Browsing Theses by Subject "X-ray diffraction"
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Investigating co-crystallisation of primary amides and carboxylic acids. Comparative analysis of Benzamide, Isonicotinamide and Nicotinamide co-crystal growth with carboxylic acid.Crystal Engineering is the design of crystalline material using non-covalent synthesis. Co-crystals are multi-component crystals which are constructed from complementary intermolecular interactions, they are also known as supramolecular complexes. Design of such materials utilises the synthon approach, this involves the understanding of common intermolecular interactions which occur in the crystal packing and is used to design new solids with desired physical properties and chemical properties. Primary amides form supramolecular heterosynthons, these synthons represent an opportunity for a design of multi-component crystals in which one molecule contains a primary amide and a second molecule which is complimentary to the primary amide, usually carboxylic acids. The progress with regards to the screening process for the determination of co-crystals is evident in the literature, In particular, high throughput solution growth methods and solvent drop grinding. The comparison of Isonicotinamide and Benzamide as a co-crystal component has been presented. This study was motivated by the observation that the CSD contains 24 Isonicotinamide and 1 Benzamide co-crystal. The interaction with carboxylic acids is the focus of the work, in particular those which form Isonicotinamide co-crystal are being screened with Benzamide. Our work utilises a ReactArray Microvate to carry out the low throughput solution growth on a matrix of carboxylic acid with Benzamide, this study has been coupled with the Kofler hot stage microscope method which visually aids to screen and view co-crystal phase formation. Crystallisation screens have resulted in the identification of known co-crystal phases of Isonicotinamide and Benzamide, additionally new co-crystal phases have also been identified with Fumaric, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, Mandelic Acid, 4-Nitrobenzoic Acid and Tartaric Acid. Single crystal structures of the Fumaric and 4-Nitrobenzoic acid have been obtained. In order to develop an understanding of co-crystal formation in Isonicotinamide and Benzamide with our supramolecular library, packing landscape analysis is being undertaken using both the CSD and crystal structures we have obtained. This is undertaken as collaboration with Dr Andy Parkin and Professor Gilmore (University of Glasgow), we have identified that the dSNAP analysis is a way forward for the analysis of how co-crystals pack. The analysis highlighted the subtleties that were present in the packing motifs of the Isonicotinamide co-crystals. In particular the cis and trans orientation of the amide and acid carbonyl to each other and the planar and off planar layer assemblies. All of which are required to maximise the hydrogen bond usage of the components comprising the co-crystals. Further investigations have led to the collaborative project with Syngenta Ltd in the design of a co-crystal screen using a high through-put robot, Crissy® -Automation Platform by Zinsser Analytical, using an extended screen of 16 acid coformers with Isonicotinamide, Benzamide and Nicotinamide the sample have been characterised using a reflectance diffraction method, GADDS. Further analysis of this data involves the use of polySNAP, which has led to further collaboration with Professor Gilmore¿s group.