• The Caregiver Health Effects of Caring for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-analysis

      Masefield, S.C.; Prady, S.L.; Sheldon, T.A.; Small, Neil A.; Jarvis, S.; Pickett, K.E. (2020-02)
      Mothers of school age and older children with developmental disabilities experience poorer health than mothers of typically developing children. This review assesses the evidence for the effect on mothers' health of caring for young children with developmental disabilities, and the influence of different disability diagnoses and socioeconomic status. Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched. Studies measuring at least one symptom, using a quantitative scale, in mothers of preschool children (0-5 years) with and without a diagnosed developmental disability were selected. Random effects meta-analysis was performed, and predictive intervals reported due to high expected heterogeneity. The meta-analysis included 23 estimates of association from 14 retrospective studies for the outcomes of stress (n = 11), depressive symptoms (n = 9), general health (n = 2) and fatigue (n = 1). Caring for a child with a developmental disability was associated with greater ill health (standardised mean difference 0.87; 95% predictive interval - 0.47, 2.22). The largest association was for mixed developmental disabilities (1.36; - 0.64, 3.36) and smallest for Down syndrome (0.38; - 2.17, 2.92). There was insufficient socioeconomic information to perform subgroup analysis. The small number of studies and data heterogeneity limited the precision of the estimates of association and generalizability of the findings. Mothers of young children with developmental disabilities may have poorer health than those with typically developing children. Research is needed to identify whether the relationship is causal and, if so, interventions that could reduce the negative effect of caregiving.
    • A Comprehensive Model of Factors Associated with Capability to "live Well" for Family Caregivers of People Living with Mild-to-Moderate Dementia: Findings from the IDEAL Study

      Clare, L.; Wu, Y.-T.; Quinn, Catherine; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Litherland, R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; et al. (2019)
      Understanding key influences on outcomes for caregivers of people with dementia is hampered by inconsistent conceptualization and measurement of outcomes and limited evidence about the relative impact of different variables. We aimed to address these issues. We analyzed data from 1283 caregivers of community-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life cohort study. We generated a “living well” latent factor from measures of quality of life, satisfaction with life, and well-being. We used structural equation modelling to derive latent variables for 7 domains reflecting caregivers’ perceptions of their personal resources and experiences, and to examine the associations with caregivers’ perceptions of their capability to “live well.” The domain of psychological characteristics and psychological health was most strongly related to living well [2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.08-2.97], followed by physical fitness and physical health (1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-1.91) and experiencing caregiving (1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.70). Social capitals, assets and resources (0.68; 95% CI, 0.35-1.00) and relationship with the person with dementia (−0.22; 95% CI, −0.41 to −0.03) had smaller, significant associations. Social location (0.28; 95% CI, −0.33 to 0.89) and managing everyday life with dementia (0.06; 95% CI, −0.15 to 0.28) were not significantly associated with living well. These findings demonstrate the importance of supporting caregivers’ psychological and physical health and their ability to develop and maintain positive coping strategies, as well as enabling them to maintain vital social capitals, assets and resources.
    • HARP (Health for Asylum Seekers and Refugees) project interim evaluation

      Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Balaam, M.C.; Mathew, D.; Big Lottery (Refugee Council, 2020-09)
    • Innovation in teaching and learning in health higher education - literature review.

      Dearnley, Christine A.; McClelland, Gabrielle T.; Irving, Donna (2013)
      The landscape for health professional education is changing. The higher education (HE) sector faces the challenge of delivering high quality education at a time of financial constraint and increased emphasis on the student as a consumer. But universities also face new expectations from a health sector that is increasingly recognising both the interdependency between the quality of health care and the quality of education and training and the potential for education to support innovation. Although the differences in the HE and health policy context across the four UK home nations are increasingly significant, these are common challenges for all 85 members of the UK Council of Deans of Health. ... The literature review throws up many interesting findings. It is striking that there is relatively little research evidence on assessment or practice oriented innovative teaching and learning interventions, nationally or internationally. So too, the gaps revealed in the evidence base around the culture of innovation are something that we will pursue as a project group with a further literature review in 2014. However, the literature review reveals a rich body of research, covering areas as diverse as simulation, social media, drama and peer learning. Our hope is that the findings will help colleagues across the UK to track down the research evidence behind existing innovative practice and that it will stimulate many new ideas as we seek to continually improve the way we teach. Professor Brian J. Webster, Assistant Dean, Edinburgh Napier University and Chair, Innovation Project Advisory Group.
    • The long-term (24-month) effect on health and well-being of the Lifestyle Matters community-based intervention in people aged 65 years and over: a qualitative study

      Chatters, R.; Roberts, J.; Mountain, Gail; Cook, S.; Windle, G.; Craig, C.; Sprange, K. (2017-09)
      Objectives To assess the long-term effect on health and well-being of the Lifestyle Matters programme. Design Qualitative study of a subset of intervention arm participants who participated in the Lifestyle Matters randomised controlled trial (RCT). Setting The intervention took place at community venues within two sites in the UK. Participants A purposeful sample of 13 participants aged between 66 and 88 years from the intervention arm of the RCT were interviewed at 24 months post randomisation. Interviews aimed to understand how participants had used their time in the preceding 2 years and whether the intervention had any impact on their lifestyle choices, participation in meaningful activities and well-being. Intervention Lifestyle Matters is a 4-month occupational therapy intervention, consisting of group and individual sessions, designed to enable community living older people to make positive lifestyle choices and participate in new or neglected activities through increasing self-efficacy. Results Interviews revealed that the majority of interviewed participants were reportedly active at 24 months, with daily routines and lifestyles not changing significantly over time. All participants raised some form of benefit from attending Lifestyle Matters, including an improved perspective on life, trying new hobbies and meeting new friends. A number of intervention participants spoke of adapting to their changing circumstances, but there were significant and lasting benefits for 2 of 13 intervention participants interviewed. Conclusion The majority of those who experienced the Lifestyle Matters intervention reported minor benefits and increases in self-efficacy, but they did not perceive that it significantly improved their health and well-being. The two participants who had experienced major benefits also reported having had life-changing events, suggesting that this intervention is most effective at the time when lifestyle has to be reconsidered if mental well-being is to be sustained.
    • Using text messages to support recovering substance misusers

      McClelland, Gabrielle T.; Duffy, P.; Davda, P. (2018-09)
      Background: The use of digital technology in health and social care is developing rapidly. It is promoted in UK policy and research which suggests varied results surrounding its implementation and outcomes. Introduction: This article aimed to test the implementation and outcomes of a short messaging service sent to a dedicated phone. The target cohort were drug treatment clients in two sites in Northern England. Materials and methods: Through staff focus groups and interviews with a small cohort of clients, the implementation and perceptions of the system were examined. Results: Nineteen participants were recruited to site 1 (15 male, 4 female, average age=37.7 years) and 12 participants were recruited to site 2 (9 male, 3 female, average age=40.3 years). One outcome that was of interest was well-being in treatment which, in this study, was described as an overall sense of feeling better rather than just focusing on the rehabilitation aspect of the programme. Other outcomes included: the successful completion of treatment and any relapse or associated reported drug use. Discussion: The system shows some evidence of its ‘social actor’ role; however, its implementation was hindered by staff citing that it called for increased resources. For future implementation the use of client’s own phones may be considered which may help to embed the system more fully in recovery planning and targeting clients at a different treatment stage. Conclusions: Despite some indications of positive results for clients and a perception that the system may have value as an addition to existing clinical interventions, more evaluation is required to determine whether this system can be implemented in a drug treatment setting.