• A UK survey exploring the assistant practitioner role across diagnostic imaging: current practice, relationships and challenges to progression

      Snaith, Beverly; Harris, Martine A.; Palmer, D. (2018)
      Objective: Skill mix has been established as one method of maintaining imaging service delivery, with vertical and horizontal substitution of roles and tasks. Assistant practitioners (APs) have been undertaking limited imaging practice for almost two decades, but there remains a paucity of evidence related to the impact of their roles. Methods: This article reports on an electronic survey of individual APs within the NHS in the UK to explore utilisation, role scope and aspirations. Results: Responses were analysed from APs (n = 193) employed in 97 different organisations across the UK. The majority work in general radiography or mammography, with very few responses from other imaging modalities. Training routes varied across modalities, with most achieving Band 4 under Agenda for Change on completion of education. Limitations on practice vary between organisations and modalities, with many reporting blurring of the radiographer-AP boundary. Many aspire to continue their training to achieve registrant radiographer status, although there were clear frustrations from respondents over the lack of overt career prospects. Conclusion: Integration of the role into imaging department practice does not appear to be universal or consistent and further research is required to examine the optimal skill mix composition. Advances in knowledge: Skill mix implementation is inconsistent across modalities and geography in the UK. Opportunities for further workforce utilisation and expansion are evident.
    • A UK survey of COVID-19 related social support closures and their effects on older people, people with dementia, and carers

      Giebel, C.; Lord, Kathryn; Cooper, C.; Shenton, J.; Cannon, J.; Pulford, D.; Shaw, L.; Gaughan, A.; Tetlow, H.; Butchard, S.; et al. (2021-03)
      Objectives: The aim of this national survey was to explore the impact of COVID-19 public health measures on access to social support services and the effects of closures of services on the mental well-being of older people and those affected by dementia. Methods: A UK-wide online and telephone survey was conducted with older adults, people with dementia, and carers between April and May 2020. The survey captured demographic and postcode data, social support service usage before and after COVID-19 public health measures, current quality of life, depression, and anxiety. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between social support service variations and anxiety and well-being. Results: Five hundred and sixty-nine participants completed the survey (61 people with dementia, 285 unpaid carers, and 223 older adults). Paired samples t-tests and X2 -tests showed that the mean hour of weekly social support service usage and the number of people having accessed various services was significantly reduced post COVID-19. Multiple regression analyses showed that higher variations in social support service hours significantly predicted increased levels of anxiety in people with dementia and older adults, and lower levels of mental well-being in unpaid carers and older adults. Conclusions: Being unable to access social support services due to COVID contributed to worse quality of life and anxiety in those affected by dementia and older adults across the UK. Social support services need to be enabled to continue providing support in adapted formats, especially in light of continued public health restrictions for the foreseeable future.
    • UK-born Pakistani-origin infants are relatively more adipose than white British infants: findings from 8704 mother-offspring pairs in the Born-in-Bradford prospective birth cohort

      West, Jane; Lawlor, D.A.; Fairley, L.; Bhopal, R.S.; Cameron, N.; McKinney, P.A.; Sattar, N.; Wright, J. (2013)
      BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown markedly lower birth weight among infants of South Asian origin compared with those of White European origin. Whether such differences mask greater adiposity in South Asian infants and whether they persist across generations in contemporary UK populations is unclear. Our aim was to compare birth weight, skinfold thickness and cord leptin between Pakistani and White British infants and to investigate the explanatory factors, including parental and grandparental birthplace. METHODS: We examined the differences in birth weight and skinfold thickness between 4649 Pakistani and 4055 White British infants born at term in the same UK maternity unit and compared cord leptin in a subgroup of 775 Pakistani and 612 White British infants. RESULTS: Pakistani infants were lighter (adjusted mean difference -234 g 95% CI -258 to -210) and were smaller in both subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements. The differences for subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (mean z-score difference -0.27 95% CI -0.34 to -0.20 and -0.23 95% CI -0.30 to -0.16, respectively) were smaller than the difference in birth weight (mean z-score difference -0.52 95% CI -0.58 to -0.47) and attenuated to the null with adjustment for birth weight (0.03 95% CI -0.03 to 0.09 and -0.01 95% CI -0.08 to 0.05, respectively). Cord leptin concentration (indicator of fat mass) was similar in Pakistani and White British infants without adjustment for birth weight, but with adjustment became 30% higher (95% CI 17% to 44%) among Pakistani infants compared with White British infants. The magnitudes of difference did not differ by generation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being markedly lighter, Pakistani infants had similar skinfold thicknesses and greater total fat mass, as indicated by cord leptin, for a given birth weight than White British infants. Any efforts to reduce ethnic inequalities in birth weight need to consider differences in adiposity and the possibility that increasing birth weight in South Asian infants might inadvertently worsen health by increasing relative adiposity.
    • Under-recognized complications in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria: raised pulmonary pressure and reduced right ventricular function.

      Hill, A.; Spasford, R.J.; Scally, Andy J.; Kelly, R.J.; Richards, S.J.; Khurisgara, G.; Sivananthan, M.U.; Hillmen, P. (2012)
      Pulmonary hypertension is becoming a recognized complication of the hereditary and acquired haemolytic anaemias, associated with a poor prognosis. Recently we reported that patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) have high levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker associated with both right and left ventricular dysfunction and cardiac dysfunction. In the current study we evaluated a cohort of patients (N = 29) with haemolytic PNH for elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and cardiac function by Doppler-echocardiography. Of the 29 patients, eight were further studied using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as two additional patients (number of patients studied using cardiac MRI = 10). Plasma from the first cohort (N = 29) demonstrated intravascular haemolysis associated with a 12-fold increase in median nitric oxide (NO) consumption when compared with healthy volunteers (P < 0·001). Doppler echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular function and elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure in 41% of patients. Cardiac MRI from the second cohort (N = 10) demonstrated depressed right ventricular function in 80% of PNH patients tested, and 60% had findings suggestive of subclinical small pulmonary emboli. Together, these data suggest a high prevalence of haemolysis-associated NO scavenging, Doppler-estimated systolic pulmonary hypertension, and depressed right ventricular function in patients with PNH.
    • Understanding and applying practitioner and patient views on the implementation of a novel automated Computer-Aided Risk Score (CARS) predicting the risk of death following emergency medical admission to hospital: qualitative study

      Dyson, J.; Marsh, C.; Jackson, N.; Richardson, D.; Faisal, Muhammad; Scally, Andy J.; Mohammad, Mohammad A. (2019-04)
      Objectives The Computer-Aided Risk Score (CARS) estimates the risk of death following emergency admission to medical wards using routinely collected vital signs and blood test data. Our aim was to elicit the views of healthcare practitioners (staff) and service users and carers (SU/C) on (1) the potential value, unintended consequences and concerns associated with CARS and practitioner views on (2) the issues to consider before embedding CARS into routine practice. Setting This study was conducted in two National Health Service (NHS) hospital trusts in the North of England. Both had in-house information technology (IT) development teams, mature IT infrastructure with electronic National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and were capable of integrating NEWS with blood test results. The study focused on emergency medical and elderly admissions units. There were 60 and 39 acute medical/elderly admissions beds at the two NHS hospital trusts. Participants We conducted eight focus groups with 45 healthcare practitioners and two with 11 SU/Cs in two NHS acute hospitals. Results Staff and SU/Cs recognised the potential of CARS but were clear that the score should not replace or undermine clinical judgments. Staff recognised that CARS could enhance clinical decision-making/judgments and aid communication with patients. They wanted to understand the components of CARS and be reassured about its accuracy but were concerned about the impact on intensive care and blood tests. Conclusion Risk scores are widely used in healthcare, but their development and implementation do not usually involve input from practitioners and SU/Cs. We contributed to the development of CARS by eliciting views of staff and SU/Cs who provided important, often complex, insights to support the development and implementation of CARS to ensure successful implementation in routine clinical practice.
    • Understanding automated dose control in dynamic X-ray imaging systems

      Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Hoornaert, B.; Cowen, A.R.; Davies, A.G. (2013-03)
    • Understanding Depression in Palliative and End of Life Care

      Taylor, Vanessa; Ashelford, Sarah L. (2008)
    • Understanding Sepsis

      O'Donnell, Peter; Waskett, Catherine (2016-06)
      Identifying and explaining the pathophysiology of sepsis, as well as the importance of monitoring for indicators of patient deterioration in sepsis.
    • Understanding the bereavement experience of grandparents following the death of a grandchild from a life-limiting condition: A meta-ethnography.

      Tatterton, Michael J.; Walshe, C. (2019-07)
      To increase understanding of grandparental grief following the death of a grandchild from a life-limiting condition. Meta-ethnography. Academic Search Complete CINHAL, Embase, psycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science, supplemented by manual search strategies (in 2015, updated 2018). Studies were appraised and synthesized using the principles of meta-ethnography. Three superordinate themes were identified: 'influence of the relationship with their grandchild', 'influence of the relationship with the grandchild's family' and 'pain'. The simultaneous, multigenerational position of grandparents meant individuals experience emotional pain from witnessing the experience of family members. Many factors that contribute to the bereavement experience of grandparents are outside of their control. The roles, positions, and support needs of grandparents need to be acknowledged to better meet their needs as parents, grandparents, and individuals who have experienced a child death.
    • Understanding the mother-infant bond

      Milne, Elizabeth; Johnson, Sally E.; Waters, Gillian M.; Small, Neil A. (2018-09)
    • Understanding the principles of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

      Roberts, Alexandra (2021-07)
      Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) provides respiratory support to patients without the need for invasive intubation. Although it has been used for several years in critical care, NPPV has come to prominence as a management option for certain patients with respiratory complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This has led to increased care provision by nurses with little or no experience and expertise in critical care and NPPV. This article provides an overview of the principles of NPPV and its use in type 1 and type 2 respiratory failure. It explains the pathophysiology of several conditions that often lead to respiratory failure and how NPPV can mitigate respiratory failure and improve gas exchange. An individualised assessment of the patient’s suitability for NPPV and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the therapy are crucial to ensure its safe and effective use. Nurses also have an important role in providing explanations and support to patients.
    • Unusual perceptions at the end of life: limitations to the diagnosis of hallucinations in palliative medicine

      Kellehear, Allan (2017)
      The diagnosis of hallucination for unusual perceptions such as deathbed visions, near-death experiences, or visions of the bereaved, is unhelpful in palliative medicine both academically and clinically. This paper reviews the broad prevalence data about unusual perceptions in the general population as background to identifying the more narrow epidemiological source from which the much smaller focus on hallucinations seem to emerge. Major debates and limitations of current hallucination research are reviewed to show that current academic and clinical certainties are largely confined to unusual perceptions that can be readily linked to psychopathology, quite specific organic disease states and psychoactive drug use. Current state-of-the-art in hallucination studies does not warrant broad or uncritical use of this type of diagnosis in end-of-life care. Conclusions from interdisciplinary (as opposed to single discipline) hallucination studies suggest that the way forward for clinical and research work in palliative medicine may lie in a more biographical and cultural approach to unusual perceptions at the end of life.
    • The use and costs of paid and unpaid care for people with dementia longitudinal findings from the IDEAL cohort programme

      Henderson, C.; Knapp, M.; Martyr, A.; Gamble, L.D.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Pentecost, C.; Collins, R.; Wu, Y.-T.; Jones, I.R.; et al. (2022-03-08)
      The drivers of costs of care for people with dementia are not well understood and little is known on the costs of care for those with rarer dementias. Objective: To characterise use and costs of paid and unpaid care over time in a cohort of people with dementia living in Britain. To explore the relationship between cohort members’ demographic and clinical characteristics and service costs. Methods: We calculated costs of health and social services, unpaid care, and out-of-pocket expenditure for people with mild-to-moderate dementia participating in three waves of the IDEAL cohort (2014-2018). Latent growth curve modelling investigated associations between participants’ baseline sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics and mean weekly service costs. Results: Data were available on use of paid and unpaid care by 1537 community-dwelling participants with dementia at Wave 1, 1199 at Wave 2, and 910 at Wave 3. In models of paid service costs, being female was associated with lower baseline costs and living alone was associated with higher baseline costs. Dementia subtype and caregiver status were associated with variations in baseline costs and the rate of change in costs, which was additionally influenced by age. Conclusion: Lewy body and Parkinson's disease dementias were associated with higher service costs at the outset, and Lewy body and frontotemporal dementias with more steeply increasing costs overall, than Alzheimer’s disease. Planners of dementia services should consider the needs of people with these relatively rare dementia subtypes as they may require more resources than people with more prevalent subtypes.
    • Use and costs of services and unpaid care for people with mild-to-moderate dementia: Baseline results from the IDEAL cohort study

      Henderson, C.; Knapp, M.; Nelis, S.M.; Quinn, Catherine; Martyr, A.; Wu, Y.T.; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; et al. (2019)
      Introduction We examined 3-month service use and costs of care for people with mild-to-moderate dementia in Great Britain. Methods We analyzed Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life cohort study baseline data on paid care, out-of-pocket expenditure, and unpaid care from participants with dementia (N = 1547) and their carers (N = 1283). In regression analyses, we estimated per-group mean costs of diagnostic and sociodemographic subgroups. Results Use of services apart from primary and outpatient hospital care was low. Unpaid care accounted for three-quarters of total costs (mean, £4008 [standard error, £130] per participant). Most participants (87%) received unpaid care equating to 36 hours weekly. Estimated costs for people with Parkinson's dementia were £8609, £4359 for participants with mixed dementia, and £3484 for those with Alzheimer's disease. Total costs were lower for participants with dementia living alone than living with others (£2484 vs. £4360); costs were lower for female than for male participants (£3607 vs. £4272). Discussion Costs varied by dementia subtype, carer status, and living arrangement. Policy makers should recognize the high costs of unpaid care for people with dementia, who do not always get the support that they need or would like to receive.
    • The use of biomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy among people of South Asian origin in the UK

      Rhodes, P.J.; Small, Neil A.; Wright, J.; Ismail, Hanif (2008)
      Studies have shown that a significant proportion of people with epilepsy use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM use is known to vary between different ethnic groups and cultural contexts; however, little attention has been devoted to inter-ethnic differences within the UK population. We studied the use of biomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and ethnomedicine in a sample of people with epilepsy of South Asian origin living in the north of England. Interviews were conducted with 30 people of South Asian origin and 16 carers drawn from a sampling frame of patients over 18 years old with epilepsy, compiled from epilepsy registers and hospital databases. All interviews were tape-recorded, translated if required and transcribed. A framework approach was adopted to analyse the data. All those interviewed were taking conventional anti-epileptic drugs. Most had also sought help from traditional South Asian practitioners, but only two people had tried conventional CAM. Decisions to consult a traditional healer were taken by families rather than by individuals with epilepsy. Those who made the decision to consult a traditional healer were usually older family members and their motivations and perceptions of safety and efficacy often differed from those of the recipients of the treatment. No-one had discussed the use of traditional therapies with their doctor. The patterns observed in the UK mirrored those reported among people with epilepsy in India and Pakistan. The health care-seeking behaviour of study participants, although mainly confined within the ethnomedicine sector, shared much in common with that of people who use global CAM. The appeal of traditional therapies lay in their religious and moral legitimacy within the South Asian community, especially to the older generation who were disproportionately influential in the determination of treatment choices. As a second generation made up of people of Pakistani origin born in the UK reach the age when they are the influential decision makers in their families, resort to traditional therapies may decline. People had long experience of navigating plural systems of health care and avoided potential conflict by maintaining strict separation between different sectors. Health care practitioners need to approach these issues with sensitivity and to regard traditional healers as potential allies, rather than competitors or quacks.
    • The use of history to identify anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the acute trauma setting: the 'LIMP index'

      Ayre, Colin A.; Hardy, Maryann L.; Scally, Andy J.; Radcliffe, G.; Venkatesh, R.; Smith, J.; Guy, S. (2017)
      Objective To identify the injury history features reported by patients with ACL injuries and determine whether history may be used to identify patients requiring follow-up appointments from acute trauma services. Multi-site cross-sectional service evaluation using a survey questionnaire design conducted in the UK. The four injury history features investigated (LIMP) were ‘Leg giving way at the time of injury’, ‘Inability to continue activity immediately following injury’, ‘Marked effusion’ and ‘Pop (heard or felt) at the time of injury’. 194 patients with ACL injury were identified of which 165 (85.5%) attended an acute trauma service. Data on delay was available for 163 (98.8%) of these patients of which 120 (73.6%) had a follow-up appointment arranged. Patients who had a follow-up appointment arranged waited significantly less time for a correct diagnosis (geometric mean 29 vs 198 days; p<0.001) and to see a specialist consultant (geometric mean 61 vs 328 days; p<0.001). Using a referral threshold of any 2 of the 4 LIMP injury history features investigated, 95.8% of patients would have had a follow-up appointment arranged. Findings support the value of questioning patients on specific injury history features in identifying patients who may have suffered ACL injury. Using a threshold of 2 or more of the 4 LIMP history features investigated would have reduced the percentage of patients inappropriately discharged by 22.2%. Evidence presented suggests that this would significantly reduce the time to diagnosis and specialist consultation minimising the chance of secondary complications.
    • Use of self-inflating bags for neonatal resuscitation.

      Oddie, S.J.; Wylie, J.; Scally, Andy J. (2005)
      Background: Lung inflation is the most important, and most difficult step in newborn resuscitation. A wide variety of devices are used to achieve lung inflation, but there are relatively few data to guide clinicians in their choice of device. Methods: We tested the ability of instructors and trained candidates on a newborn life support course to deliver initial inflation breaths to a test lung, using a pressure limited blow-off valve, a 240-ml self-inflating bag and a 500-ml self-inflating bag in sequence. Results: Use of a 240-ml self-inflating bag was associated with shorter initial inflations of 1.8 s mean (95% CI 1.60¿1.99 s), compared with 2.42 s (2.24¿2.61 s), 2.40 s (2.08¿2.71 s) for 500-ml self-inflating bags and ¿Tom Thumb¿ T piece, respectively. Delivery of breaths within a target pressure range of 30 ± 5 cm H2O was significantly better using a T piece than either self-inflating bag (proportion within target range 0.05 (95% CI 0¿0.11), 0.17 (95% CI 0.12¿0.23), 0.89 (95% CI 0.83¿0.94) for 240-ml and 500-ml self-inflating bags and ¿Tom Thumb¿ T piece, respectively. Excessive pressure delivery with both sizes of self-inflating bag was frequent. Conclusions: These data do not support use of 240-ml or 500-ml self-inflating bags for resuscitation of newborn term infants. A variable pressure T piece blow-off system may be the easiest device to use for newborn resuscitation and the most reliable at delivering desired pressures for set times.
    • Use of single-vision distance spectacles improves landing control during step descent in well-adapted multifocal lens-wearers

      Timmis, Matthew A.; Johnson, Louise; Elliott, David B.; Buckley, John G. (2010)
      PURPOSE: Epidemiologic research has shown that multifocal spectacle wearers (bifocal and progressive addition lenses [PALs]) are more than twice as likely to fall than are nonmultifocal spectacle wearers, with this risk further increasing when negotiating stairs. The present study investigated whether step and stair descent safety is improved by using single-vision distance lenses. METHODS: From a stationary standing position on top of a block, 20 long-term multifocal wearers stepped down (from different block heights) onto a lower level wearing bifocal, progressive addition, or single-vision distance lenses. RESULTS: Use of single-vision distance spectacles led to an increased single-limb support time, a reduced ankle and knee angle and vertical center-of-mass velocity at contact with the lower level, and a reduced ankle angular velocity and vertical center-of-mass velocity during initial landing (P < 0.03). These findings indicate that landing occurred in a more controlled manner when the subjects wore single-vision distance spectacles, rather than tending to "drop" onto the lower level as occurred when wearing bifocals or PALs. CONCLUSIONS: Use of single-vision distance spectacles led to improvements in landing control, consistent with individuals' being more certain regarding the precise height of the lower floor level. This enhanced control was attributed to having a view of the foot, step edge, and immediate floor area that was not blurred, magnified, or doubled and that did not suffer from image jump or peripheral distortions. These findings provide further evidence that use of single-vision distance lenses in everyday locomotion may be advantageous for elderly multifocal wearers who have a high risk of falling.