Now showing items 1-20 of 1527

    • Sustainable Transitions in Social Housing in England. The Development of a Theoretical Framework

      Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo; Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina; Anand, Prathivadi B.; Duvier, Caroline (University of BradfordDepartment of Civil and Structural Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      Social housing can play a large role for both the UK and global agenda to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Political and industry efforts to promote sustainability in social housing in England are sparse, despite a plethora of existing research. One reason for this might be the lack of integration of different actors and elements in social housing. This study aims to fill this gap by developing a theoretical framework that can help different actor groups involved in social housing in England identify connections and transition to sustainability. The framework is developed and validated using a mixed methods iterative approach, including a Delphi study to begin with. Results are validated using interviews and document search and analysed by using discourse analysis. Results indicate that the social housing system consists of six actor groups who all have different interpretations of sustainability. External pressures on the system consist mainly of central government policies. Niche innovations have not broken through to the system yet. Powerful actors consist of the construction and finance industry, who influence central government in terms of policy making. Power is closely aligned with financialisation of housing. Comparing results to research on transition pathways for sustainability, no such transitions can be observed in the social housing system. This study represents a first attempt to develop a theoretical framework where social housing is conceptualised as a system, investigating its key change processes. Recommendations are defined for key stakeholder groups regarding the relevance of the framework to investigate pathways for a transition to sustainable housing.
    • Optimisation of care transitions: Understanding coping strategies of South Asian family carers of a relative with advanced dementia

      Oyebode, Jan; Parveen, Sahdia; Rauf, Mohammed A. (University of BradfordCentre for Applied Dementia Studies. Faculty of Health Studies, 2023)
      Background With an expected increase of seven to eight-fold in the UK in the number of people from a Black Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) heritage living with dementia, there will be a similar increase in the number of family carers. Whilst policy and research have discussed issues pertaining to awareness and access issues for minoritised ethnic communities, there remains an under-representation of these communities in services. A lack of understanding on the part of service providers as to how services could meet the needs of these carers, together with a mistrust of services, leads to bias and misconceptions about dementia care amongst South Asian families. Added to this, migrant communities are now well established in the UK, yet little is understood about the factors impacting on care and coping in the face of discrimination and prejudice. This adds to the complexities of caring for older relatives living with dementia. Aims The aim of this doctorate was to develop an understanding of how South Asian families cope with caring transitions connected with the care needs of advancing dementia. Emotional and physical coping strategies require some elements of individual capability but also some external elements, such as information, support and access to services. This research set out to identify what, and how, it influenced South Asian family carers’ ability to cope, especially in the light of a lack of culturally appropriate services. I set out to explore these influences, as they are especially salient in the cultural context. The research explored how South Asian carers coped with transitions in dementia care whilst taking into consideration factors such family dynamics, cultural perspectives, values (including faith) and service provision. Design and methods I undertook two studies, both using a phenomenological methodology, underpinned by a social constructivist approach. The first study gathered retrospective accounts from former carers to identify key transitions in their experience of providing dementia care, and to identify factors to explore in a subsequent longitudinal study. It included in-depth semi-structured interviews with former carers from 5 families. The interviews were transcribed and then analysed using thematic analysis to identify key themes. These themes influenced the second study, where I interviewed carers from 7 South Asian families, who were actively caring for a relative living with advanced dementia. Four interviews took place bi-monthly with each family over a period of six months. Results Analysis identified a number of themes, which influence South Asian family carers’ ability to cope with the care needs of a relative living with advanced dementia. Study one identified five key themes, which were: stigma from family and community, access to information, appropriateness of services, expectations regarding caregiving, and attitudes arising from faith and religion regarding care provision. Family carers identified the transitioning aspects of South Asian communities themselves and how these influenced the adapting nature of culture, values and social norms in society. These include the changing nature and constructs associated with care and caregiving as care needs increase or become complicated, in relation to what is acceptable as care needs increase or become complicated. Study two incorporated findings of study one. Themes from the analysis identified some general factors, such as changing attitudes to cultural influences, faith-based impacts, carers’ own ability to cope with caring, coping as a family, gender-based influences, services and stigma as factors that impacted their coping experiences. Conclusion This PhD raised some interesting aspects relating to coping with care that included the value of nuanced approaches to understanding the needs of the family carers and their frustrations with barriers to accessing services that were associated with faith, gender and cultural expectations or obligations. There was a clear difference between the views of older South Asian family carers, who held more traditional values to providing care, and younger British-born carers, who saw their faith and values as not opposing their ability and desire to seek external sources of support, community or statutory services. The research therefore moves forward the previous discourse mainly restricted to awareness and attitudes. It moves it towards practical recommendations that can help support services to be more open-minded and tackle their own biases. Encouraging this, whilst taking into consideration aspects such as family-centred approaches or faith-based influences in supporting carers to better cope with the demands of caring for a relative with advancing dementia.
    • Behaviour of buried pipes adjacent to ground voids under dynamic loading

      Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Sheehan, Therese; Aljaberi, Mohammad S.A.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Civil and Structural Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2023)
      Protection of buried pipes is a serious issue that concerns countries around the world. Therefore, there is a need for new soil improvement techniques such as geosynthetic materials installation to protect these pipes from damage. This study used large-scale laboratory tests to study the behaviour of buried pipes. A total of 22 large-scale tests were performed to study the behaviour of buried flexible HDPE pipes with and without void presence under the protection of the geogrid reinforcing layers subjected to incrementally increasing cyclic loading. The presence of voids located at the spring-line of the flexible buried pipes, led to a considerable increase in the soil surface settlement, pressure recorded at the pipe crown, spring-line and invert, pipe deformation and strain recorded in the pipe wall. Increasing the pipe burial depth contributed to significant reductions in the soil surface settlement, pressure recorded at the pipe crown and invert, pipe deformation and strain recorded in the pipe wall. However, the void presence limited the contribution of increasing the pipe burial depth. The inclusion of a geogrid reinforcing layer contributed to a considerable reduction in the soil surface settlement, pressure recorded at the pipe crown, spring-line and invert, pipe deformation and strain recorded in the pipe wall. The use of a combination of geogrid reinforcing layers and increasing the pipe burial depth contributed in diminishing the ground void presence effect, where better pressure distribution inside the system was achieved. Consequently, more protection was provided to the buried pipe.
    • A State-of-the-Art Artificial intelligence model for Infectious Disease Outbreak Prediction. Infectious disease outbreak have been predicted in England and Wales using Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, and Fast Fourier Transform for COVID-19.

      Youseffi, Mansour; Li, Jian-Ping; Fayad, Moataz B.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2023)
      The pandemic produced by the COVID-19 virus has resulted in an estimated 6.4 million deaths worldwide and a rise in unemployment rates, notably in the UK. Healthcare monitoring systems encounter several obstacles when regulating and anticipating epidemics. The study aims to present the AF-HIDOP model, an artificial neural network Fast Fourier Transform hybrid technique, for the early identification and prediction of the risk of Covid-19 spreading within a specific time and region. The model consists of the following five stages: 1) Data collection and preprocessing from reliable sources; 2) Optimal machine learning algorithm selection, with the Random Forest tree (RF) classifier achieving 94.4% accuracy; 3) Dimensionality reduction utilising principal components analysis (PCA) to optimise the impact of the data volume; 4) Predicting case numbers utilising an artificial neural network model, with 52% accuracy; 5) Enhancing accuracy by incorporating Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) feature extraction and ANN, resulting in 91% accuracy for multi-level spread risk classification. The AF-HIDOP model provides prediction accuracy ranging from moderate to high, addressing issues in healthcare-based datasets and costs of computing, and may have potential uses in monitoring and managing infectious disease epidemics.
    • Predicate Calculus for Perception-led Automata

      Neagu, Daniel; Campean, I. Felician; Byrne, Thomas J. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Digital Technologies, 2023)
      Artificial Intelligence is a fuzzy concept. My role, as I see it, is to put down a working definition, a criterion, and a set of assumptions to set up equations for a workable methodology. This research introduces the notion of Artificial Intelligent Agency, denoting the application of Artificial General Intelligence. The problem being handled by mathematics and logic, and only thereafter semantics, is Self-Supervised Machine Learning (SSML) towards Intuitive Vehicle Health Management, in the domain of cybernetic-physical science. The present work stems from a broader engagement with a major multinational automotive OEM, where Intelligent Vehicle Health Management will dynamically choose suitable variants only to realise predefined variation points. Physics-based models infer properties of a model of the system, not properties of the implemented system itself. The validity of their inference depends on the models’ degree of fidelity, which is always an approximate localised engineering abstraction. In sum, people are not very good at establishing causality. To deduce new truths from implicit patterns in the data about the physical processes that generate the data, the kernel of this transformative technology is the intersystem architecture, occurring in-between and involving the physical and engineered system and the construct thereof, through the communication core at their interface. In this thesis it is shown that the most practicable way to establish causality is by transforming application models into actual implementation. The hypothesis being that the ideal source of training data for SSML, is an isomorphic monoid of indexical facts, trace-preserving events of natural kind.
    • A critical realist exploration of the mother’s subjective experience of her relationship with her baby. The importance of recognising and supporting reciprocity in infant care and the barriers to achieving this

      Not named; Milne, Elizabeth J.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2022)
      Research emphasises the importance of the mother-infant relationship for infants’ well-being. To benefit interventions, the current research, using a critical realist lens, investigates an area that research has neglected, which is the subjective experience of the mother-infant relationship, including experiences of moments of connection. Bourdieu’s ‘thinking tools’ enables exploration of mechanisms that may affect the mother-infant relationship. How the study’s results can inform health visiting practice is considered. Six mothers were interviewed, four of whom participated in a video of their mother-infant interaction. Two focus groups, each with six health visitors, discussed their practice in the context of supporting the mother-infant relationship. Interpretative phenomenological analysis and thematic analysis were employed. This research indicated a high arousal state, referred to as Vigilantia, was experienced by mothers and infants. Vigilantia appeared to support mothers’ drive to make sense of their young infants but also seemed associated with mothers’ reliance on a discourse of the ‘traditional baby’, which stressed instrumental care and omitted the relational infant. The mothers found it difficult to make sense of the “bizarre” relational connection they felt for their infants. Health visitors described obstacles to supporting the mother-infant relationship associated with their service’s design and their role. Health visitors also seemed to identify with some mothers and in doing so could overlook the infants. Neoliberal values discount the relational and these values affect the experience of the mother-infant relationship. Ideas for improving practice are suggested, as well as acknowledgment of the need for social structural changes.
    • Understanding Factors Facilitating the Diffusion of Financial Technology (FinTech) A Case Study of the Gulf Cooperation Council

      Omar, Amizan; Mahroof, Kamran; Hamadien, Ammar M. (University of BradfordSchool of Management. Faculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2022)
      This study focuses on the factors influencing the diffusion of FinTech in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, analysing both financial institutions and technology companies. The research acknowledges the challenges associated with the spread of FinTech and aims to address these issues. The research employs Institutional Theory. To achieve comprehensive insights, a qualitative technique is employed. The initial phase involves an extensive literature review to understand FinTech and identify gaps in academic research. Subsequently, the impact of PESTEL factors is highlighted based on the literature. In the third stage, semi-structured interviews are conducted with 25 participants, representing three to four individuals per country. The Thematic Analysis approach is employed to analyse the interview data. The study's findings reveal that several factors significantly influence the adoption of FinTech services as a preferred transaction method. Perceived utility, security, and social impact concerns are identified as drivers of behavioural intentions. Additionally, the technical attributes and ease of use of digital tools impact behavioural patterns. Furthermore, the innovation and technical features embedded within FinTech products and services contribute to their diffusion and acceptance. The research has practical implications for both academia and practitioners in the FinTech industry. It assists financial service providers and institutions in designing user-centric FinTech products and services. Enhancing security and usability is crucial to improving the user experience and consumer confidence. By considering technological and behavioural characteristics and analysing the impact of PESTEL elements, this study contributes to the existing literature on technology diffusion, providing valuable insights to academics and practitioners.
    • The role of the diagnostic radiographer in child safeguarding: Implications for education and practice. A multimethod exploration comprising quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify how diagnostic radiographers can contribute towards child safeguarding in an evolving clinical environment

      Wilson, Andrew S.; Snaith, Beverly; Hardy, Maryann L.; Beck, James J.W. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2021)
      Background- Diagnostic radiography is an established method of investigating child safeguarding concerns. The role of the radiographer in identifying signs that represent safeguarding concerns and acting as a conduit between the patient and other professionals is less well understood. Aims- To evaluate the role of the radiographer in child safeguarding. Establish the contributory factors that influence that role and identify the measures that can be taken to maximise the contribution that could be made to protect patients. Methods- A multimethod approach of two studies (KAP survey and semi-structured interviews) was implemented sequentially to permit the second study to be influenced by the results of the first. Results - An inconsistent knowledge base in terms of child safeguarding exists. A positive attitude towards the profession’s role was identified and an inference that the profession does contribute to the escalation process, albeit only exceptionally. Conclusion- Those in the earlier stages of their career are most in need of recognising suspicious appearances. Radiographic appearances are commensurate with the modality utilised and needs accounting for within education. Contemporary practice makes assessment of more abstract appearances of child safeguarding concerns challenging. The systems of escalating concerns are known, and the profession is willing and able to contribute. Recommendations- Educational focus on the recognition of pathognomonic signs of abuse and aetiology to permit recognition of occasions when injury and clinical history disagree. Education should also include child safeguarding concerns commensurate with the modality utilised and as part of image reporting. Further research is needed to promote the role of the profession and to evaluate the impact of technological advancement on the profession’s capability to contribute effectively.
    • Peacebuilding Evaluations within International Organisations. Investigation of their relevance, roles and effects

      Greene, Owen J.; Vredeveld, Sabine (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences. School of Social Sciences, 2021)
      Responding to and preventing violent conflict continue to be a major concern on the international agenda. However, the results of peacebuilding projects are often mixed and some interventions have even proven harmful in the past. In the debates on aid effectiveness, evaluations have been advocated as being an effective instrument to better understand the results of development and peacebuilding projects and thereby ultimately to improve the practice. However, despite a long tradition of evaluation utilisation research dating back to the 1970s, the effects of peacebuilding evaluations are far from being understood. The concept of evaluation use is too narrow and does not take the diversity of potential positive and negative evaluation effects into account. There is little evidence concerning the organisational factors that influence the use and effects of evaluations. Using a comparative case study analysis in three organisations implementing peacebuilding activities (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Saferworld and the World Bank), this study examines the roles and effects of peacebuilding evaluations within international organisations. The results show a wide range of positive and negative evaluation effects that are promoted or hindered by different attitudes and the process of the evaluation, in addition to organisational and other contextual factors. To improve our understanding of the interlinkages in this context, evaluation pathways causally linking different effects and factors are proposed.
    • Countering Terrorism in the North West Pakistan - Exploring local and global perspectives

      Rogers, Paul F.; Bluth, Christoph; Samad, A. Yunas; Russell, John; Raja, Waqas Z. (University of BradfordPeace Studies Department. Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2019)
      This thesis investigates global fight against terrorism in North West Pakistan and Afghanistan from a 21st century perspective in 2018. It focuses on local attitudes towards the War on Terror and their interplay with geo-strategic, regional, international and Pakistan’s domestic landscapes. In doing so, it questions the efficacy of existing academic and policy approaches towards achieving sustainable peace in North West Pakistan in particular and South Asia in general. It also evaluates the impact of regional rivalries especially in between Pakistan and India on the achievement of US foreign policy interests. Part-1 reviews existing literature on terrorism especially in post 9/11 setting. It examines the international discord of agreeing on a single definition of terrorism and its ramifications. It sequentially focuses on character of security in North West Pakistan and neighbouring Afghanistan since colonial times. It also identifies various traditional, religious and societal angles of Pashtun tribes; which always inspired them to fight against external powers. Part-2 combines academic investigations with empirical evidence. The results are correlated with current discussions on modern terrorism, geopolitical pulls and regional rivalries to create a holistic picture. It identifies local attitudes and regional rivalries as major impediments towards achievement of sustainable peace. Research findings indicated that predominant Western academic debates on the conflict were foreign policy inspired with little local and veteran input. By adapting a pragmatic approach the terrorism challenge can be addressed and the region can contribute towards the continuation of ‘Rules Based Order’ within the current phase of Great Power Rivalry.
    • Simulation, Design and Implementation of Antenna for 5G and beyond Wave Communication. Simulation, Design, and Measurement of New and Compact Antennas for 5G and beyond and Investigation of Their Fundamental Characteristics

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Noras, James M.; Ulla, Atta (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      The fifth generation (5G) has developed a lot of interest, and there have been many reported initiatives in both industry and academics. Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) is the most promising wireless access technique for next-generation networks in terms of spectral and energy efficiency (MIMO). In 4G systems, 2-Element MIMO antennas are already used, while 5G mobile terminals for smartphone hand-held devices are projected to use a bigger number of elements. The placement of many antennas in the restricted space of a smartphone PCB is one of the most critical challenges. As a result, for sub-6 GHz 5G applications, a new design technique based on dual-polarised antenna resonators for 6-Element, 8-Element MIMO configuration is proposed. The proposed MIMO design could improve the smartphone antenna system's chan-nel capacity, diversity function, and multiplexing gain, making it appropriate for 5G applica-tions. For distinct prospective bands of the sub-6 GHz spectrum, such as 2.6, 3.6, and 5.8 GHz, different types of novel and compact diversity MIMO antennas using Patch, Slot, and Planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) resonators are examined. Unlike previously reported MIMO antennas, the proposed designs provide full radiation coverage and polarisation diversity, as well as adequate gain and efficiency values to support several mainboard sides. Apart from sub-6 GHz frequencies, 5G devices are projected to support the centimetre/milli-metre wave spectrum's higher bands. To create linear phased arrays, small antennas can be placed at various locations on a smartphone board. For 5G smartphones, we propose novel linear phased arrays with tiny parts like Dipole and Quasi-Yagi resonators. In comparison to previously published designs, the suggested phased arrays have desirable qualities such as compact size, wide beam-steering, broad bandwidth, end-fire radiation, high gain, and efficiency. With a reduced mutual coupling function, the suggested 5G antennas can provide single-band, multi-band, and broad-band characteristics. Both models and measurements are used to an-alyse the fundamental features of 5G antennas, and good agreement is found. Furthermore, in the presence of the user and the smartphone components, good features are seen due to the small size and superior arrangement of elements. Because of these benefits, the sug-gested antennas are well-suited for usage in 5G smartphone applications.
    • A strategic typology for UK small and medium sized enterprises. An investigation of influential factors and the development of a predictive typology

      Wallace, James; Kendrick, Sean (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012)
      The success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is critical to Europe’s economic health, however, our understanding of SME strategic behaviour is predominantly based on large enterprise theory. This study uses the Miles and Snow (1978) typology to examine the strategic behaviour of 150 UK SMEs. It also investigates whether strategy type, environment adaptation and organisational performance can be predicted by several contingency factors: organisation size, age, industry type, and management style. The findings confirm that the typology is not well suited for categorising SMEs; organisations that rarely develop through all three domains of the adaptive cycle to be sufficiently eligible for categorisation by one of the four pure archetypes. However, similar patterns of strategic behaviour were observed for certain dimensions, largely independent of the industry type or size of the SME, suggesting that an optimal configuration of mixed strategies may exist. Furthermore, Reactors, or those with mixed strategies, were found to perform similarly as Analysers and better than Defenders. The study also found that by fitting nominal logistic regression models to organisation age and size data, it was possible to predict strategic behaviour and environment adaptation, and to a lesser degree, financial performance. Surprisingly, the industry type and management style data were observed to exert minimal influence on the outcome variables. Finally, this research provides important insight relating to the validity concerns of the Miles and Snow typology and categorisation method employed, and demonstrates how these can be avoided.
    • Just Philosophy, Just Practice? An Exploration of Enrique Dussel's Ethics of Liberation in Relation to the Normative Dimension of Two Movements Against Globalisation and Exclusion

      Pearce, Jenny V.; Broadhead, Lee-Anne; Bühler, Ute (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2000)
      The Ethics of Liberation in the Age of Globalisation and Exclusion by the Latin American philosopher Enrique Dussel aims to be 'a day to day ethics, starting from and in favour of the immense majorities of humanity excluded from globalisation, in the historic 'nonnality' that is presently prevalent' 1 • Dussel's Ethics is based around the material principle of 'the production, reproduction and development of life', the formal discursive principle that decision-making processes should be open to all those affected by them, and the principle of (ethical and empirical) feasibility. Ethical critique and liberatory practice, Dussel argues, should start from and be carried out by the 'victims' of the partial or non-realisation of these principles. Nevertheless, the discussion of Dussel's philosophy has tended to stay at the philosophical level. This thesis moves beyond this discussion by relating the universal principles Dussel proposes to the concrete experiences of two movements that are insisting on universalistic normative ideas in the context of globalisation and eicclusion: The Zapatistas in Mexico and the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save Narmada Movement - NBA) in India. My study of these concrete struggles to challenge victimisation reveals both the similarities between their nonnative content and Dussel's principles and the complex questions that arise in attempts to realise these normative principles precisely in the situations of domination and exclusion that Dussel takes as his starting-point. While some of these questions constitute a challenge to rethink aspects of the philosophical debate, others can only legitimately be answered by those who participate in practical attempts to challenge material and discursive exclusion. From this background, the relationship between philosophy and practice becomes an important question in itself.
    • Design, Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of MT1-MMP Targeted Methotrexate Prodrugs for the Treatment Of Osteosarcoma

      Falconer, Robert A.; Loadman, Paul; Shnyder, Steven; Spencer, Hannah L.M. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
    • Design, Investigation and Implementation of Hetrogenous Antennas for Diverse Wireless Applications. Simulation and Measurement of Heterogeneous Antennas for Outdoor/indoor Applications, including the Design of Dielectric Resonators, Reconfigurable and multiband DR antennas, and Investigation of Antenna Radiation Performance and Design Optimization

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Kosha , Jamal S.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      The main goals of this thesis are to design and examine heterogeneous antennas for different wireless applications of a wide variety of EM spectrum requirements: which includes WLAN 5.0 GHz, WLAN (2.45 GHz), UMTS (1.92-2.17 GHz), 2G, UMTS, LTE, ultra-wideband (UWB) applications, and MBAN applications (2.4 GHz). Various techniques for expanding bandwidth, enhancing performance, and balancing the operation have been examined through comprehensive simulated and physically fabricated models. Thereafter, a compact DRA, for UWB applications is examined. The combined resultant effects of asymmetric positioning of DRs (2, 3 and 4 Cylindrical elements), defected ground technique, dimensions, and profile of the aperture give RF designers detailed scope of the optimization process. More resonances are achieved, and the bandwidth is improved. The obtained results show that, an impedance bandwidth of 133.0%, which covers the Ultra­ Wideband band (3.6GHz - 18.0GHz), with a maximum power gain of 9dBi attained. In addition, a compact conformal wearable CPW antenna using EBG-FSS for MBAN applications at 2.4GHz is proposed. They are designed using fabric materials suitable for daily clothing. The performance of the antenna is investigated in free space, on a layered biological tissue model, and on a real human body to evaluate SAR. When the antenna is combined with an EBG-FSS structure, isolation between the antenna and the human body is introduced. The results show that the FBR is enhanced by 13 dB, the gain by 6.55dBi, and the SAR is lowered by more than 94%. The CPW antenna demonstrated here is appropriate for future MBAN wearable systems. The design, investigation, and application of water level monitoring utilizing subsurface wireless sensor are covered in this thesis. A wideband double inverted-F antenna is designed and examined to overcome signal attenuation issues. The obtained result is feasible, which has an operating bandwidth of 0.8 to 2.17GHz, with a reflection coefficient better than 10 dB. Moreover, a field trial is conducted to evaluate the robustness of the antenna under extreme conditions. A very good efficiency was also demonstrated, with losses of under 20%. Further, the results from the field experiment established that the antenna is a reliable contender for wireless communication in such challenging environments.
    • The Neolithic Settlement of the Yorkshire Dales

      Gaffney, Vincent L.; Hallam, Deborah L. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeology. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2023)
    • Automatic Burns Analysis Using Machine Learning

      Ugail, Hassan; Abubakar, Aliyu (University of BradfordSchool of Media Design and Technology. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      Burn injuries are a significant global health concern, causing high mortality and morbidity rates. Clinical assessment is the current standard for diagnosing burn injuries, but it suffers from interobserver variability and is not suitable for intermediate burn depths. To address these challenges, machine learning-based techniques were proposed to evaluate burn wounds in a thesis. The study utilized image-based networks to analyze two medical image databases of burn injuries from Caucasian and Black-African cohorts. The deep learning-based model, called BurnsNet, was developed and used for real-time processing, achieving high accuracy rates in discriminating between different burn depths and pressure ulcer wounds. The multiracial data representation approach was also used to address data representation bias in burn analysis, resulting in promising performance. The ML approach proved its objectivity and cost-effectiveness in assessing burn depths, providing an effective adjunct for clinical assessment. The study's findings suggest that the use of machine learning-based techniques can reduce the workflow burden for burn surgeons and significantly reduce errors in burn diagnosis. It also highlights the potential of automation to improve burn care and enhance patients' quality of life.
    • Study of Linkage between Indoor Air Quality along with Indoor Activities and the Severity of Asthma Symptoms in Asthma Patients

      Thakker, Dhaval; Mishra, Bhupesh K.; Konur, Savas; John, Reena (University of BradfordDepartment of Computer Science. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2023)
      Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease affecting millions of people worldwide, can vary in severity depending on individual triggers such as Carbon Dioxide, Particulate Matter, dust mites, tobacco smoke, and indoor household activities such as cooking, cleaning, use of heating, and window opening, which can have a negative impact on indoor air quality (IAQ) and exacerbate asthma symptoms. Investigating the relationship between IAQ and asthma severity, a case study was conducted on five asthmatic participants from Bradford, UK. IAQ was measured using IoT indoor air quality monitoring devices. Indoor activities were recorded using a daily household activities questionnaire, and asthma severity was assessed using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). Machine learning prediction models were used to analyse various IAQ parameters, such as particulate matter, carbon dioxide, and humidity levels, to identify the most significant predictors of asthma severity with IAQ. The study aimed to develop targeted interventions to improve IAQ and reduce the burden of asthma. Results showed that higher asthma severity scores were associated with increased indoor activity and higher levels of indoor air pollution. Some interventions were implemented to improve ventilation hours, significantly improving IAQ and reducing asthma symptoms, particularly those with more severe asthma. The findings indicate that interventions targeting IAQ, and indoor activities can effectively reduce asthma severity, with up to a 60% reduction in symptoms for asthma patients.