adequately address earlier transitions in the journey, but fewer strategies address the later transitions. We recommend that next-generation national dementia strategies focus on later transitions, specify how care coordination and workforce training should make transitions more person centered, and use person-centered outcomes in evaluating the success of the strategies’ implementation and dissemination.