• 3D Facial Feature Extraction and Recognition. An investigation of 3D face recognition: correction and normalisation of the facial data, extraction of facial features and classification using machine learning techniques.

      Ipson, Stanley S.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Al-Qatawneh, Sokyna M.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2011-05-11)
      Face recognition research using automatic or semi-automatic techniques has emerged over the last two decades. One reason for growing interest in this topic is the wide range of possible applications for face recognition systems. Another reason is the emergence of affordable hardware, supporting digital photography and video, which have made the acquisition of high-quality and high resolution 2D images much more ubiquitous. However, 2D recognition systems are sensitive to subject pose and illumination variations and 3D face recognition which is not directly affected by such environmental changes, could be used alone, or in combination with 2D recognition. Recently with the development of more affordable 3D acquisition systems and the availability of 3D face databases, 3D face recognition has been attracting interest to tackle the limitations in performance of most existing 2D systems. In this research, we introduce a robust automated 3D Face recognition system that implements 3D data of faces with different facial expressions, hair, shoulders, clothing, etc., extracts features for discrimination and uses machine learning techniques to make the final decision. A novel system for automatic processing for 3D facial data has been implemented using multi stage architecture; in a pre-processing and registration stage the data was standardized, spikes were removed, holes were filled and the face area was extracted. Then the nose region, which is relatively more rigid than other facial regions in an anatomical sense, was automatically located and analysed by computing the precise location of the symmetry plane. Then useful facial features and a set of effective 3D curves were extracted. Finally, the recognition and matching stage was implemented by using cascade correlation neural networks and support vector machine for classification, and the nearest neighbour algorithms for matching. It is worth noting that the FRGC data set is the most challenging data set available supporting research on 3D face recognition and machine learning techniques are widely recognised as appropriate and efficient classification methods.
    • Achieving excellence in services: an empirical study in the UAE banking sector.

      Ahmed, A.M.M.; Al-Marri, Khalid S. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2009-09-03)
      Banking services are perhaps the largest industry that caters to -the needs of various segments of the population reflecting the diverse Diasporas of the society. Moreover, perceived service quality tends to play a significant role in high involvement (high interaction between customers and service providers) industries like banks. Also, banks often have long-term business relationships with customers. In addition, the banking sector is large enough to capture and represent almost all the critical features of the customer-perceived service quality and the critical dimensions of excellence that the management may have to encounter, in order to effectively manage a service organisation. . However, there is considerable lack of literature with respect to service industry management, especially in the banking industry of developing economies. Therefore an analysis of banks in the UAE from a 'service-quality perspective' may sound interesting at this juncture. Such an investigation is vital for the bankers in order to enhance their business performance. The main objective of this research is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and explore CSFs for banks that succeed in the field of TQM and to identify marketoriented activities that are affected by the use of this approach. This research adapts an interdisciplinary approach that makes use of TQM, service quality, IT, and information systems literature. It takes a holistic view of TQM in the banking sector and considers the different stages of implementation and implications of the TQM. The research design involves a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to incorporate: (1) TQM development; (2) the identification of key TQMsuccess factors commonly cited in the literature, and endorsed by practitioners and experts as important to effective TQM implementation; (3) an in-depth case studies. approach to understand how TQM processes, and critical success factors identified are addressed and implemented; and (4) the possible impact of TQM practices on efficiency. Furthermore, the research framework, which emerged from the literature search, is tested and validated by rigorous quantitative analysis using SPSS. The statistical analysis using Factor Analysis, Regression Analysis, One-Sample Test and Ranking Analysis to test a series of relationships and research constructs to provide solid support for the resulting relationships. i The study has identified twelve CSFs for the successful implementation of TQM: (1) Top Management Support, (2) Strategy, (3) Continuous Improvement, (4) Benchmarking, (5) Customer Focus, (6) Quality Department, (7) Human Resource Management, (8) Quality Technology,. (9) Service Design, (10) Employees, (11) Servicescapes, (12) Quality Systems. Furthermore, it *has been found that the organisational experiences of TQM implementation in-the service- sector in UAE are far from being mature. There is a lot of evidence with reference to the survey results and case studies presented in this study that TQM is still a new management concept, and is widely unknown. In many cases, there is some reluctance to introduce it. . The study has pointed out the CSFs for successful TQM implementation because it is vital for organisations to capture the minds of everybody, starting at the top and permeating throughout the whole organisation and beyond. The philosophy maintains that an organisation's primary objective is to enhance its ability to meet customer requirements by improving the quality of its services. People are the most important management resource and ultimate goal of business. TQM generally means a quest for excellence, creating the right attitudes and controls to make prevention of any possible errors, and optimise customer satisfaction by increased efficiency and effectiveness. Further, this study points out TQM as being an organisation-wide activity which has to reach every employee. Therefore, TQM has been an. approach for continuously improving the quality of services delivered through the participation at all levels and functions of the organisation. From this study, it is evident that the effectivetransformation to TQM has been linked to the extent to which firms implement certain CSFs. This study contributes to the emerging literature on TQM in banking sector in a number of specific ways: (1) It provides new theoretical grounds for studying TQM in banking sector in the context of CSFs that affect competition in the dynamic marketplace; (2) It computes and analyses the total quality management indices with respect to the 16 factors which have been developed from the literature for the banking industry as a whole; (3) It ascertains the level of TQM implementation in the UAE banking scene; (4) It Offers key insights on the criticality of the different TQM dimensions with respect to the banking sector in UAE and (5) It provides a foundation and proposals for future research and investigation.
    • Acoustic and Thermal Properties of Recycled Porous Media

      Horoshenkov, Kirill V.; Benkreira, Hadj; Mahasaranon, Sararat (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-03-26)
      This thesis is concerned with developing porous materials from tyre shred residue and polyurethane binder for acoustic absorption and thermal insulation applications. The resultant materials contains a high proportion of open, interconnected cells that are able to absorb incident sound waves through viscous friction, inertia effects and thermal energy exchanges. The materials developed are also able to insulate against heat by suppressing the convection of heat and reduced conductivity of the fluid locked in the large proportion of close-cell pores. The acoustic absorption performance of a porous media is controlled by the number of open cells and pore size distribution. Therefore, this work also investigates the use of catalysts and surfactants to modify the pore structure and studies the influence of the various components in the chemical formulations used to produce these porous materials. An optimum type and amounts of catalyst are selected to obtain a high chemical conversion and a short expanding time for the bubble growth phase. The surfactant is used to reduce the surface tension and achieve a homogenous mixing between the solid particulates tyre shred residue, the water, the catalyst and the binder. It is found that all of the components significantly affect the resultant materials structure and its morphology. The results show that the catalyst has a particularly strong effect on the pore structure and the ensuing thermal and acoustical properties. In this research, the properties of the porous materials developed are characterized using standard experimental techniques and the acoustic and thermal insulation performance underpinned using theoretical models. The important observation from this research is that a new class of recycled materials with pore stratification has been developed. It is shown that the pore stratification can have a positive effect on the acoustic absorption in a broadband frequency range. The control of reaction time in the foaming process is a key function that leads to a gradual change in the pore size distribution, porosity, flow resistivity and tortuosity which vary as a function of sample depth. It is shown that the Pade approximation is a suitable model to study the acoustic behaviour of these materials. A good agreement between the measured data and the model was attained.
    • Acoustic monitoring of hydraulic resistance in partially full pipes.

      Horoshenkov, Kirill V.; Tait, Simon J.; Romanova, Anna (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2014-05-07)
      Hydraulic losses in sewer pipes are caused by wall roughness, blockages and in-pipe sedimentation. Hydraulic resistance is a key parameter that is used to account for the hydraulic energy losses and predict the sewer system propensity to flood. Unfortunately, there are no objective methods to measure the hydraulic resistance in live sewers. A common method to estimate the hydraulic resistance of a sewer is to analyse collected CCTV images and then to compare them against a number of suggested hydraulic roughness values published in the Sewer Rehabilitation Manual. This thesis reports on the development of a novel, non-invasive acoustic method and instrumentation to measure the hydraulic roughness in partially filled pipes under various structural and operational conditions objectively. This research presents systematic laboratory and field studies of the hydraulic and surface water wave characteristics, of shallow water flows in a sewer pipes with the presence of local and distributed roughness, in order to relate them to some fundamental properties of the acoustic field measured in the vicinity of the flow surface. The results of this thesis indicate that for the local roughness the energy content of the reflected acoustic signal is an indicator of the pipe head loss and hydraulic roughness. In the case of the distributed roughness, the variation in the temporal and frequency characteristics of the propagated sound wave can be related empirically to the mean flow depth, mean velocity, wave standard deviation and hydraulic roughness.
    • Adaptive optics, aberration dynamics and accomodation control. An investigation of the properties of ocular aberrations, and their role in accomodation control.

      Mallen, Edward A.H.; Hampson, Karen M.; Chin, Sem Sem (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision, 2010-05-07)
      This thesis consists of two parts: a report on the use of a binocular Shack-Hartmann (SH) sensor to study the dynamic correlation of ocular aberrations; and the application of an adaptive optics (AO) system to investigate the effect of the manipulation of aberrations on the accommodation control. The binocular SH sensor consists of one laser source and one camera to reduce system cost and complexity. Six participants took part in this study. Coherence function analysis showed that coherence values were dependent on the subject, aberration and frequency component. Inter-ocular correlations of the aberration dynamics were fairly weak for all participants. Binocular and monocular viewing conditions produced similar wavefront error dynamics. The AO system has a dual wavefront sensing channel. The extra sensing channel permits direct measurement of the eye¿s aberrations independent of the deformable mirror. Dynamic correction of aberrations during steady-state fixation did not affect the accommodation microfluctuations, possibly due to the prior correction of the static aberration level and/or the limited correction bandwidth. The inversion of certain aberrations during dynamic accommodation affected the gain and latency of accommodation response (AR), suggesting that the eye used the aberrations to guide its initial path of accommodative step response. Corrections of aberrations at various temporal locations of AR cycle produced subject- and aberration-dependent results. The gain and phase lag of the AR to a sinusoidally moving target were unaffected by aberration correction. The predictable nature of the target had been suggested as the reason for its failure to produce any significant effect on the AR gain and phase lag.
    • Adaptive technique for energy management in wireless sensor networks. Development, simulation and evaluation of adaptive techniques for energy efficient routing protocols applied to cluster based wireless sensor networks.

      Mellor, John E.; Jiang, Ping; Ghneimat, Ahmed A.H. (University of BradfordDepartment of Comput, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-12-05)
      Recently, wireless sensor networks have become one of the most exciting areas for research and development. However, sensor nodes are battery operated, thus the sensor¿s ability to perform its assigned tasks is limited by its battery capacity; therefore, energy efficiency is considered to be a key issue in designing WSN applications. Clustering has emerged as a useful mechanism for trade-off between certain design goal conflicts; the network life time, and the amount of data obtained. However, different sources of energy waste still exist. Furthermore, in such dynamic environments, different data rate requirements emerge due to the current network status, thus adapting a response to the changing network is essential, rather than following the same principle during the network¿s lifespan. This thesis presents dynamic techniques to adapt to network changes, through which the limited critical energy source can be wisely managed so that the WSN application can achieve its intended design goals. Two approaches have been taken to decreasing the energy use. The first approach is to develop two dynamic round time controllers, called the minimum round time controller MIN-RC and the variable round time controller VAR-RC, whereas the second approach improves intra-cluster communication using a Co-Cluster head; both approaches show better energy utilisation compared to traditional protocols. A third approach has been to develop a general hybrid protocol H-RC that can adapt different applications requirements; it can also tolerate different data rate requirements for the same application during the system¿s lifetime.
    • Adaptive, adaptable, and mixed-initiative in interactive systems: An empirical investigation. An empirical investigation to examine the usability issues of using adaptive, adaptable and mixed-iniative approaches in interactive systems.

      Rigas, Dimitrios I.; Al Omar, Khalid H. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2011-05-11)
      This thesis investigates the use of static, adaptive, adaptable and mixed-initiative approaches to the personalisation of content and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This empirical study consisted of three experimental phases. The first examined the use of static, adaptive, adaptable and mixed-initiative approaches to web content. More specifically, it measured the usability (efficiency, frequency of error occurrence, effectiveness and satisfaction) of an e-commerce website. The experiment was conducted with 60 subjects and was tested empirically by four independent groups (15 subjects each). The second experiment examined the use of adaptive, adaptable and mixed-initiative approaches to GUIs. More specifically, it measured the usability (efficiency, frequency of error occurrence, effectiveness and satisfaction) in GUI control structures (menus). In addition, it investigated empirically the effects of content size on five different personalised menu types. In order to carry out this comparative investigation, two independent experiments were conducted, on small menus (17 items) and large ones (29 items) respectively. The experiment was conducted with 60 subjects and was tested empirically by four independent groups (15 subjects each). The third experiment was conducted with 40 subjects and was tested empirically by four dependent groups (5 subjects each). The aim of the third experiment was to mitigate the drawbacks of the adaptive, adaptable and mixedinitiative approaches, to improve their performance and to increase their usability by using multimodal auditory solutions (speech, earcons and auditory icons). The results indicate that the size of content affects the usability of personalised approaches. In other words, as the size of content increases, so does the need of the adaptive and mixed-initiative approaches, whereas that of the adaptable approach decreases. A set of empirically derived guidelines were also produced to assist designers with the use of adaptive, adaptable and mixed-initiative approaches to web content and GUI control structure.
    • Adherence to secondary prevention medicines by coronary heart disease patients. First Reported Adherence

      Hall, Alistair; Marshall, Kay M.; Silcock, Jonathan; Khatib, R. (University of BradfordPharmacy Department, 2012-10-31)
      Background Non-adherence to evidence based secondary prevention medicines (SPM) by coronary heart disease (CHD) patients limits their expected benefits and may result in a lack of improvement or significant deterioration in health. This study explored self-reported non-adherence to SPM, barriers to adherence, and the perception that patients in West Yorkshire have about their medicines in order to inform practice and improve adherence. Methods In this cross-sectional study a specially designed postal survey (The Heart Medicines Survey) assessed medicines-taking behaviour using the Morisky Medicines Adherence 8 items Scale (MMAS-8), a modified version of the Single Question Scale (SQ), the Adherence Estimator (AE), Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire(BMQ) and additional questions to explore practical barriers to adherence. Patients were also asked to make any additional comments about their medicines-taking experience. A purposive sample of 696 patients with long established CHD and who were on SPM for at least 3 months was surveyed. Ethical approval was granted by the local ethics committee. Results 503 (72%) patients participated in the survey. 52%, 34% and 11% of patients were prescribed at least four, three and two SPMs respectively. The level of non-adherence to collective SPM was 44%. The AE predicted that 39% of those had an element of intentional non-adherence. The contribution of aspirin, statins, clopidogrel, beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to overall non-adherence as identified by the SQ scale was 62%, 67%, 7%, 30%, 22% and 5%, respectively. A logistic regression model for overall non-adherence revealed that older age and female gender were associated with less non-adherence (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98; OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.93; respectively). Specific concern about SPM, having issues with repeat prescriptions and aspirin were associated with more non-adherence (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.18; OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.26, 4.90, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.17). Other variables were associated with intentional and non-intentional non-adherence. 221 (44%) patients elaborated on their medicines-taking behaviour by providing additional comments about the need for patient tailored information and better structured medicines reviews. Conclusions The Medicines Heart Survey was successful in revealing the prevalence of self-reported non-adherence and barriers to adherence in our population. Healthcare professionals should examine specific modifiable barriers to adherence in their population before developing interventions to improve adherence. Conducting frequent structured medicines-reviews, which explore and address patients' concerns about their medicines and healthcare services, and enable them to make suggestions, will better inform practice and may improve adherence.
    • Advanced controllers for building energy management systems. Advanced controllers based on traditional mathematical methods (MIMO P+I, state-space, adaptive solutions with constraints) and intelligent solutions (fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms) are investigated for humidifying, ventilating and air-conditioning applications.

      Virk, G.S.; Ghazali, Abu Baker MHD. (University of BradfordDepartment of Electronic and Electrical Engineering., 2010-01-19)
      This thesis presents the design and implementation of control strategies for building energy management systems (BEMS). The controllers considered include the multi PI-loop controllers, state-space designs, constrained input and output MIMO adaptive controllers, fuzzy logic solutions and genetic algorithm techniques. The control performances of the designs developed using the various methods based on aspects such as regulation errors squared, energy consumptions and the settling periods are investigated for different designs. The aim of the control strategy is to regulate the room temperature and the humidity to required comfort levels. In this study the building system under study is a 3 input/ 2 output system subject to external disturbances/effects. The three inputs are heating, cooling and humidification, and the 2 outputs are room air temperature and relative humidity. The external disturbances consist of climatic effects and other stochastic influences. The study is carried out within a simulation environment using the mathematical model of the test room at Loughborough University and the designed control solutions are verified through experimental trials using the full-scale BMS facility at the University of Bradford.
    • Advanced MIMO-OFDM technique for future high speed braodband wireless communications. A study of OFDM design, using wavelet transform, fractional fourier transform, fast fourier transform, doppler effect, space-time coding for multiple input, multiple output wireless communications systems

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Anoh, Kelvin O.O. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering and Informatics, 2015)
      This work concentrates on the application of diversity techniques and space time block coding for future high speed mobile wireless communications on multicarrier systems. At first, alternative multicarrier kernels robust for high speed doubly-selective fading channel are sought. They include the comparisons of discrete Fourier transform (DFT), fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) and wavelet transform (WT) multicarrier kernels. Different wavelet types, including the raised-cosine spectrum wavelets are implemented, evaluated and compared. From different wavelet families, orthogonal wavelets are isolated from detailed evaluations and comparisons as suitable for multicarrier applications. The three transforms are compared over a doubly-selective channel with the WT significantly outperforming all for high speed conditions up to 300 km/hr. Then, a new wavelet is constructed from an ideal filter approximation using established wavelet design algorithms to match any signal of interest; in this case under bandlimited criteria. The new wavelet showed better performance than other traditional orthogonal wavelets. To achieve MIMO communication, orthogonal space-time block coding, OSTBC, is evaluated next. First, the OSTBC is extended to assess the performance of the scheme over extended receiver diversity order. Again, with the extended diversity conditions, the OSTBC is implemented for a multicarrier system over a doubly-selective fading channel. The MIMO-OFDM systems (implemented using DFT and WT kernels) are evaluated for different operating frequencies, typical of LTE standard, with Doppler effects. It was found that, during high mobile speed, it is better to transmit OFDM signals using lower operating frequencies. The information theory for the 2-transmit antenna OSTBC does not support higher order implementation of multi-antenna systems, which is required for the future generation wireless communications systems. Instead of the OSTBC, the QO-STBC is usually deployed to support the design of higher order multi-antenna systems other than the 2-transmit antenna scheme. The performances of traditional QO-STBC methods are diminished by some off-diagonal (interference) terms such that the resulting system does not attain full diversity. Some methods for eliminating the interference terms have earlier been discussed. This work follows the construction of cyclic matrices with Hadamard matrix to derive QO-STBC codes construction which are N-times better than interference free QO-STBC, where N is the number of transmit antenna branches.
    • African Union Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection. An Evaluation of the EU Strategy for Africa and the G8/Africa Joint Plan.

      Not named; Ramsbotham, Alexander (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2013-01-23)
      Global demand for peacekeeping is growing, especially in Africa. The United Nations has traditionally been at the forefront of developing peacekeeping theory and practice, and remains the primary operational agency for peacekeeping in Africa. But increasing emphasis is being placed on the African Union to assume greater responsibility for peacekeeping on the continent. The AU is still comparatively new and is in the process of developing its peace and security architecture. Over the past decade, the international community has been supporting African peacekeeping, both to build AU capacity and to provide direct operational support. In 2005 the international community agreed a collective ¿responsibility to protect¿ vulnerable civilians threatened by gross violations of their human rights. And civilian protection is increasingly included in the mandates of peacekeeping missions. Within the context of contemporary complex, multidimensional peacekeeping (¿peace support¿), civilian protection is not an exclusive operational objective, but is rather one of a number of mandated tasks aimed at establishing more sustainable 4 security as part of a broader peacebuilding goal. The AU has embraced the responsibility to protect principle, adopting a constitutional commitment to protect the rights of vulnerable civilians, including through peacekeeping interventions if necessary. But how capable is the AU in practice to deliver effective peacekeeping to protect civilians? And how appropriate is international support to help realise this ambition?
    • Agency in the Shadow of a co-opted State: Territory, Difference and Democratisation in post-war Guatemala

      Pearce, Jenny V.; Illmer, Patrick Josef (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2015)
      This thesis examines a new form of agency for change that has surfaced in rural areas of post-war Guatemala around the defence of territory and natural resources. I argue that this new form of agency emerges in the shadow of a state co-opted by elite factions and manifests distinct qualities from previous expressions of revolutionary and democratic activism. It is localised and characterised by varied aspects of what I call ‘difference’, an antagonistic stance based on locally embedded political, economic and cultural meanings which challenges the elite-promoted reordering of relationships and spaces. This ‘difference’ is enacted through the ‘defence of territory’, which expresses a socio-political and cultural attachment to particular physical spaces and has instigated collective resistances to the implementation of projects linked to the exploitation of natural resources. The thesis analyses this form of agency through two case studies, one among indigenous communities in the Northern Quiché, the second among primarily non-indigenous communities in the municipalities of San José del Golfo and San Pedro Ayampuc. As this research demonstrates, given the firm integration of conventional channels of democratic participation into the patterns of state co-option, the primary aim of these struggles is the re-appropriation of decision-making processes and the carving out of spaces, in which their ‘difference’ can evolve. In the context of a co-opted state, these local expressions of agency create spaces in which fragile, embryonic forms of collective interaction and deliberation that represent a condition for democratic processes, are kept alive. However, their non-linear articulations and specific local character are also a testament to the complexity of the construction of democratic processes in countries like Guatemala.
    • Alcohol misuse and coercive treatment: exploring offenders' experiences within a dialogical framework.

      Horrocks, Christine; Kelly, Nancy; Ashby, Joanne L. (University of BradfordDepartment of Social Sciences and Humanities, Division of Psychology., 2012-03-20)
      In the UK there has been growing concern about the relationship between levels of alcohol consumption and offending behaviour. The Alcohol Treatment Requirement (ATR) was introduced to the UK in 2007 and was piloted in a District in the north of England in July 2007. The ATR is a coercive form of treatment delivered jointly by the probation service and the National Health Service (NHS) and was funded by the NHS. The ATR centres on supporting offenders to cease their offending behaviour and reduce or end their alcohol misuse. Two female alcohol treatment workers have been appointed to specifically deliver the ATR. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the delivery of the ATR, and more specifically, aimed to explore what impact the ATR might have in relation to positive behaviour change and rehabilitation for offenders with alcohol problems. In order to meet the expectations of producing ¿outcome¿ data for the NHS funders, and indepth theoretical data worthy of an academic PhD, this research took a pragmatic methodological approach which enabled different social realities of the ATR to be explored. To this end, a mixed methods design was employed involving quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. The data for this research was generated in three phases with Phase One aiming to explore quantitatively the characteristics, impacts and outcomes of those sentenced to the ATR. This phase revealed that the ATR is being delivered to predominantly young, male, alcohol dependent, violent, persistent offenders. This analysis further revealed that the ATR was effective in bringing about positive treatment outcomes and in reducing reoffending. In order to explore further how this positive change was occurring, Phase Two consisted of qualitative participant observations of the treatment interaction involving the female alcohol treatment workers and the male offenders. By drawing on positioning theory, the analysis considered the complexity of the gendered interactions that occurred during these encounters. It was found that the two female alcohol treatment workers resisted positions of ¿feminine carer¿ offered up by these young men in order to occupy positions of control. Indeed this analysis provided great insight into the constant flow of negotiations and manoeuvring of positions that occurred between the alcohol treatment worker and the offender, argued to be vitally important in working towards positive behaviour change. During Phase Three ten offenders were interviewed in order to explore through a dialogical lens (Bakhtin, 1982) how they constructed and experienced treatment on the ATR. In exploring the offenders¿ stories dialogically, the analysis highlighted how the ATR was enabling, in that it offered a ¿space¿ for these offenders to engage and internalise a dialogue that draws on the authoritative voice of therapy. Therefore it was revealed that through dialogue with the ¿other¿, offenders were able to re-author a more ¿moral¿ and ¿worthy¿ self. Moreover, the ATR has been found to be successful in enabling the offenders¿ hegemonic masculine identities to be both challenged and protected as a result of the multilayered interactions that occurred during these treatment encounters. This research therefore concludes that coercive treatment, rather than being a concern, should be embraced as a way of enabling change for offenders with alcohol problems. Furthermore, this research has highlighted the value of the relational aspect of treatment in bringing about positive behaviour changes. Finally this research has shown that community sentences offer a more constructive way of engaging with offenders than those who receive a custodial sentence.
    • Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) expression in cancer tissues as potential pharmacological targets for therapeutic intervention. Probing ALDH expression and function in 2D- and 3D-cultured cancer cell lines

      Pors, Klaus; Elsalem, Lina M.I. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, 2017-04-12)
      The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily is gaining momentum in regard to stem cell and cancer research. However, their regulation and expression in the cancer microenvironment is poorly understood. The aim of this work was to understand the role of selected ALDH isoforms (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1, 2, 3A1 and 7A1) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and explore the impact of hypoxia on their expression. CRC cell lines (HT29, DLD-1, SW480 and HCT116) were grown under normoxic or hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2) and HT29 and DLD-1 in spinner flasks to generate multicellular spheroids (MCS). Hypoxia was demonstrated to have an impact on the ALDH expression, which appeared cell-specific. Notably, ALDH7A1 was induced upon exposure to hypoxia in both HT29 and DLD-1 cells, shown to be expressed in the hypoxic region of the MCS variants and in 5/5 CRC xenografts (HT29, DLD-1, HCT116, SW620, and COLO205). ALDH7A1 siRNA knockdown studies in DLD-1 cells resulted in significant reduction of viable cells and significant increase in ROS levels, suggesting ALDH7A1 to possess antioxidant properties. These findings were further supported using isogenic H1299/RFP and H1299/ALDH7A1 lung cancer cell lines. ALDH7A1, however, was found not to be involved in inhibiting the pharmacological effect or causing resistance to different cytotoxic and molecularly targeted anticancer drugs. To unravel the functional role of ALDH7A1, 9 compounds obtained from a virtual screening of 24,000 compounds from the Maybridge collection of compounds were used to probe ALDH7A1 functional activity. One compound, HAN00316, was found to inhibit the antioxidant properties of ALDH7A1 and thus could be a good starting point for further chemical tool development. Although this study underpins a potential important role of ALDH7A1 in hypoxic CRC, further work is required to fully validate its potential as a biomarker and/or pharmacological target.
    • The alkaline hydrolysis of esters in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures. The effects of solvents and of the activity coefficients of reactants on the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl acetate in aqueous dioxan, aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide and aqueous diglyme (bis (2-methoxyethyl ) ether) mixtures as solvents.

      Diaper, John; Kazempour, Abdol Rassoul (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemistry, 2010-06-30)
      Values of the rate constant for the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl acetate in various aqueous-organic solvent mixtures (dimethyl sulfoxide 0<x40.2, dioxane 0 <, x., < 0.2, methyl ethyl ketone 0<x<0.06 and diglyme, i. e. ether-bis (2-methyloxethyl) 0x<0.10) have been determined for the temperatures 15 0 C, 25 0C and 35 0C conductometrically. To interpret these results the approach adapted is to experimentally determine the activity coefficient of the ester (YE ) and the activity of the water (aH20', mechanistically, at least one molecule of water is involved in the rate-determining step) and then to use the Bronsted-Bjerrum equation to determine the residual activity coefficient ratio of the participating ions, y (Yf - for Oil the transition state). Values of YE and aH 20 have been determined by a transpiration method, using gas-chromatographic analysis of the vapours of solutions of methyl acetate in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures of dir. ethyl sulfoxide, dioxane, methyl ethyl ketone and diglyme in the same composition ranges as above, tetrahydrofuran 04x org z<, 0.15, methanol, ethanol and tert-butanol in t1h6e range 04x0.20'at 25oC. These results indicate that on changing org the solvent composition YE varies by a larger factor than is predicted for the ratio YOH-/yýO_ by the Debye-Iluckel approach, and hence is the dominant factor in determining the effects of solvent composition on the rates of the hydrolysis. This is in contradiction to the assumptions of the electrostatic theories of Laidler and Eyring, and of Amis and Jaffe. The gas-chromatographic results also indicate that whilst the concentration of the water varies in each mixture studied, the activity coefficient varies in the opposite way to produce almost constant values of aý, 0* Using the transpiratioii/gas-chromatogralýlic method, the thermodynamic properties of the ternary systems, methyl acetate-water-organic Solvcat, using the organic solvents mentioned above (excepting, diglyme) have been investigated, and the results indicate that the variation of *ýE with solvent composition, for the dilute solutions of ester used, can be estimated from the thermodynamic properties of the binary water-organic solvent mixtures, using the Gibbs-Dahem equation. Single ion activity coefficients in the literature for small negative ions, to represent the OH_ ion, and for large ions, to rep-resent the transition state ion, have been used to explain the experimentally fomd variation of the residual activity coefficient -ratio with solvent composition. Hence, it is concluded that the importance of the parameters involved in the hydrolysis of esters - an ion-molecule reaction - in aqueousorganic solvent mixtures are in the order of Ymolecule > aH 20> YOH_/YM+ -> (dielectric constant), and that the nonelectrostatic effects -- thermodynamic effects - are more important in these studies than the electrostatic effects. From a preliminary investigation of the data in the literature the thermodynamic approach also yields a valid interpretation of the effect of solvent composition on the rates of the acid hydrolysis of esters.
    • Analogy-based software project effort estimation. Contributions to projects similarity measurement, attribute selection and attribute weighting algorithms for analogy-based effort estimation.

      Neagu, Daniel; Cowling, Peter I.; Azzeh, Mohammad Y.A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing School of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2010-10-01)
      Software effort estimation by analogy is a viable alternative method to other estimation techniques, and in many cases, researchers found it outperformed other estimation methods in terms of accuracy and practitioners¿ acceptance. However, the overall performance of analogy based estimation depends on two major factors: similarity measure and attribute selection & weighting. Current similarity measures such as nearest neighborhood techniques have been criticized that have some inadequacies related to attributes relevancy, noise and uncertainty in addition to the problem of using categorical attributes. This research focuses on improving the efficiency and flexibility of analogy-based estimation to overcome the abovementioned inadequacies. Particularly, this thesis proposes two new approaches to model and handle uncertainty in similarity measurement method and most importantly to reflect the structure of dataset on similarity measurement using Fuzzy modeling based Fuzzy C-means algorithm. The first proposed approach called Fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis method employs combined techniques of Fuzzy set theory and Grey Relational Analysis to improve local and global similarity measure and tolerate imprecision associated with using different data types (Continuous and Categorical). The second proposed approach presents the use of Fuzzy numbers and its concepts to develop a practical yet efficient approach to support analogy-based systems especially at early phase of software development. Specifically, we propose a new similarity measure and adaptation technique based on Fuzzy numbers. We also propose a new attribute subset selection algorithm and attribute weighting technique based on the hypothesis of analogy-based estimation that assumes projects that are similar in terms of attribute value are also similar in terms of effort values, using row-wise Kendall rank correlation between similarity matrix based project effort values and similarity matrix based project attribute values. A literature review of related software engineering studies revealed that the existing attribute selection techniques (such as brute-force, heuristic algorithms) are restricted to the choice of performance indicators such as (Mean of Magnitude Relative Error and Prediction Performance Indicator) and computationally far more intensive. The proposed algorithms provide sound statistical basis and justification for their procedures. The performance figures of the proposed approaches have been evaluated using real industrial datasets. Results and conclusions from a series of comparative studies with conventional estimation by analogy approach using the available datasets are presented. The studies were also carried out to statistically investigate the significant differences between predictions generated by our approaches and those generated by the most popular techniques such as: conventional analogy estimation, neural network and stepwise regression. The results and conclusions indicate that the two proposed approaches have potential to deliver comparable, if not better, accuracy than the compared techniques. The results also found that Grey Relational Analysis tolerates the uncertainty associated with using different data types. As well as the original contributions within the thesis, a number of directions for further research are presented. Most chapters in this thesis have been disseminated in international journals and highly refereed conference proceedings.
    • Analysing relationships among frontline employee perceptions of rewards, attitudes and service quality in banking call centres: an internal marketing perspective.

      Prowse, Peter J.; Mukherjee, Avinandan; Malhotra, Neeru (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2009-09-17)
      The basic purpose of the research is to understand the significance of internal marketing in influencing frontline employees'job-related attitudes and service quality. Since rewards are considered to be an important compqnent of internal marketing, this research investigates relationships among frontline employee perceptions of rewards (extrinsic and intrinsic), attitudes (three components of organisational commitment viz. affective, normative and continuance, and job satisfaction), and service quality, in banking call centres. In this context, a conceptual model is presented comprising rewards as the antecedentsa, ttitudes as the mediating variables, and service quality of the frontline employees as the outcome variable. The model is empirically tested through a large sample study that is conducted among 4 call centres of a major retail bank in the UK. Following certain qualitative in-depth interviews at the exploratory stage, structural equation modelling (using AMOS) is carried out on 342 useable questionnaires (response rate of more than 50%), to empirically test the proposed framework for the study. The measurement and structural models, after validation and purification, provided satisfactory fit estimates across absolute, incremental and parsimonious measures. The results highlight the importance of rewards, as part of internal marketing, in maintaining employee attitudes, and improving service quality. Intrinsic rewards (like role clarity, training and skill variety) emerged as the most significant of all, as they were found to impact on service quality directly. Extrinsic social rewards (like supervision and team support) were not found to be significant, while the finding regarding extrinsic organisational rewards-service quality relationship was surprising. Although assumed important for perfon-nance, some had no direct effect (pay, and benefits satisfaction, extrinsic exchange), while others (working conditions and promotional opportunities) exerted a negative direct effect on service quality, although the indirect effect of most of these rewards was found to be positive. However, these rewards were considered important for influencing employee attitudes, which in turn influence service quality. In this context, the importance of employee attitudes like affective commitment and job satisfaction is emphasisedfor service quality. The empirical results of the study also reveal that it is the nature of commitment that matters in commitment-service quality relationship. Affective commitment emerged as the only attitude variable to bear a significant positive relationship with service quality. Job satisfaction was not found to impact on service quality directly, although the indirect effect was found to be positive. Normative commitment impacted on service quality indirectly, while continuance commitment was not found to be effective at all. Besides theoretical and methodological contributions, the thesis also provides strong managerial implications and directions for future research in applying internal marketing for improving service quality of frontline employees in call centres. Keywords: internal marketing, rewards, service quality, commitment, job satisfaction, UK banks, call centres, frontline employees.
    • Analysis and improvement of medium access control protocols in wireless networks. Performance modelling and Quality-of-Service enhancement of IEEE 802.11e MAC in wireless local area networks under heterogeneous multimedia traffic.

      Min, Geyong; Hu, Jia (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-11-10)
      In order to efficiently utilize the scarce wireless resource as well as keep up with the ever-increasing demand for Quality-of-Service (QoS) of multimedia applications, wireless networks are undergoing rapid development and dramatic changes in the underlying technologies and protocols. The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, which coordinates the channel access and data transmission of wireless stations, plays a pivotal role in wireless networks. Performance modelling and analysis has been and continues to be of great theoretical and practical importance in the design and development of wireless networks. This research is devoted to developing efficient and cost-effective analytical tools for the performance analysis and enhancement of MAC protocols in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) under heterogeneous multimedia traffic. To support the MAC-layer QoS in WLANs, the IEEE 802.11e Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) protocol has proposed three QoS differentiation schemes in terms of Arbitrary Inter-Frame Space (AIFS), Contention Window (CW), and Transmission Opportunity (TXOP). This research starts with the development of new analytical models for the TXOP scheme specified in the EDCA protocol under Poisson traffic. A dynamic TXOP scheme is then proposed to adjust the TXOP limits according to the status of the transmission queue. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments show that the proposed dynamic scheme largely improves the performance of TXOP. To evaluate the TXOP scheme in the presence of ii heterogeneous traffic, a versatile analytical model is developed to capture the traffic heterogeneity and model the features of burst transmission. The performance results highlight the importance of taking into account the heterogeneous traffic for the accurate evaluation of the TXOP scheme in wireless multimedia networks. To obtain a thorough and deep understanding of the performance attributes of the EDCA protocol, a comprehensive analytical model is then proposed to accommodate the integration of the three QoS schemes of EDCA in terms of AIFS, CW, and TXOP under Poisson traffic. The performance results show that the TXOP scheme can not only support service differentiation but also improve the network performance, whereas the AIFS and CW schemes provide QoS differentiation only. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the MAC buffer size has considerable impact on the QoS performance of EDCA under Poisson traffic. To investigate the performance of EDCA in wireless multimedia networks, an analytical model is further developed for EDCA under heterogeneous traffic. The performance results demonstrate the significant effects of heterogeneous traffic on the total delay and frame losses of EDCA with different buffer sizes. Finally, an efficient admission control scheme is presented for the IEEE 802.11e WLANs based on analytical modelling and a game-theoretical approach. The admission control scheme can maintain the system operation at an optimal point where the utility of the Access Point (AP) is maximized with the QoS constraints of various users.
    • Analysis and modelling of the impact of anomalous propagation on terrestrial microwave links in a subtropical region, based on long-term measurements. Statistical analysis of long-term meteorological and signal strength measurements in a subtropical region and investigation of the impact of anomalous refractivity profiles on radio propagation in terrestrial microwave wireless systems

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Al-Ahmad, Hussain; Aboualmal, Abdulhadi M.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2015)
      Prevailing propagation phenomena in certain areas play a vital role in deciding terrestrial wireless systems performance. Vertical refractivity profile below 1 km is a critical parameter for designing reliable systems; noting that there is a shortage of upper-air data worldwide. Anomalous phenomena may cause severe signal fading and interference beyond the horizon. The objectives of this thesis are to investigate dominant refractive conditions in the subtropical Arabian Gulf region, develop new approaches and empirical models for evaluating vertical refractivity profiles and relevant propagation parameters in the low troposphere, and to examine the impact of frequently experienced anomalous phenomena on terrestrial microwave links. Twenty-three years of meteorological measurements, from 1990 to 2013, are utilized using spatially separated surface stations and a single radiosonde in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Profiles of sea level, surface and upper refractivity components are statistically analysed. Three major atmospheric layers; namely 65 m, 100 m and 1 km above the ground are studied to analyse relevant propagation parameters such as sub-refraction, super-refraction, anomalous propagation probability parameter β0 and point refractivity gradient not exceeded for 1% of time. The effective earth radius factor k is investigated using a new weighted averaged approach. In addition, the seasonal structure of atmospheric ducting is dimensioned within 350 m layer above ground. Finally, microwave measurement campaign is conducted using multiple radio links operating in UAE using various frequency bands. The link budget simulations are compared with the signal strength measurements. Fading scenarios are studied against the observed anomalous conditions and several recommendations are concluded.
    • Analysis and solutions for RFID tag and RFID reader deployment in wireless communications applications. Simulation and measurement of linear and circular polarised RFID tag and reader antennas and analysing the tags radiation efficiency when operated close to the human body.

      Rajamani, Haile S.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Al Khambashi, Majid S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2014-05-07)
      The aim of this study is to analysis, investigate and find out the solutions for the problems associated with the implementations of antennas RFID Reader and Tag for various applications. In particular, the efficiency of the RFID reader antenna and the detection range of the RFID tag antenna, subject to a small and compact antenna¿s design configuration have been studied. The present work has been addressed directly to reduce the cost, size and increase the detection range and communication reliability of the RFID framework antennas. Furthermore, the modelling concept of RFID passive tags mounted on various materials including the novel design of RFID reader antenna using Genetic Algorithm (GA) are considered and discussed to maintain reliable and efficient antenna radiation performances. The main benefit of applying GA is to provide fast, accurate and reliable solutions of antenna¿s structure. Therefore, the GA has been successfully employed to design examples: meander-line, two linear cross elements and compact Helical- Spiral antennas. In addition, a hybrid method to model the human body interaction with RFID tag antenna operating at 900MHz has been studied. The near field distribution and the radiation pattern together with the statistical distribution of the radiation efficiency and the absorbed power in terms of cumulative distribution functions for different orientation and location of RFID¿s tag antenna on the human body have been demonstrated. Several tag antennas wi th symmetrical and unsymmetrical structure configurations operating in the European UHF band 850-950 MHz have been fabricated and tested. . The measured and simulated results have been found to be in a good agreement with reasonable impedance matching to the typical input impedance of an RFID integrated circuit chip and nominal power gain and radiation patterns.