Now showing items 21-40 of 1532

    • Development of dry powder Inhaler and nebulised nanoparticles formulations of chrysin for the potential treatment of asthma. Development of dry powder inhaler of chrysin and nebulised nanoemulsion combination of chrysin and budesonide; Evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the combination formulation of chrysin and budesonide for asthma

      Assi, Khaled H.; Paradkar, Anant R; Oum, Rahaf (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
      Chrysin is a flavonoid that can be used as a medication for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to its anti-inflammatory activities. However, no studies have investigated the effectiveness of an inhaled formulation of chrysin on its own or in combination with corticosteroids. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the aerosol performance of chrysin formulations as well as the performance of combined formulations of chrysin and budesonide. Dry powder inhaler formulations were used first, where chrysin was processed using three different techniques, namely ball-milling, sonocrystallisation, and spray drying, to obtain a suitable particle size for inhalation. The highest fine particle fraction was 27% when the sonocrystallised samples were used. As the lung deposition was relatively low, budesonide was not added to the formulations. Next, liquid formulations of chrysin and budesonide were prepared in two concentrations using limonene and oleic acid as the oil phase. In a comparison of low and high drug concentrations of the formulations, the FPF of the formulations prepared with limonene ranged from 45% to 53.3% and from 49.3% to 53.9% for chrysin and budesonide, respectively; by contrast, the FPF of the formulations prepared with oleic acid oil ranged from 41% to 50.4% and from 46% to 53.3% for chrysin and budesonide, respectively. A genotoxicity study confirmed the safety of these combined formulations, and an anti-inflammatory study confirmed the potential for chrysin to be used with budesonide in a combined formulation; thus, chrysin’s anti-inflammatory efficacy can be improved and the required inhaled dose can be reduced.
    • Design, Investigation and Implementation of Hetrogenous Antennas for Diverse Wireless Applications. Simulation and Measurement of Heterogeneous Antennas for Outdoor/indoor Applications, including the Design of Dielectric Resonators, Reconfigurable and multiband DR antennas, and Investigation of Antenna Radiation Performance and Design Optimization

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Kosha , Jamal S.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      The main goals of this thesis are to design and examine heterogeneous antennas for different wireless applications of a wide variety of EM spectrum requirements: which includes WLAN 5.0 GHz, WLAN (2.45 GHz), UMTS (1.92-2.17 GHz), 2G, UMTS, LTE, ultra-wideband (UWB) applications, and MBAN applications (2.4 GHz). Various techniques for expanding bandwidth, enhancing performance, and balancing the operation have been examined through comprehensive simulated and physically fabricated models. Thereafter, a compact DRA, for UWB applications is examined. The combined resultant effects of asymmetric positioning of DRs (2, 3 and 4 Cylindrical elements), defected ground technique, dimensions, and profile of the aperture give RF designers detailed scope of the optimization process. More resonances are achieved, and the bandwidth is improved. The obtained results show that, an impedance bandwidth of 133.0%, which covers the Ultra­ Wideband band (3.6GHz - 18.0GHz), with a maximum power gain of 9dBi attained. In addition, a compact conformal wearable CPW antenna using EBG-FSS for MBAN applications at 2.4GHz is proposed. They are designed using fabric materials suitable for daily clothing. The performance of the antenna is investigated in free space, on a layered biological tissue model, and on a real human body to evaluate SAR. When the antenna is combined with an EBG-FSS structure, isolation between the antenna and the human body is introduced. The results show that the FBR is enhanced by 13 dB, the gain by 6.55dBi, and the SAR is lowered by more than 94%. The CPW antenna demonstrated here is appropriate for future MBAN wearable systems. The design, investigation, and application of water level monitoring utilizing subsurface wireless sensor are covered in this thesis. A wideband double inverted-F antenna is designed and examined to overcome signal attenuation issues. The obtained result is feasible, which has an operating bandwidth of 0.8 to 2.17GHz, with a reflection coefficient better than 10 dB. Moreover, a field trial is conducted to evaluate the robustness of the antenna under extreme conditions. A very good efficiency was also demonstrated, with losses of under 20%. Further, the results from the field experiment established that the antenna is a reliable contender for wireless communication in such challenging environments.
    • The Neolithic Settlement of the Yorkshire Dales

      Gaffney, Vincent L.; Hallam, Deborah L. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeology. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2023)
    • Automatic Burns Analysis Using Machine Learning

      Ugail, Hassan; Abubakar, Aliyu (University of BradfordSchool of Media Design and Technology. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      Burn injuries are a significant global health concern, causing high mortality and morbidity rates. Clinical assessment is the current standard for diagnosing burn injuries, but it suffers from interobserver variability and is not suitable for intermediate burn depths. To address these challenges, machine learning-based techniques were proposed to evaluate burn wounds in a thesis. The study utilized image-based networks to analyze two medical image databases of burn injuries from Caucasian and Black-African cohorts. The deep learning-based model, called BurnsNet, was developed and used for real-time processing, achieving high accuracy rates in discriminating between different burn depths and pressure ulcer wounds. The multiracial data representation approach was also used to address data representation bias in burn analysis, resulting in promising performance. The ML approach proved its objectivity and cost-effectiveness in assessing burn depths, providing an effective adjunct for clinical assessment. The study's findings suggest that the use of machine learning-based techniques can reduce the workflow burden for burn surgeons and significantly reduce errors in burn diagnosis. It also highlights the potential of automation to improve burn care and enhance patients' quality of life.
    • Study of Linkage between Indoor Air Quality along with Indoor Activities and the Severity of Asthma Symptoms in Asthma Patients

      Thakker, Dhaval; Mishra, Bhupesh K.; Konur, Savas; John, Reena (University of BradfordDepartment of Computer Science. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2023)
      Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease affecting millions of people worldwide, can vary in severity depending on individual triggers such as Carbon Dioxide, Particulate Matter, dust mites, tobacco smoke, and indoor household activities such as cooking, cleaning, use of heating, and window opening, which can have a negative impact on indoor air quality (IAQ) and exacerbate asthma symptoms. Investigating the relationship between IAQ and asthma severity, a case study was conducted on five asthmatic participants from Bradford, UK. IAQ was measured using IoT indoor air quality monitoring devices. Indoor activities were recorded using a daily household activities questionnaire, and asthma severity was assessed using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). Machine learning prediction models were used to analyse various IAQ parameters, such as particulate matter, carbon dioxide, and humidity levels, to identify the most significant predictors of asthma severity with IAQ. The study aimed to develop targeted interventions to improve IAQ and reduce the burden of asthma. Results showed that higher asthma severity scores were associated with increased indoor activity and higher levels of indoor air pollution. Some interventions were implemented to improve ventilation hours, significantly improving IAQ and reducing asthma symptoms, particularly those with more severe asthma. The findings indicate that interventions targeting IAQ, and indoor activities can effectively reduce asthma severity, with up to a 60% reduction in symptoms for asthma patients.
    • Contributions to Engineering Big Data Transformation, Visualisation and Analytics. Adapted Knowledge Discovery Techniques for Multiple Inconsistent Heterogeneous Data in the Domain of Engine Testing

      Not named; Jenkins, Natasha N. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computer Science. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      In the automotive sector, engine testing generates vast data volumes that are mainly beneficial to requesting engineers. However, these tests are often not revisited for further analysis due to inconsistent data quality and a lack of structured assessment methods. Moreover, the absence of a tailored knowledge discovery process hinders effective preprocessing, transformation, analytics, and visualization of data, restricting the potential for historical data insights. Another challenge arises from the heterogeneous nature of test structures, resulting in varying measurements, data types, and contextual requirements across different engine test datasets. This thesis aims to overcome these obstacles by introducing a specialized knowledge discovery approach for the distinctive Multiple Inconsistent Heterogeneous Data (MIHData) format characteristic of engine testing. The proposed methods include adapting data quality assessment and reporting, classifying engine types through compositional features, employing modified dendrogram similarity measures for classification, performing customized feature extraction, transformation, and structuring, generating and manipulating synthetic images to enhance data visualization, and applying adapted list-based indexing for multivariate engine test summary data searches. The thesis demonstrates how these techniques enable exploratory analysis, visualization, and classification, presenting a practical framework to extract meaningful insights from historical data within the engineering domain. The ultimate objective is to facilitate the reuse of past data resources, contributing to informed decision-making processes and enhancing comprehension within the automotive industry. Through its focus on data quality, heterogeneity, and knowledge discovery, this research establishes a foundation for optimized utilization of historical Engine Test Data (ETD) for improved insights.
    • Assessment of Thermally Enhanced Geo-Energy Piles and Walls

      Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Elkezza, Omar A.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2023)
      Geo-energy piles and walls have long been recognized as a promising way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions while providing renewable energy. However, enhancing the thermal performance of these structures has remained a signif-icant challenge. This thesis evaluated five different approaches to improving the thermal performance of geo-energy piles and walls, through a series of experiments using a fully instrumented testing rig. The first approach involved adding graphTHERM powder to concrete to double its thermal conductivity, boosting heat transfer efficiency by an impressive 50% to 66%. The second approach tested slag-based geopolymer concrete as a sustainable construc-tion material for geo-energy piles and walls, reducing CO2 emissions by 44.5% while improving thermal performance by 14% to 21%. The third approach in-volved testing thermally enhanced soils at the geo-energy structures/soil inter-face, resulting in an 81% improvement in heat transfer efficiency. The fourth approach utilized innovative phase change material (PCM) heat exchangers that increased heat transfer efficiency by 75% and 43% in heating and cooling operations, respectively. Finally, incorporated PCM-impregnated light weight aggregates at the interface of the structure soil, significantly increasing tem-perature difference and reducing thermal deformation of geo-energy struc-tures.Overall, these innovative approaches made a significant contribution to enhancing the thermal performance of geo-energy piles and walls. However, approaches four and five, which involve utilizing PCM heat exchangers and PCM-impregnated LWA's, respectively, showed extra benefits in dropping the thermal effect on soils and reducing the thermal damage on those structures. These techniques offer great promise for improving the thermal performance of geo-energy structures.
    • The role of Ten Eleven Translocation enzymes in the hair follicle mesenchyme

      Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Thornton, M. Julie; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Ahmed, Aqib (University of BradfordCentre for Skin Sciences. Faculty of Life Science, 2022)
      Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role during the morphogenesis of the hair follicle and the hair cycle. Work on hair regeneration is of importance as no products are available which can provide complete reversal of hair loss. Tet2 promotes DNA demethylation by the hydroxylation of 5mC to 5hmC which in turn causes gene transcription activation. Dermal papilla (DP) cells located within the hair follicle are responsible for the regulation of development and the growth of hair follicles. Fgf20 signalling controls commitment of the mesenchymal precursor cells to the DP progenitor lineage. An immature DP cells is then formed during maturation by Shh signalling which then stimulates these to differentiate into a DP cell by BMP and Wnt signalling. Methylated DNA can be bound by the proteins recruiting transcription corepressors. DNA methyltransferases (DNMT’s) can be degraded by decitabine which reverses gene silencing. Conditional knockout of Tet2 in mouse DP cells results in a delay in anagen initiation, suggesting Tet2 is involved in the telogen-anagen transition. Additionally, by using dermal fibroblasts and RA-DPAC (Dermal Papilla activating medium supplemented with retinoic acid), it was found that decitabine can increase plasticity in dermal fibroblasts and RA-DPAC can be used to accelerate a lineage change to DP cells which is supported by the significant increase in the DP specific gene expression. Examples include AlPl, LEF1, BMP4/6/7, FGF10, BMPR1A and PDGFA. Additionally, by way of siRNA and conditional Tet2 knockout data in dermal fibroblasts, it was found Tet2 regulates signature DP genes such as Bmpr1a, ALPL, Tcf4 and SOX2.
    • Flexural Behaviour of Geopolymer Concrete T-beams Reinforced with FRP or Hybrid FRP/Steel bars

      Sheehan, Therese; Ashour, Ashraf; Hasan, Mohamad A.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
    • Design and Implementation of Reconfigurable and MIMO Antennas for Future Heterogeneous Wireless Systems

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Elfergani, Issa T.; Mshwat, Widad F.A.G.A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2024-04-10)
    • Planning and Operation of Hybrid AC-DC Microgird with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

      Mokryani, Geev; Baseer, Muhammad (University of BradfordSchool of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      A hybrid ac/dc microgrid is a more complex but practical network that combines the advantages of an AC and a DC system. The main advantage of this network is that it connects both alternating current and direct current networks via an interlinking converter (IC) to form a unified distribution grid. The hybrid microgrid (HMG) will enable the direct integration of both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) distributed generators (DGs), energy storage systems (ESS), and alternating current and direct current (DC) loads into the grid. The alternating current and direct current sources, loads, and ESS are separated and connected to their respective subgrids primarily to reduce power conversion and thus increase overall system efficiency. As a result, the HMG architecture improves power quality and system reliability. Planning a hybrid microgrid entails estimating the capacities of DGs while taking technical, economic, and environmental factors into account. The hybrid ac-dc microgrid is regarded as the distribution network of the future, as it will benefit from both ac and dc microgrids. This thesis presents a general architecture of a hybrid ac-dc microgrid, which includes both planning and design. The goal of the Hybrid ac-dc microgrid planning problem is to maximise social welfare while minimising total planning costs such as investment, maintenance, and operation costs. This configuration will assist Hybrid microgrid planners in estimating planning costs while allowing them to consider any type of load ac/dc and DER type. Finally, this thesis identifies the research questions and proposes a future research plan.
    • Characterisation of Cutaneous Wound Healing Process in Naked Mole Rats

      Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Fatima, Iqra (University of BradfordSchool of Chemistry and Biosciences. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
      Being the longest-lived rodent, naked mole-rats (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) are an exceptional model for biogerontological research. However, unlike other rodents, not much is known about their wound healing process. To investigate that, full-thickness wounds were created in the back skin of naked mole rats. Our initial data confirmed that wound closure in NMR skin was achieved primarily by reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation, with only ~26% wound contraction, making them an excellent model to study human cutaneous wound healing. Similar to mice and human skin, changes in wound epithelial tongue included progressive enlargement of wound epithelium, increased proliferation and changes in the expression pattern of epidermal markers including K14, K17, integrin α6 and E-cadherin. Further analysis revealed characteristics of reduced scarring in NMR wounds including low collagen I to III ratio, increased HA expression (HMW) and increased fibronectin expression. Transcriptional profiling of TGFβ isoforms and different pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a balance in the expression and repression of different cytokines, potentially contributing into reduced scarring. Comparison of RNA-seq data from NMR and human fullthickness wounds revealed a delay in the activation of important biological processes and pathways in NMR skin in response to injury. Further analysis based on cultured human and NMR cells revealed differential regulation of TGFβ signalling pathway between both species. 3-D collagen gel contraction assay revealed that NMR fibroblast showed noticeable contraction but independently of TGFβ treatment, while human fibroblast showed marked increased in gel contraction in the presence of TGFβ. In conclusion, NMR can serve as a very useful model to study human cutaneous wound healing. The reduced scarring in NMR could be a result of multiple factors including HMW-HA, balanced cytokine expression and differential regulation of different TGFβ cytokines as observed in the in vitro studies.
    • Designing and Building a Novel Magnetic Heating System to Investigate the Dependence of the Magnetic System and the Optical Emission from Nanoparticles

      Drake, Philip; Swift, Thomas; Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Algaddafi, Ali E. (University of BradfordSchool of Chemistry and Biosciences. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
      A Magnetic Heating Coil (MHC) has been designed, which has the potential to interact with magnetic Nanoparticles (NPs) to produce local temperature changes. The aim is to design a device capable of studying medically targeted magnetic-fluorescent core-shell NPs (with potential applications in cancer therapy via hyperthermia). Very little is known about how the magnetic-fluorescent NPs respond to magnetic fields and the effect this would have on their optical properties, therefore, considerable work is still required in order to understand the detailed interactions. Several modelling and simulations of the MHC were conducted besides developing the MHC that was designed and built for small samples of NPs (1-10ml volumes). Two different heating coil geometries were examined (coil A and coil B), where the former operates at 83 kHz and the latter operates at 125 kHz. Several tests for fluorescent emission, lifetime and anisotropy with several different NPs samples were conducted. We found that as the temperature increased from 5 °C to 45 °C, the fluorescence lifetime dropped from 3.8 ns to 3.6 ns. Also, the correlation time of the fluorescence in dilute solutions with varying temperatures from 20 °C to 40 °C was investigated, and it was found that decreased from 0.9 ns to 0.6 ns showing that the rotational diffusion of the dye increased and the molecules become more mobile. The MNPs were found to quench the fluorescent emission at high concentrations. Also, the MNPs induce only a small change in a lifetime from 3.9 ns to 3.4 ns.
    • A Strategic Public Diplomacy Framework for Enhancing Implementation of Public Diplomacy Practice in the Diplomatic Field of Qatar

      Shahi, Afshin; Alhamar, Nasser A.J. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2023)
      The role of Public Diplomacy (PD) in conducting foreign relations has emerged as a critical component for modern statecraft, foreign policy and arguably for the state’s global existence. With the world now more interconnected than ever before, public diplomacy has taken on new meaning and new importance. However, despite these marked shifts, public diplomacy remains under-researched and under-utilised both as a concept and as a vital activity. The complexities that underscore the development and evolution of public diplomacy within a dynamic international milieu therefore warrant renewed attention. The benefits and opportunities that accompany public diplomacy are equally complicated by a number of challenges to its practice. This research identifies and advances a critical understanding of public diplomacy through a theoretically rigorous perspective that accounts for the fluid environment in which it operates, the evolving nature of stakeholders and audiences involved in shaping it, the sweeping impact of global information and communications development, the persistence of cultural divides and conflicts of interests and how they contribute to the lack of strategic frameworks in place to advance public diplomacy practice. This thesis investigates Qatar as a case study due to its international stature and influence despite it being a small geographical state. Renowned for its international role as a leading actor in conflict reconciliation and commended for its contributions to international humanitarianism, the ambitious, forward-looking and steadfast foreign policy of Qatar has faced increased pressure in recent years. Qatar has encountered significant challenges in the form of the Nepali workers’ crisis that ensued following its selection as host for FIFA World Cup 2022 and with the diplomatic siege against it by a number of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. This study critically analyses Qatar’s public diplomacy practice considering these pressing developments and advances an original strategic public diplomacy framework that can assist Qatar in managing and mitigating the effect of these crises on its global image and reputation. This research contributes to enhancing public diplomacy practice within the diplomatic context of statecraft and foreign policy by developing a nuanced and original framework that can be utilised by Qatar and other states to manage and mitigate modern public diplomacy challenges. The thesis utilises a mixed-methods research approach that includes literature reviews, media analyses, interviews and questionnaires. The study contributes to knowledge and practice by advancing research in an understudied field and by developing and implementing an original strategic PD empowerment framework.
    • The development and validation of a brand-building framework for platform-centric startups

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Roshanzamir, Amir H. (University of BradfordSchool of Management. Faculty of Management, Law, and Social Sciences, 2022)
      Platform-centric startups that generate value by facilitating interactions between two or more interdependent groups digitally transform and disrupt the business environment, leading to significant changes in how people purchase, sell, communicate, and even live. Some of these, such as Uber and Airbnb, have become among the most beloved and successful brands, though they had serious challenges in building up their brands at the early stages due to lack of resources. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a framework of branding in platform-centric startups by identifying the pillars of brand‐building and linking the relevant factors. This study employs qualitative method to propose a four-level framework including passion, innovation, co-creation, and moralization for brand-building in startups. The novelty of this framework reveals that the locus of brand-building is gradually expanding from the founders to the company, then to the customers, and finally to a larger societal constituency. The framework can assist founders and stakeholders in monitoring the growth of a new venture in the real business world while guiding branding scholars to investigate the discipline of startup branding.
    • Competence and Professional Advancement in Computed Tomography (ComPACT)

      Hardy, Maryann L.; Scally, Andy J.; Harris, Martine A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2022)
      Background: Evolving technology, practice boundaries, and models of service provision have changed what the diagnostic radiography workforce in Computed Tomography (CT) need to know and be able to do at different career stages. It is unknown whether existing UK educational and practice frameworks support CT roles, or how organisational role descriptors constitute CT competence. Aims: The study explores multiple stakeholder perspectives of competent practice in diagnostic radiography and CT using this information to generate and gain consensus on novel modality-specific skills for the four-tier radiography structure. Methods: Study 1: Document analysis of published UK educational and practice frameworks using content and framework analysis. Study 2: Document analysis of UK CT role descriptors using a context analytical approach. Study 3: Modified e-Delphi study to gain consensus on novel technical and clinical CT practice competencies. Results: Existing radiography competencies were classified into 3 themes: delivering person-centred care; applying technical principles, quality and efficiency; and ensuring best practice. Generic competencies endorsed by professional and regulatory bodies were not consistently replicated within organisational role descriptors. CT practice expectations are ambiguous and modified from radiographic competencies. Modified e-Delphi panellists provided judgement on 215 practice competencies and advanced capabilities which have been refined and organised into a coherent framework. Conclusions: The ComPACT framework formalises the tacit technical knowledge, clinical competencies and professional capabilities that specifically address the practice area of CT. Further work is required to validate the framework and define educational standards, but there is potential to influence future graduates, workforce development and national standards.
    • The role of CCR7 axis in facilitating chemoresistance, radioresistance and induction of cell proliferation in cancer

      Afarinkia, Kamyar; Vinader, Victoria; Shnyder, Steven; Salem, Anwar S.A.S. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics. School of Pharmacy. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2021)
      Chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that play a multifaceted role in human biology. Chemokine receptor CCR7, activated by its ligands CCL19 & CCL21, is known to play a significant role in cancer metastasis. In view of the wider roles that chemokines play in the biology of the cell, we hypothesised that CCR7 could influence cancer progression through other mechanisms in particular increased proliferation and/or increased chemo- and radioresistance, and whether these effects may have a physiological/clinical relevance. Interestingly, CXCR4 involvement in cancer recurrence, metastasis and proliferation is already well established. Thus, it was used as a point of reference to compare whether CCR7 axis effect on cancer proliferation and chemoresistance is similar to that observed in CXCR4 axis. It is proven that hypoxia is a driving factor in increased CCR7 expression. This study shows that CCR7 expression is upregulated as a response to a number of other stress factors, in particular that caused by different chemotherapeutic treatments. In addition, we showed that CCL21, one of the two endogenous ligands for CCR7 is similarly produced under these conditions We used several techniques to establish the expression and functionality of CCR7 and CXCR4 in different cancer cell lines. We then showed that activation of the CCR7 axis by physiologically relevant concentrations of CCL21 induces cancer cell proliferation and chemo- and radio-resistance. Furthermore, these effects are abrogated by small molecule antagonists (ICT13069), neutralizing monoclonal antibody, or CCR7 knockdown. Our findings support the hypothesis that antagonising CCR7 receptor will not only inhibit cancer metastasis, as it is well-illustrated in the literature, but it would also lead to alternative therapeutic approaches as well as potential clinical endpoints.
    • Synthesis and biological evaluation of MMP-activated anti-cancer prodrugs

      Falconer, Robert A.; Loadman, Paul; Banisalman, Katreen A.F. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2021)
    • Food Waste Reduction through Food Sharing Initiatives: The lived Experiences of Restaurants and Food Bank Employees in Riyadh

      Sharif, Amir M.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Eldabi, Tillal; Abdur-Rahim, Abdulwasih I. (University of BradfordSchool of Management. Faculty of Management, Law, and Social Sciences, 2023)
      Today’s world is characterised by considerable inconsistency. In some parts of the world people are living in starvation and malnutrition, while in some other parts of the same world, about 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted every year. We do not know enough about what contributes to food waste. However, there seems to be an emergent pattern of behaviour around sharing food. This hermeneutic phenomenological research will explore how food sharing might reduce food waste in a cultural and community-based society like Saudi Arabia through the lived experiences of restaurants and food bank employees. Research data were collected through a face-to-face semi-structured interview method from 15 participants from selected restaurants and food bank in Riyadh. Using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as the theoretical lens, a conceptual framework was proposed to elicit underlying behavioural and cultural factors impeding food waste reduction and the inefficiency of food sharing. Using Paul Colaizzi’s approach, the collected interview data were reviewed, analysed, and seventeen themes were elicited for further discussion. The findings suggest that culture through an affluent way of life and the show-off lifestyle of hosts continue to contribute to more food wastage. The strictly business nature of restaurants operation leads to edible food fit for human consumption ending up in the garbage. The revised conceptual framework provides insight into the factors hindering food waste reduction and food sharing. With supporting regulations and policies, food leftovers can either be distributed to people in need or put to an alternative use.
    • Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters and Thermomechanical Techniques to the Prediction of Miscibility of Amorphous Solid Dispersion. Investigating the role of cohesive energy and free volume to predict phase separation kinetics in hot-melt extruded amorphous solid dispersion using dynamic mechanical analyser, shear rheometer and solubility parameters data

      Isreb, Mohammad; Gough, Timothy D.; Timmins, Peter; Mousa, Mohamad A.M.R. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
      Hot-melt extruded solid dispersion technique is increasingly employed to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The technique relies on the enhanced solubility of the amorphous form of the drug compared to its crystalline counterpart. These systems however are thermodynamically unstable. This means that the drug crystallises with time. Therefore, efforts to measure the stability of these systems over the life span of the product are crucial. This study focused on investigating the use of Hansen Solubility Parameters to quantify polymer-drug interaction and to predict the stability of solid dispersions. This was achieved through a systematic review of hot-melt extruded solid dispersion literature. The study also investigated the use of a combined mechanical and rheological model to characterise the physicochemical and release behaviour of three solid dispersion immediately after preparation and after storage for one month at 40oC or three months at room temperature. Results revealed that the total solubility parameter |ΔбT| was able to predict the stability of the systems for more than 4 months using a cut-off point of 3 MPa-1 with a negative predictive value of 0.9. This was followed by ΔбD with a cut-off point of 1.5 MPa- 1. Moreover, Dynamic Mechanical Analyser and shear rheometry data were shown to be more sensitive than Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and Fourier Transform Infrared in detecting crystallisation and the interaction between the drug and the polymer. The Dynamic Mechanical Analyser data were consistent with the dissolution behaviour of the samples when comparing the freshly prepared samples with those after storage. The results highlight the need for a unified characterisation approach and the necessity of verifying the homogeneity of mixing during the extrusion process.