• A practical guide to Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in health care: making the most of the team and its meetings

      Ashley, L.J.; Armitage, Gerry R.; Neary M; Hollingsworth, G (2010)
      Background Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a proactive risk assessment tool used to identify potential vulnerabilities in complex, high-risk processes and to generate remedial actions before the processes result in adverse events. FMEA is increasingly used to proactively assess and improve the safety of complex health care processes such as drug administration and blood transfusion. A central feature of FMEA is that it is undertaken by a multidisciplinary team, and because it entails numerous analytical steps, it takes a series of several meetings. Composing a team of busy health care professionals with the appropriate knowledge, skill mix, and logistical availability for regular meetings is, however, a serious challenge. Despite this, information and advice on FMEA team assembly and meetings scheduling are scarce and diffuse and often presented without the accompanying rationale. The Multidisciplinary Team Assemble an eight-member team composed of clinically active health care staff, from every profession involved in delivery of the process—and who regularly perform it; staff from a range of seniority levels; outsider(s) to the process—and perhaps even to health care; a leader (and facilitator); and researchers. Scheduling Plan for 10–15 hours of team meeting time for first-time, narrowly defined FMEAs, scheduled as four to six meetings lasting 2 to 3 hours each, spaced weekly to biweekly. Meet in a venue that seats the team around one table and is off the hospital floor but within its grounds. Conclusions FMEA, generally acknowledged to be a useful addition to the patient safety toolkit, is a meticulous and time- and resource-intensive methodology, and its successful completion is highly dependent on the team members’ aptitude and on the facility’s and team members’ commitment to hold regular, productive meetings.
    • The concept of spiritual care in mental health nursing

      Greasley, Peter; Chiu, L.F.; Gartland, M. (2001)
      In this paper we aim to clarify the issue of spiritual care in the context of mental health nursing. Background. The concept of spirituality in nursing has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, despite many articles addressed to the issue, spiritual care remains poorly understood amongst nursing professionals and, as a result, spiritual needs are often neglected within the context of health care. Methods. A series of focus groups was conducted to obtain the views of service users, carers and mental health nursing professionals about the concept of spirituality and the provision of spiritual care in mental health nursing. Results. According to the views expressed in our focus groups, spiritual care relates to the acknowledgement of a person¿s sense of meaning and purpose to life which may, or may not, be expressed through formal religious beliefs and practices. The concept of spiritual care was also associated with the quality of interpersonal care in terms of the expression of love and compassion towards patients. Concerns were expressed that the ethos of mental health nursing and the atmosphere of care provision were becoming less personal, with increasing emphasis on the `mechanics of nursing¿. Conclusions. The perceived failure of service providers to attend adequately to this component of care may be symptomatic of a medical culture in which the more readily observable and measurable elements in care practice have assumed a prominence over the more subjective, deeply personal components. In order for staff to acknowledge these issues it is argued that a more holistic approach to care should be adopted, which would entail multidisciplinary education in spiritual care.
    • A scoping review: Strategic workforce planning in health and social care

      Prowse, Julie M.; Sutton, Claire; Eyers, Emma; Montague, Jane; Faisal, Muhammad; Neagu, Daniel; Elshehaly, Mai; Randell, Rebecca (2022-04)
      Aim This aim of this scoping review was to undertake a detailed review of the pertinent literature examining strategic workforce planning in the health and social care sectors. The scoping review was tasked to address the following three questions: 1. How is strategic health and social care workforce planning currently undertaken? 2. What models, methods, and tools are available for supporting strategic health and social care workforce planning? 3. What are the most effective methods for strategic health and social care workforce planning? Methods The scoping review utilised the five-stage scoping review framework proposed by Arksey and O’Malley (2005). This includes identifying the research question; identifying relevant studies; study selection; charting the data and collating, summarizing, and reporting the results. The search included a range of databases and key search terms included “workforce” OR “human resource*” OR “personnel” OR “staff*”. Relevant documents were selected through initially screening titles and abstracts, followed by full text screening of potentially relevant documents. Results The search returned 6105 unique references. Based on title and abstract screening, 654 were identified as potentially relevant. Screening of full texts resulted in 115 items of literature being included in the synthesis. Both national and international literature covers strategic workforce planning, with all continents represented, but with a preponderance from high income nations. The emphasis in the literature is mainly on the healthcare workforce, with few items on social care. Medical and dental workforces are the predominate groups covered in the literature, although nursing and midwifery are also discussed. Other health and social care workers are less represented. A variety of categories of workforce planning methods are noted in the literature that range from determining the workforce using supply and demand, practitioner to population ratios, needs based approach, the utilisation of methods such as horizon scanning, modelling, and scenario planning, together with mathematical and statistical modelling. Several of the articles and websites include specific workforce planning models that are nationally and internationally recognised, e.g., the workload indicators of staffing needs (WISN), Star model and the Six Step Methodology. These models provide a series of steps to help with workforce planning and tend to take a more strategic view of the process. Some of the literature considers patient safety and quality in relation to safe staffing numbers and patient acuity. The health and social care policies reviewed include broad actions to address workforce planning, staff shortages or future service developments and advocate a mixture of developing new roles, different ways of working, flexibility, greater integrated working and enhanced used of digital technology. However, the policies generally do not include workforce models or guidance about how to achieve these measures. Overall, there is an absence in the literature of studies that evaluate what are the most effective methods for strategic health and social care planning. Recommendations The literature suggests the need for the implementation of a strategic approach to workforce planning, utilising a needs-based approach, including horizon scanning and scenarios. This could involve adoption of a recognised workforce planning model that incorporates the strategic elements required for workforce planning and a ‘one workforce’ approach across health and social care.