• Can cross sectional imaging contribute to the investigation of unexplained child deaths? A literature review.

      Beck, Jamie J.W. (2014)
      Background This review examines the factors that can influence an investigation into the unexpected death of a child before considering if using imaging techniques could be of benefit. Method A systematic search strategy was adopted to search databases using keywords, these results were then subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria to filter and refine the evidence base further. Discussion More research is published on the use of MRI in comparison with other modalities. There is evidence in the case of MRI in particular that its use could be of benefit in identifying and ruling out potential causes of death in children. Conclusion More research is needed on the use of CT but the routine use of MRI in child death investigation could now be considered. Ethical considerations appear to be a barrier to research in this area and discussions as to how such considerations can be overcome is necessary.
    • Can image enhancement allow radiation dose to be reduced whilst maintaining the perceived diagnostic image quality required for coronary angiography?

      Joshi, A.; Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Sivananthan, U.M.; Davies, A.G. (2017-03-03)
      Digital image processing used in modern cardiac interventional x-ray systems may have the potential to enhance image quality such that it allows for lower radiation doses. The aim of this research was to quantify the reduction in radiation dose facilitated by image processing alone for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patient angiograms, without reducing the perceived image quality required to confidently make a diagnosis. Incremental amounts of image noise were added to five PCI patient angiograms, simulating the angiogram having been acquired at corresponding lower dose levels (by 10-89% dose reduction). Sixteen observers with relevant background and experience scored the image quality of these angiograms in three states - with no image processing and with two different modern image processing algorithms applied; these algorithms are used on state-of-the-art and previous generation cardiac interventional x-ray systems. Ordinal regression allowing for random effects and the delta method were used to quantify the dose reduction allowed for by the processing algorithms, for equivalent image quality scores. The dose reductions [with 95% confidence interval] from the state-of-the-art and previous generation image processing relative to no processing were 24.9% [18.8- 31.0%] and 15.6% [9.4-21.9%] respectively. The dose reduction enabled by the state-of-the-art image processing relative to previous generation processing was 10.3% [4.4-16.2%]. This demonstrates that statistically significant dose reduction can be facilitated with no loss in perceived image quality using modern image enhancement; the most recent processing algorithm was more effective in preserving image quality at lower doses.
    • Can nurse mentorship enhance career development?

      Kelsey, Catherine (2016-07)
      Nurses who develop high level critical thinking skills, such as those required for mentorship have become a human commodity. In light of this phenomenon this paper will critically investigate whether such skills have the capacity to create purposeful opportunities for learning, whilst improving career prospects and ultimately enhancing patient care.
    • Can occupational therapy address the occupational implications of hoarding?

      Clarke, Cathy (2019-03)
      Hoarding is often described as a medical disorder, defined by a persistent difficulty in discarding possessions and associated high levels of emotional distress when forced to part with these. This article will discuss how having a different view of hoarding, seeing hoarding as a daily occupation which provides value, purpose, and meaning and with a relationship to self-identity and life purpose, could offer alternate interventions to support an individual who hoards. The article will consider the components of hoarding activity and how these relate to health and wellbeing and doing, being, belonging, and becoming as understood by occupational therapists. The article will consider what occupational therapy, a profession which considers a person’s daily occupations, the things that occupy their time and which give meaning to their existence, could offer as an alternative to current hoarding interventions. Proposals for occupational therapy interventions will be suggested which would support occupational choice, support engagement in activities which have more positive outcomes on a person’s health, and seek to address barriers which limit engagement and occupational performance in activities within the person’s home environment.
    • Can patients report patient safety incidents in a hospital setting? A systematic review

      Ward, J.K.; Armitage, Gerry R. (2012-07)
      INTRODUCTION: Patients are increasingly being thought of as central to patient safety. A small but growing body of work suggests that patients may have a role in reporting patient safety problems within a hospital setting. This review considers this disparate body of work, aiming to establish a collective view on hospital-based patient reporting. STUDY OBJECTIVES: This review asks: (a) What can patients report? (b) In what settings can they report? (c) At what times have patients been asked to report? (d) How have patients been asked to report? METHOD: 5 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, (Kings Fund) HMIC and PsycINFO) were searched for published literature on patient reporting of patient safety 'problems' (a number of search terms were utilised) within a hospital setting. In addition, reference lists of all included papers were checked for relevant literature. RESULTS: 13 papers were included within this review. All included papers were quality assessed using a framework for comparing both qualitative and quantitative designs, and reviewed in line with the study objectives. DISCUSSION: Patients are clearly in a position to report on patient safety, but included papers varied considerably in focus, design and analysis, with all papers lacking a theoretical underpinning. In all papers, reports were actively solicited from patients, with no evidence currently supporting spontaneous reporting. The impact of timing upon accuracy of information has yet to be established, and many vulnerable patients are not currently being included in patient reporting studies, potentially introducing bias and underestimating the scale of patient reporting. The future of patient reporting may well be as part of an 'error detection jigsaw' used alongside other methods as part of a quality improvement toolkit.
    • Can staff and patient perspectives on hospital safety predict harm-free care? An analysis of staff and patient survey data and routinely collected outcomes

      Lawton, R.; O'Hara, J.K.; Sheard, L.; Reynolds, C.; Cocks, K.; Armitage, Gerry R.; Wright, J. (2015)
      Patients have the potential to provide feedback on the safety of their care. Recently, tools have been developed that ask patients to provide feedback on those factors that are known to contribute to safety, therefore providing information that can be used proactively to manage safety in hospitals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the safety information provided by patients is different from that provided by staff and whether it is related to safety outcomes. Data were collected from 33 hospital wards across 3 acute hospital Trusts in the UK. Staff on these wards were asked to complete the four outcome measures of the Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture, while patients were asked to complete the Patient Measure of Safety and the friends and family test. We also collated publicly reported safety outcome data for 'harm-free care' on each ward. This patient safety thermometer measure is used in the UK NHS to record the percentage of patients on a single day of each month on every ward who have received harm-free care (i.e. no pressure ulcers, falls, urinary tract infections and hospital acquired new venous thromboembolisms). These data were used to address questions about the relationship between measures and the extent to which patient and staff perceptions of safety predict safety outcomes. The friends and family test, a single item measure of patient experience was associated with patients' perceptions of safety, but was not associated with safety outcomes. Staff responses to the patient safety culture survey were not significantly correlated with patient responses to the patient measure of safety, but both independently predicted safety outcomes. The regression models showed that staff perceptions (adjusted r(2)=0.39) and patient perceptions (adjusted r(2)=0.30) of safety independently predicted safety outcomes. When entered together both measures accounted for 49% of the variance in safety outcomes (adjusted r(2)=0.49), suggesting that there is overlap but some unique variance is also explained by these two measures. Based on responses to the Patient Measure of Safety it was also possible to identify differences between the acute Hospital Trusts. The findings suggest that although the views of patients and staff predict some overlapping variance in patient safety outcomes, both also offer a unique perspective on patient safety, contributing independently to the prediction of safety outcomes. These findings suggest that feedback from patients about the safety of the care that they receive can be used, in addition to data from staff to drive safety improvements in healthcare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN07689702.
    • Cancelled procedures: inequality, inequity and the National Health Service reforms

      Cookson, G.; Jones, S.; McIntosh, Bryan (2013)
      Using data for every elective procedure in 2007 in the English National Health Service, we found evidence of socioeconomic inequality in the probability of having a procedure cancelled after admission while controlling for a range of patient and provider characteristics. Whether this disparity is inequitable is inconclusive.; Using data for every elective procedure in 2007 in the English National Health Service, we found evidence of socioeconomic inequality in the probability of having a procedure cancelled after admission while controlling for a range of patient and provider characteristics. Whether this disparity is inequitable is inconclusive. Copyright A[c] 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; � Using data for every elective procedure in 2007 in the English National Health Service, we found evidence of socioeconomic inequality in the probability of having a procedure cancelled after admission while controlling for a range of patient and provider characteristics. Whether this disparity is inequitable is inconclusive.
    • Cancelled surgeries and payment by results in the English National Health Service

      McIntosh, Bryan; Cookson, G.; Jones, S. (2012)
      OBJECTIVES: To model the frequency of 'last minute' cancellations of planned elective procedures in the English NHS with respect to the patient and provider factors that led to these cancellations. METHODS: A dataset of 5,288,604 elective patients spell in the English NHS from January 1st, 2007 to December 31st, 2007 was extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics. A binary dependent variable indicating whether or not a patient had a Health Resource Group coded as S22--'Planned elective procedure not carried out'--was modeled using a probit regression estimated via maximum likelihood including patient, case and hospital level covariates. RESULTS: Longer waiting times and being admitted on a Monday were associated with a greater rate of cancelled procedures. Male patients, patients from lower socio-economic groups and older patients had higher rates of cancelled procedures. There was significant variation in cancellation rates between hospitals; Foundation Trusts and private facilities had the lowest cancellation rates. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed on why Foundation Trusts exhibit lower cancellation rates. Hospitals with relatively high cancellation rates should be encouraged to tackle this problem. Further evidence is needed on whether hospitals are more likely to cancel operations where the procedure tariff is lower than the S22 tariff as this creates a perverse incentive to cancel. Understanding the underlying causes of why male, older and patients from lower socio-economic groups are more likely to have their operations cancelled is important to inform the appropriate policy response. This research suggests that interventions designed to reduce cancellation rates should be targeted to high-cancellation groups.
    • Cardiology patients' medicines management networks after hospital discharge: A mixed methods analysis of a complex adaptive system

      Fylan, Beth; Tranmer, M.; Armitage, Gerry R.; Blenkinsopp, Alison (2019-05)
      Introduction: The complex healthcare system that provides patients with medicines places them at risk when care is transferred between healthcare organisations, for example discharge from hospital. Consequently, under-standing and improving medicines management, particularly at care transfers, is a priority.Objectives: This study aimed to explore the medicines management system as patients experience it and determine differences in the patient-perceived importance of people in the system.Methods: We used a Social Network Analysis framework, collecting ego-net data about the importance of people patients had contact with concerning their medicines after hospital discharge. Single- and multi-level logistic regression models of patients' networks were constructed, and model residuals were explored at the patient level.This enabled us to identify patients' networks with support tie patterns different from the general patterns suggested by the model results. Qualitative data for those patients were then analysed to understand their differing experiences.Results: Networks comprised clinical and administrative healthcare staff and friends and family members.Networks were highly individual and the perceived importance of alters varied both within and between patients. Ties to spouses were significantly more likely to be rated as highly important and ties to community pharmacy staff (other than pharmacists) and to GP receptionists were less likely to be highly rated. Patients with low-value medicines management networks described having limited information about their medicines and alack of understanding or help. Patients with high-value networks described appreciating support and having confidence in staff.Conclusions: Patients experienced medicines management as individual systems within which they interacted with healthcare staff and informal support to manage their treatment. Multilevel models indicated that there are unexplained variables impacting on patients' assessments of their medicines management networks. Qualitative exploration of the model residuals can offer an understanding of networks that do not have the typical range of support ties.
    • The care dividend: learning from the past.

      McIntosh, Bryan; Voyer, B.G.; Shenoy, B. (2013)
      Poor standards of care are unacceptable, but solutions are far from being straightforward. This is a complex issue that is influenced by individual attitudes, perceptions and cultural norms
    • Care for Older People in Multigenerational Families: a Life Course Analysis across Four Generations.

      Powell, Catherine (2015)
      As the population ages, a key question is to how support older people who are in need of some form of care. This article highlights how older people may be embedded in multigenerational familial care networks. It explores the ways in which care and support for great-grandparents are worked out in multigenerational families, as well as between informal and formal sources of support. Methods involve qualitative life history interviews with five four-generation families. Findings suggest that care is worked out through a balance of care, need and support across generations. Depending on available resources, this produces a variety of support outcomes including: home based family care with and without supplemented professional help, sheltered accommodation with family care, institutional care as well as fluctuations between different support patterns. Supporting informal care networks through professional support can help multiple generations balance intergenerational relationships across the shifts between greater dependency and independence.
    • Care for people with dementia

      Downs, Murna G.; Bowers, B. (2008)
    • Care mapping in clinical neuroscience settings: Cognitive impairment and dependency

      Leigh, A.J.; O'Hanlon, K.; Sheldrick, R.; Surr, Claire A.; Hare, D.J. (2015-08)
      Person-centred care can improve the well-being of patients and is therefore a key driver in healthcare developments in the UK. The current study aims to investigate the complex relationship between cognitive impairment, dependency and well-being in people with a wide range of acquired brain and spinal injuries. Sixty-five participants, with varied acquired brain and spinal injuries, were selected by convenience sampling from six inpatient clinical neuroscience settings. Participants were observed using Dementia Care Mapping – Neurorehabilitation (DCM-NR) and categorised based on severity of cognitive impairment. A significant difference in the behaviours participants engaged in, their well-being and dependency was found between the severe cognitive impairment group and the mild, moderate or no cognitive impairment groups. Dependency and cognitive impairment accounted for 23.9% of the variance in well–ill-being scores and 17.2% of the variance in potential for positive engagement. The current study highlights the impact of severe cognitive impairment and dependency on the behaviours patients engaged in and their well-being. It also affirms the utility of DCM-NR in providing insights into patient experience. Consideration is given to developing DCM-NR as a process that may improve person-centred care in neuroscience settings.
    • Career Progression of Equality and Diversity Professionals in U.K. National Health Service Organizations: A Knowledge Review

      Archibong, Uduak E.; Harvey, B.; Baxter, C.; Jogi, M. (2015-01)
      This paper presents a knowledge review on the career progression of Equality and Diversity professionals within the British National Health Service. Adopting a multidimensional methodological approach, the review involved examining literature of published and unpublished literature including scientific journals, statistics, and national and international reports to highlight research gaps, consultation with experts, and documentary analysis of job advertisements. Thematic analysis was utilized to examine and report patterns within data generated from the multiple data collection methods. The review identified the concept of career undergoing a fundamental shift in strategy and consequent overhaul of traditional organizational structures in all sectors. New boundaryless organizations have presented the possibility of boundaryless careers, resulting in the renegotiation of the psychological contract between employee and employer. The knowledge review has identified that more needs to be addressed, from both employee and employer perspectives, to ensure that conditions are in place for such competences to flourish.
    • Caregiver influences on 'living well' for people with dementia: Findings from the IDEAL study.

      Quinn, Catherine; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Morris, R.G.; Victor, C.; Clare, L. (2019-05)
      Objectives: The capability to ‘live well’ in people with dementia can be influenced by many factors, including those related to the experiences of their informal caregiver. How caregivers experience their own role can affect not only their well-being but also the way they provide care and hence the experience of the person with dementia. The aim of this study is to identify the potential impact of the caregiver’s perception of the caregiving experience on how people with mild to moderate dementia self-rate their QoL, well-being and satisfaction with life. Method: This study utilised time-point 1 data from 1283 informal caregiver and the 1283 people with dementia whom they provide care from the IDEAL cohort study. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the associations between measures related to the caregiver’s perception of the caregiving experience (caregiving stress, perceived social restrictions, caregiving competence, positive aspects of caregiving, and coping) and the self-ratings of QoL, satisfaction with life, and well-being by the person with dementia. Results: Lower QoL ratings by the person with dementia were associated with high caregiver stress (−1.98; 95% CI: −2.89, −1.07), high perceived social restrictions (−2.04; 95% CI: −2.94, −1.14) and low caregiving competence (−2.01; 95% CI: −2.95, −1.06). Similar associations were found for satisfaction with life and wellbeing. Positive aspects of caregiving and coping were not associated with outcomes for the person with dementia. Conclusion: The findings indicate that how the caregiver experiences caregiving can affect the person with dementia. This finding reinforces the importance of providing support to caregivers.
    • Caregivers' beliefs about dementia: findings from the IDEAL study

      Quinn, Catherine; Jones, I.R.; Martyr, A.; Nelis, S.M.; Morris, R.G.; Clare, L.; IDEAL Study Team (2019)
      Objective: Informal caregivers of people with dementia develop their own beliefs about the condition, referred to as Dementia Representations (DRs), as they try to make sense of the changes they are observing. The first aim of this study was to provide a profile of the types of DRs held by caregivers. The second aim was to examine the impact of caregivers’ DRs on their well-being, satisfaction with life (SwL) and caregiving stress. Methods: Participants were 1264 informal caregivers of people in the mild-to-moderate stages of dementia from time-point 1 of the IDEAL cohort study. Measures: DRs were measured using questionnaire items covering: Identity, Cause, Control, and Timeline. Results: Almost half (49.2%) of caregivers used a diagnostic term to describe the person’s condition, although 93.4% of caregivers stated they were aware of the diagnosis. Higher well-being, SwL, and lower caregiving stress were associated with the use of an identity term relating to specific symptoms of dementia, attributing the cause to ageing or not knowing the cause, and believing the condition would stay the same. Lower well-being, SwL, and higher caregiving stress were associated with believing there was little that could be done to control the effects of the condition. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals should assess and gain an understanding of caregivers’ DRs in order to provide more tailored information and support.
    • Caring for persons with Parkinson's disease in care homes: Perceptions of residents and their close relatives, and an associated review of residents' care plans.

      Armitage, Gerry R.; Adams, Jenny E.; Newell, Robert J.; Coates, David; Ziegler, Lucy; Hodgson, Ian J. (01/04/2009)
      Through qualitative in-depth interviews, we collected the views of persons with Parkinson¿s disease (pwPD) and their close relatives in care homes to establish their collective views of the effectiveness of care. We also reviewed the corresponding care plans. Drawing on these two forms of data collection, we compared similarities and differences between the qualitative interview data and the care plan analysis to elaborate on the experience of residential care for pwPD. Close relatives of care home residents can be a fruitful source of information for care home staff, throughout the care planning process, especially in relation to the specific needs of a pwPD. Although health and social policy advocate active collaboration between people with long-term conditions, their families, and their formal carers, there is limited evidence of such collaboration in the data examined here. There is an apparent shortfall in the knowledge and understanding of PD among care home staff. There are important pragmatic (e.g. drug administration) as well as psycho-social reasons for flexibility in routine care provision to meet the dynamic needs of pwPD. The findings here support the need for further, larger scale research into the quality of care for pwPD who are care home residents.
    • Caring, the socialisation of pre-registration student nurses, a longitudinal study.

      Mackintosh, Carolyn (2006)
      Background: This study explores the impact of the process of socialisation on pre-registration student nurses views about care, and their personal ability to cope with becoming a nurse. Objectives: It aims to identify the effect time has on participants attitudes and views of care and becoming a nurse, during pre-registration nurse training, by using a descriptive longitudinal qualitative design. Setting: Data collection took place within the School of Health or on student's clinical placement areas, using a random sample of 16 pre-registration student nurses obtained from a convenience sample of 52 volunteers. Methods: Participants were involved in two semi-structured in depth interviews, the first 6-9 months after entering nurse training and the second 6-9 months prior to completion. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Morse and Field's (1996) four stages of analysis. Results: Identified changes between data collection stages suggest socialisation results in a loss of idealism about care within nursing, as well as the identification of negative aspects of care. Loss of care is linked to increased abilities to cope with the nursing role, although this is not uniform and some participants clearly discriminate and reject negative exposures. In conclusion this study identifies an under recognised dichotomy between the caring ethos of professional nursing and the professional socialisation processes student nurses are subject to, which directly mitigate against the individual nurses abilities to care.