Browsing Theses by Subject "Water contaminants"
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Experimental and kinetic modelling of multicomponent gas/liquid ozone reactions in aqueous phase. Experimental investigation and Matlab modelling of the ozone mass transfer and multicomponent chemical reactions in a well agitatated semi-batch gas/liquid reactor.Due to the ever increasing concerns about pollutants and contaminants found in water, new treatment technologies have been developed. Ozonation is one of such technologies. It has been widely applied in the treatment of pollutants in water and wastewater treatment processes. Ozone has many applications such as oxidation of organic components, mineral matter, inactivation of viruses, cysts, bacteria, removal of trace pollutants like pesticides and solvents, and removal of tastes and odours. Ozone is the strongest conventional oxidant that can result in complete mineralisation of the organic pollutants to carbon dioxide and water. Because ozone is unstable, it is generally produced onsite in gas mixtures and is immediately introduced to water using gas/liquid type reactors (e.g. bubble columns). The ozone reactions are hence of the type gas liquid reactions, which are complex to model since they involve both chemical reactions, which occur in the liquid phase, and mass transfer from the gas to the liquid phase. This study focuses on two aspects: mass transfer and chemical reactions in multicomponent systems. The mass transfer parameters were determined by experiments under different conditions and the chemical reactions were studied using single component and multicomponent systems. Two models obtained from the literature were adapted to the systems used in this study. Mass transfer parameters in the semi-batch reactor were determined using oxygen and ozone at different flow rates in the presence and absence of t-butanol. t-Butanol is used as a radical scavenger in ozonation studies and it has been found to affect the gas¿liquid mass transfer rates. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of t-butanol concentrations on the physical properties of aqueous solutions, including surface tension and viscosity. It was found that t-butanol reduced both properties by 4% for surface tension and by a surprising 30% for viscosity. These reductions in the solution physical properties were correlated to enhancement in the mass transfer coefficient, kL. The mass transfer coefficient increased by about 60% for oxygen and by almost 50% for ozone. The hydrodynamic behaviour of the system used in this work was characterised by a homogeneous bubbling regime. It was also found that the gas holdup was significantly enhanced by the addition of t-butanol. Moreover, the addition of t-butanol was found to significantly reduce the size of gas bubbles, leading to enhancement in the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, kLa. The multicomponent ozonation was studied with two systems, slow reactions when alcohols were used and fast reactions when endocrine disrupting compounds were used. ii These experiments were simulated by mathematical models. The alcohols were selected depending on their volatilization at different initial concentrations and different gas flow rates. The degradation of n-propanol as a single compound was studied at the lowest flow rate of 200 mL/min. It was found that the degradation of n-propanol reached almost 60% within 4 hours. The degradation of the mixture was enhanced with an increase in the number of components in the mixture. It was found that the degradation of the mixture as three compounds reached almost 80% within four hours while the mixture as two compounds reached almost 70%. The effect of pH was studied and it was found that an increase in pH showed slight increase in the reaction. Fast reactions were also investigated by reacting endocrine disrupting chemicals with ozone. The ozone reactions with the endocrine disrupters were studied at different gas flow rates, initial concentrations, ozone concentrations and pH. The degradation of 17¿-estradiol (E2) as a single compound was the fastest, reaching about 90% removal in almost 5 minutes. However estrone (E1) degradation was the lowest reaching about 70% removal at the same time. The degradation of mixtures of the endocrine disruptors was found to proceed to lower percentages than individual components under the same conditions. During the multicomponent ozonation of the endocrine disruptors, it was found that 17¿-estradiol (E2) converted to estrone (E1) at the beginning of the reaction. A MATLAB code was developed to predict the ozone water reactions for single component and multicomponent systems. Two models were used to simulate the experimental results for single component and multicomponent systems. In the case of single component system, good simulation of both reactions (slow and fast) by model 1 was obtained. However, model 2 gave good agreement with experimental results only in the case of fast reactions. In addition, model 1 was applied for multicomponent reactions (both cases of slow and fast reaction). In the multicomponent reactions by model 1, good agreement with the experimental results was also obtained for both cases of slow and fast reactions.