Browsing Theses by Subject "Warm forging"
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Design and processing of low alloy high carbon steels by powder metallurgy. P/M processing and liquid phase sintering of newly designed low-alloy high carbon steels based on Fe-0.85Mo-C-Si-Mn with high toughness and strength.The work presented has the ultimate aim to increase dynamic mechanical properties by improvements in density and optimisation of microstructure of ultra high carbon PM steels by careful selection of processes, i.e. mixing, binding, alloying, heating profile and intelligent heat treatment. ThermoCalc modelling was employed to predict liquid phase amounts for two different powder grades, Astaloy 85Mo or Astaloy CrL with additive elements such as (0.4-0.6wt%)Si, (1.2-1.4wt%)C and (1-1.5wt%)Mn, in the sintering temperature range 1285-1300ºC and such powder mixes were pressed and liquid phase sintered. In high-C steels carbide networks form at the prior particle boundaries, leading to brittleness, unless the steel is heat-treated. To assist the breaking up of these continuous carbide networks, 0.4-0.6% silicon, in the form of silicon carbide, was added. The water gas shift reaction (C + H2O = CO + H2, start from ~500ºC) and Boudouard reaction (from ~500ºC complete ~930ºC) form CO gas in the early part of sintering and can lead to large porosity, which lowers mechanical properties. With the use of careful powder drying, low dew point atmospheres and optimisation of heating profiles, densities in excess of 7.70g/cm3 were attained. The brittle microstructure, containing carbide networks and free of cracks, is transformed by intelligent heat treatment to a tougher one of ferrite plus sub-micron spheroidised carbides. This gives the potential for production of components, which are both tough and suitable for sizing to improve dimensional tolerance. Yield strengths up to 410 MPa, fracture strengths up to 950 MPa and strains of up to 16 % were attained. Forging experiments were subsequently carried out for spheroidised specimens of Fe-0.85Mo+06Si+1.4C, for different strain rates of 10-3, 10-2, 10-1 and 1sec-1 and heated in argon to 700¿C, density ~7.8g/cm3 and 769 MPa yield strength were obtained.