• Science or art: risk and project management in healthcare

      Sheppy, B.; Zuliani, J.D.; McIntosh, Bryan (2012)
      Despite its rapid growth in recent literature, risks in project management have received limited critical attention when compared to Lean principles and total quality management. The aim of this article is to examine the ongoing dialogue within health services funders and providers concerning the relationship between project management and its relationship to hard and soft environmental risk factors. The failure of high profile projects and cost to the taxpayer is on the increase. This article argues that the lack of understanding in relation to a holistic assessment of project success factors contributes to increased risk of failure. It argues that greater emphasis is needed on placing risk relative to both operational and cultural factors, as opposed to the frequent use of prescriptive mechanistic methodologies. These changes have the potential not merely to improve the success rates of healthcare management projects, but health outcomes too.
    • The scope of carer effects and their inclusion in decision-making: A UK-based Delphi study

      Al-Janabi, H.; Efstathiou, N.; McLoughlin, C.; Calvert, M.; Oyebode, Jan R. (BMC, 2021-07)
      Background and objective: Health and social care may affect family carers’ health and wellbeing in addition to patients’ lives. It is recommended that such impacts (carer effects) are considered in decision-making. However, the scope of carer effects and range of decisions where carer effects should be considered is uncertain. This study aimed to identify (i) how different categories of healthcare and social care were perceived to impact on family carers and (ii) whether there was consensus about when carer effects should be formally considered in decision-making contexts. Methods: A Delphi study was conducted with 65 UK-based participants with expertise in dementia, mental health, and stroke. Participants considered two broad forms of ‘interventions’ (patient treatment and replacement care) and two broad forms of ‘organisational change’ (staffing and changes in timing/location of care). Participants assessed the likely impacts of health and social care on family carers and whether impacts should be considered in decision-making. The survey was conducted remotely at two time points. Results: Participants predicted widespread impacts from interventions and organisational changes on different domains of family carers’ lives, with ‘emotional health’ the most likely outcome to be affected. Patient treatment and replacement care services (‘interventions’) were associated with positive impacts across all domains. Conversely, timing/location changes and staffing changes (‘organisational changes’) were perceived to have mixed and negative impacts. There was widespread support (80-81%) for considering carer effects in research studies, funding decisions, and patient decision-making. Conclusion: This study highlights a perception that carer effects are widespread and important to consider in economic evaluation and decision-making. It highlights the particular need to measure and value effects on carers’ emotional health and the need to use a societal perspective to avoid cost shifting to family carers when introducing interventions and making organisational changes.
    • A scoping review to identify the techniques frequently used when analysing qualitative visual data

      Smith, S.K.; Mountain, Gail; Hawkins, R.J. (2016)
      Challenges were encountered when attempting to analyse video based data during a project exploring touch screen computer technology with people living with dementia. In order to inform the analytic process, a scoping review of published evidence was undertaken. Results of the scope illustrated the use of various techniques when analysing visual data, the most common of which was the transcription of video into text and analysed using conversation analysis. Three additional issues emerged in the course of the review. First, there is an absence of detail when describing the ethical implications involved when utilising visual methods in research. Second, limited priority is given to providing a clear rationale for utilising visual methods when audio or field notes may have been a viable alternative. Third, only 40% of reviewed articles clearly stated a chosen methodology. The conclusions of the review illustrate a lack of consistency across studies in the overall reporting of research methods and recommend that authors be explicit in their reporting of methodological issues across the research process.
    • A scoping review: Strategic workforce planning in health and social care

      Prowse, Julie M.; Sutton, Claire; Eyers, Emma; Montague, Jane; Faisal, Muhammad; Neagu, Daniel; Elshehaly, Mai; Randell, Rebecca (2022-04)
      Aim This aim of this scoping review was to undertake a detailed review of the pertinent literature examining strategic workforce planning in the health and social care sectors. The scoping review was tasked to address the following three questions: 1. How is strategic health and social care workforce planning currently undertaken? 2. What models, methods, and tools are available for supporting strategic health and social care workforce planning? 3. What are the most effective methods for strategic health and social care workforce planning? Methods The scoping review utilised the five-stage scoping review framework proposed by Arksey and O’Malley (2005). This includes identifying the research question; identifying relevant studies; study selection; charting the data and collating, summarizing, and reporting the results. The search included a range of databases and key search terms included “workforce” OR “human resource*” OR “personnel” OR “staff*”. Relevant documents were selected through initially screening titles and abstracts, followed by full text screening of potentially relevant documents. Results The search returned 6105 unique references. Based on title and abstract screening, 654 were identified as potentially relevant. Screening of full texts resulted in 115 items of literature being included in the synthesis. Both national and international literature covers strategic workforce planning, with all continents represented, but with a preponderance from high income nations. The emphasis in the literature is mainly on the healthcare workforce, with few items on social care. Medical and dental workforces are the predominate groups covered in the literature, although nursing and midwifery are also discussed. Other health and social care workers are less represented. A variety of categories of workforce planning methods are noted in the literature that range from determining the workforce using supply and demand, practitioner to population ratios, needs based approach, the utilisation of methods such as horizon scanning, modelling, and scenario planning, together with mathematical and statistical modelling. Several of the articles and websites include specific workforce planning models that are nationally and internationally recognised, e.g., the workload indicators of staffing needs (WISN), Star model and the Six Step Methodology. These models provide a series of steps to help with workforce planning and tend to take a more strategic view of the process. Some of the literature considers patient safety and quality in relation to safe staffing numbers and patient acuity. The health and social care policies reviewed include broad actions to address workforce planning, staff shortages or future service developments and advocate a mixture of developing new roles, different ways of working, flexibility, greater integrated working and enhanced used of digital technology. However, the policies generally do not include workforce models or guidance about how to achieve these measures. Overall, there is an absence in the literature of studies that evaluate what are the most effective methods for strategic health and social care planning. Recommendations The literature suggests the need for the implementation of a strategic approach to workforce planning, utilising a needs-based approach, including horizon scanning and scenarios. This could involve adoption of a recognised workforce planning model that incorporates the strategic elements required for workforce planning and a ‘one workforce’ approach across health and social care.
    • Screening prior to gadolinium based contrast agent administration: A UK survey of guideline implementation and adherence

      Snaith, Beverly; Harris, Martine A.; Clarke, R. (2016-12)
      Contrast agents are used to enhance imaging examinations, however in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) there is an association with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). The risk is small, but elevated in patients with impaired renal function and screening of patients is advised prior to administration. This study examines adherence of UK hospitals to guidance on the use of gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) in MRI. This was a prospective study utilising an electronic survey. The sample comprised NHS Trusts in the UK (n = 174). An invitation was sent to all MRI lead radiographers including a link to the survey. 17.6% indicated they had no written protocol for the GBCA administration within radiology. 41.2% check blood test results for all patients undergoing a contrast MRI, whereas 45.6% only check those patients with known renal dysfunction or are high-risk. Comorbidities which categorised patients as high-risk included diabetes, cardiac or vascular disease and age, however the cut off varied from 65 to 75 years old. Six sites indicated point-of-care (POC) creatinine testing would be carried out where bloods were unavailable, a further 12 had considered POC testing and dismissed it as an adjunct to the patient pathway, the most commonly cited reason being the cost. Within the UK there is no consistent approach to renal function assessment prior to GBCA administration despite international guidance. POC testing may have a role to play, but a lack of evaluation in radiology has led to concerns that it may constrain capacity and increase costs.
    • See me, not just the dementia - Understanding people's experiences of living in a care home.

      Commission for Social Care Inspection (CSCI); Brooker, Dawn J.R.; Surr, Claire A.; Scally, Andy J. (2008)
      This report looks at the experiences of people with dementia living in care homes in England, with a particular focus on whether their care offers dignity and respect. Most similar studies have relied on the views of carers, care staff and people in the early stages of dementia. This study examines directly the experiences of people including those with advanced dementia.
    • Selecting stimuli parameters for video quality studies based on perceptual similarity distances

      Kumcu, A.; Platisa, L.; Chen, H.; Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Davies, A.G.; Schelkens, P.; Taeymans, Y.; Philips, W. (2015-03)
      This work presents a methodology to optimize the selection of multiple parameter levels of an image acquisition, degradation, or post-processing process applied to stimuli intended to be used in a subjective image or video quality assessment (QA) study. It is known that processing parameters (e.g. compression bit-rate) or techni- cal quality measures (e.g. peak signal-to-noise ratio, PSNR) are often non-linearly related to human quality judgment, and the model of either relationship may not be known in advance. Using these approaches to select parameter levels may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the relationship between the parameter and subjective quality judgments – the system’s quality model. To overcome this, we propose a method for modeling the rela- tionship between parameter levels and perceived quality distances using a paired comparison parameter selection procedure in which subjects judge the perceived similarity in quality. Our goal is to enable the selection of evenly sampled parameter levels within the considered quality range for use in a subjective QA study. This approach is tested on two applications: (1) selection of compression levels for laparoscopic surgery video QA study, and (2) selection of dose levels for an interventional X-ray QA study. Subjective scores, obtained from the follow-up single stimulus QA experiments conducted with expert subjects who evaluated the selected bit-rates and dose levels, were roughly equidistant in the perceptual quality space - as intended. These results suggest that a similarity judgment task can help select parameter values corresponding to desired subjective quality levels.
    • Self-efficacy, habit strength, health locus of control and response to the personalised nutrition Food4Me intervention study

      Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Rankin, A.; Bunting, B.P.; Frewer, L.J.; Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K.M.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Poinhos, R.; Kuznesof, S.; Gibney, M.J.; et al. (Emerald, 2021)
      Purpose – Randomised controlled trials identify causal links between variables but not why an outcome has occurred. This analysis sought to determine how psychological factors assessed at baseline influenced response to personalised nutrition. Design/methodology/approach – Web-based, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted across seven European countries. Volunteers, both male and female, aged over 18 years were randomised to either a non-personalised (control) or a personalised (treatment) dietary advice condition. Linear mixed model analysis with fixed effects was used to compare associations between internal and external health locus of control (HLoC), nutrition self-efficacy (NS-E) and self-report habit index (S-RHI) at baseline (N 5 1444), with healthy eating index (HEI) and Mediterranean diet index (MDI) scores between conditions post-intervention (N 5 763). Findings – An increase in MDI scores was observed between baseline and six months in the treatment group which was associated with higher NS-E (p
    • Self-esteem, self-efficacy and optimism as psychological resources among family caregivers of people with dementia: findings from the IDEAL study

      Lamont, R.A.; Quinn, Catherine; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Rusted, J.M.; Hindle, J.V.; Longdon, B.; Clare, L. (2019-09)
      Being a family caregiver, and in particular giving care to someone with dementia, impacts upon mental and physical health, and potentially reduces the ability of caregivers to ‘live well’. This paper examines whether three key psychological resources, self-efficacy, optimism and self-esteem, are associated with better outcomes for caregivers of people with dementia. Design and Participants Caregivers of 1283 people with mild-to-moderate dementia in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) project responded to measures of selfefficacy, optimism and self-esteem, and ‘living well’ (quality of life, life satisfaction and well-being). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between psychological resources and ‘living well’. Results Self-efficacy, optimism and self-esteem were all independently associated with better capability to ‘live well’ for caregivers. This association persisted when accounting for a number of potential confounding variables (age group, sex, and hours of caregiving per day). Conclusions Low self-efficacy, optimism and self-esteem might present a risk of poor outcomes for caregivers of people with dementia. These findings encourage us to consider how new or established interventions might increase the psychological resilience of caregivers.
    • Self-expandable metal stent placement for the palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction: experience in a large, single, UK centre.

      Lowe, A.S.; Beckett, C.G.; Jowett, S.; May, J.; Stephenson, S.; Scally, Andy J.; Tam, E.; Kay, C.L. (2007)
      To assess the technical success rate, and evaluate the clinical outcome, length of hospital stay, and cost of palliative gastro-duodenal stenting in a single-centre. Materials and methods Eight-seven patients referred for insertion of a gastroduodenal stent between April 1999 and April 2004 were recruited to a non-randomized, before and after intervention study performed in a single centre. Demographic data, diagnosis and symptoms along with clinical and technical outcomes were recorded. Results The technical success rate was 84/87 (96.6%), with inability to traverse the stricture in three patients. No immediate complications were demonstrated. There was marked improvement after stent placement with resolution of symptoms and commencement of dietary intake in 76 patients (87%). Stenting resulted in improved quality of life as reflected by an increase in Karnofsky score from 44/100, to 63/100 post-procedure. Late complications included perforation (n=1), migration (n=1) and stent occlusions due to tumour ingrowth/overgrowth (n=7; mean 165 days). Mean survival was 107 days (range 0¿411 days). Median hospital stay post-stent placement was 5.5 days, (range 1¿55 days) with a majority of patients (75%) discharged home. The mean cost of each treatment episode was £4146 ($7132 $US, ¿6,028 EUROS). Conclusion The present series confirms that combined endoscopic and radiological gastroduodenal stenting is a highly favourable treatment for patients with inoperable malignant gastric outlet obstruction. The results suggest that this minimally invasive procedure has a very high technical success rate, whilst at the same time providing excellent palliation of symptoms with improved quality of life in the majority of patients.
    • Sensitivity and specificity of the empirical lymphocyte genome sensitivity (LGS) assay: implications for improving cancer diagnostics

      Anderson, Diana; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Ghaderi, Nader; Scally, Andy J.; Britland, Stephen T.; Jacobs, B.J.; Reynolds, P.D.; Davies, J.; Wright, A.L.; et al. (2014-10-28)
      Lymphocyte responses from 208 individuals: 20 with melanoma, 34 with colon cancer, and 4 with lung cancer (58), 18 with suspected melanoma, 28 with polyposis, and 10 with COPD (56), and 94 healthy volunteers were examined. The natural logarithm of the Olive tail moment (OTM) was plotted for exposure to UVA through 5 different agar depths (100 cell measurements/depth) and analyzed using a repeated measures regression model. Responses of patients with cancer plateaued after treatment with different UVA intensities, but returned toward control values for healthy volunteers. For precancerous conditions and suspected cancers, intermediate responses occurred. ROC analysis of mean log OTMs, for cancers plus precancerous/suspect conditions vs. controls, cancer vs. precancerous/suspect conditions plus controls, and cancer vs. controls, gave areas under the curve of 0.87, 0.89, and 0.93, respectively (P<0.001). Optimization allowed test sensitivity or specificity to approach 100% with acceptable complementary measures. This modified comet assay could represent a stand-alone test or an adjunct to other investigative procedures for detecting cancer.
    • Serious games, gamification and serious mental illness: A scoping review

      Fitzgerald, Martin; Ratcliffe, G. (American Psychiatric Association, 2020-02-01)
      The use of serious games and gamification to promote learning has a long history. More recently, serious games and gamification have been used in clinical settings to promote treatment and recovery. Yet there is little evidence to support their use with populations that experience serious mental illness. A scoping review was used to answer the following research question, What is the current state of knowledge about how games and gamification are used to promote treatment of serious mental illness? Scoping reviews clarify, define, and develop conceptual boundaries within a topic area. Twenty studies were identified and reviewed by using thematic content analysis. A range of game types, formats, and technology were assessed. Six themes emerged from analysis. Serious games and the use of gamification to promote treatment have potential to engage persons with serious mental illness in game content and promote treatment outcomes. Game design that supported clear instruction, a coherent narrative, a smooth interface between mechanics and play, and service user involvement early in the process of game design were important for the successful promotion of engagement and learning. Games reviewed offered the opportunity for problem solving, collaboration, and goal-oriented activity that supported the delivery of therapeutic outcomes. The use of serious games and gamification to promote treatment of serious mental illness had high levels of feasibility and acceptability among both users and providers. The potential treatment value of games, however, is dependent on key features related to the games’ design, operation, and rationale.
    • Service user involvement in cancer care: the impact on service users

      Cotterell, P.; Harlow, G.; Morris, C.; Beresford, P.; Hanley, B.; Sargeant, Anita R.; Sitzia, J.; Staley, K. (2011)
      BACKGROUND: Service user involvement is embedded in the United Kingdom's National Health Service, but knowledge about the impact of involvement on service users, such as the benefits and challenges of involvement, is scant. Our research addresses this gap. OBJECTIVE: To explore the personal impact of involvement on the lives of service users affected by cancer. DESIGN: We conducted eight focus groups with user groups supplemented by nine face-to-face interviews with involved individuals active at a local, regional and national level. Thematic analysis was conducted both independently and collectively. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four participants, engaged in involvement activities in cancer services, palliative care and research, were recruited across Great Britain. RESULTS: We identified three main themes: (i) 'Expectations and motivations for involvement'- the desire to improve services and the need for user groups to have a clear purpose, (ii) 'Positive aspects of involvement'- support provided by user groups and assistance to live well with cancer and (iii) 'Challenging aspects of involvement'- insensitivities and undervaluing of involvement by staff. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that involvement has the capacity to produce varied and significant personal impacts for involved people. Involvement can be planned and implemented in ways that increase these impacts and that mediates challenges for those involved. Key aspects to increase positive impact for service users include the value service providers attach to involvement activities, the centrality with which involvement is embedded in providers' activities, and the capacity of involvement to influence policy, planning, service delivery, research and/or practice.
    • Service users and carers: preparing to be involved in work-based practice assessment

      Dearnley, Christine A.; Coulby, C.; Rhodes, C.; Taylor, J.D.; Coates, C.A. (2011)
      This paper will provide an overview of the specific issues related to involving service users and carers in work-based practice assessment of health and social care students. The outcomes of a shared workshop that involved service users and carers, practice assessors and students in the development of an interprofessional assessment tool, will be discussed. Key areas of concern, across all participants, were related to ethical, reliability and validity issues. These will be explored against the background of current literature, and recommendations will be made for involving service users and carers in assessment of practice. The original work for this paper was part of the Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL), which is working towards a framework of interprofessional assessment of common competences in the health and social care professions.
    • Severe neonatal hypernatraemia: a population based study

      Oddie, S.J.; Craven, V.; Deakin, K.; Westman, J.; Scally, Andy J. (2013)
      AIMS: To describe incidence, presentation, treatment and short term outcomes of severe neonatal hypernatraemia (SNH, sodium >/=160 mmol/l). METHODS: Prospective, population based surveillance study over 13 months using the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Cases were >33 weeks gestation at birth, fed breast or formula milk and <28 days of age at presentation. RESULTS: Of 62 cases of SNH reported (7, 95% CI 5.4 to 9.0 per 1 00 000 live births), 61 mothers had intended to achieve exclusive breast feeding. Infants presented at median day 6 (range 2-17) with median weight loss of 19.5% (range 8.9-30.9). 12 had jaundice and 57 weight loss as a presenting feature. 58 presented with weight loss >/=15%. 25 babies had not stooled in the 24 h prior to admission. Serum sodium fell by median 12.9 mmol/l per 24 h (range 0-30). No baby died, had seizures or coma or was treated with dialysis or a central line. At discharge, babies had regained 11% of initial birth weight after a median admission of 5 (range 2-14) days. 10 were exclusively breast fed on discharge from hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal hypernatraemia at this level, in this population, is strongly associated with weight loss. It occurs almost exclusively after attempts to initiate breast feeding, occurs uncommonly and does not appear to be associated with serious short term morbidities, beyond admission to hospital.
    • Sex and age differences in attitudes and intention to adopt personalised nutrition in a UK sample

      Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Poinhos, R.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Chaudhrey, M.; Rankin, A. (2022)
      There has been an increase in development of technologies that can deliver personalised dietary advice. Devising healthy, sustainable dietary plans will mean taking consideration of extrinsic factors such as individual social circumstances. The aim of this study was to identify societal groups more or less receptive to and likely to engage with digitally delivered personalised nutrition initiatives. Sample and Methods: Volunteers were recruited via a social research agency from within the UK. The resultant sample (N=1061) was 49% female, aged 18-65 years. Results: MANOVA (Tukey HSD applied) indicated that females and younger people (aged 18-29 years) had more favourable attitudes and were more likely to intend to adopt personalised nutrition. There were no differences in attitude toward or intention to adopt personalised nutrition between different education levels, income brackets or occupational groups. Conclusion: These results imply that females and younger people may be most likely to adopt personalised nutrition in the future. Initiatives to promote personalised nutrition should target males and older people.
    • Sexuality, Intimacy and Older Care Home Residents.

      Simpson, P.; Horne, Maria; Wilson, C.B.; Brown, L.; Dickinson, T.; Smith, S.; Torkington, K.; Tinkler, P. (2015)
      Over half a million people aged 65+ live in care homes (ONS 2011). Yet, sex, sexuality and intimacy and old people remain overlooked in social policy and professional practice (Hafford-Letchfield 2008). We explore narratives from a feasibility study based in Northwest England that consulted on the significance of researching sexuality and intimacy. We draw on narratives generated with two focus groups of professional carers (n = 16) and interviews with three residents, (two male and one female) and four female spouses (n = 7). All three types of stakeholders expressed concern about privacy and environmental impediments to intimacy (e.g. shortage of double rooms). However, distinct concerns were expressed by each group. Residents’ expressed scepticism that the topic was ‘too personal’, that old people were post-sexual or that sex/intimacy were part of range of needs and could be eclipsed by those relating to grand-parenting, avoiding isolation and personalization of care. Spouses emphasized the importance of intimacy over sex/sexuality as an indicator of the depth and longevity of a relationship but were concerned about unmet needs and loss of influence over their partners’ care. Obliged to meet a complex of legal, professional, ethical and interpersonal obligations, care staff articulated a need for guidance to help them support residents and their significant others. We conclude with practical recommendations that address barriers to enabling intimacy.