• Individual goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation to improve everyday functioning for people with early-stage dementia: a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (the GREAT trial)

      Clare, L.; Kudlicka, A.; Oyebode, Jan R.; Jones, R.W.; Bayer, A.; Leroi, I.; Kopelman, M.; James, I.A.; Culverwell, A.; Pool, J.; et al. (2019)
      Objectives: To determine whether individual goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) improves everyday functioning for people with mild-to-moderate dementia. Design and methods: Parallel group multi-centre single-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing CR added to usual treatment (CR) with usual treatment alone (TAU) for people with an ICD-10 diagnosis of Alzheimer’s, vascular or mixed dementia and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment (MMSE score ≥ 18), and with a family member willing to contribute. Participants allocated to CR received ten weekly sessions over three months and four maintenance sessions over six months. Participants were followed up three and nine months post-randomisation by blinded researchers. The primary outcome was self-reported goal attainment at three months. Secondary outcomes at three and nine months included informant-reported goal attainment, quality of life, mood, self-efficacy, and cognition, and study partner stress and quality of life. Results: We randomised (1:1) 475 people with dementia; 445 (CR=281) were included in the intention to treat analysis at three months, and 426 (CR=208) at nine months. At three months there were statistically-significant large positive effects for participant-rated goal attainment (d=0.97, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.19), corroborated by informant ratings (d=1.11, 0.89 to 1.34). These effects were maintained at nine months for both participant (d=0.94, 0.71 to 1.17) and informant ratings (d=0.96, 0.73 to 1.2). The observed gains related to goals directly targeted in the therapy. There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Cognitive rehabilitation enables people with early-stage dementia to improve their everyday functioning in relation to individual goals targeted in the therapy.
    • Living alone with mild-to-moderate dementia: findings from the IDEAL Cohort

      Clare, L.; Martyr, A.; Henderson, C.; Gamble, L.; Matthews, F.E.; Quinn, Catherine; Nelis, S.M.; Rusted, J.; Thom, J.; Knapp, M.; et al. (2020-11)
      A significant proportion of people with dementia live alone, but little is known about their specific needs. To understand the profile of people living alone with mild-to-moderate dementia in the UK and identify any systematic differences associated with living situation. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,541 people with mild-to-moderate dementia and 1,277 caregivers participating in the IDEAL cohort at the first wave of assessment. There were 1,256 (81.5%) people with dementia living with others and 285 (18.5%) living alone, of whom 51 (3% of whole sample) reported little or no informal support. There were relatively few differences associated with living situation and odds ratios were generally small. People living alone were older on average, and more likely to be female, than those living with others. Those living alone were more likely to have higher cognitive ability and self-reported functional ability, and more social contact with those from other households. They were also lonelier, expressed less satisfaction with life, and used home care services and equipment more. There were no differences in symptoms, mood, quality of life, or well-being. The findings support the view that it is possible to 'live well' with mild-to-moderate dementia while living alone, given appropriate support, including home care and equipment. Nevertheless, it is important to consider how those living alone may be supported to have a more satisfactory experience, and how health and social care services can best respond to their needs.