• The contributions of Sustainable Healthy Workplaces to the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

      Archibong, Uduak E.; McClelland, Gabrielle T.; Adeka, Saudat O.
      The study aimed to examine the contributions of two corporate, non-health, transnational, Sustainable Healthy Workplaces (SHWs) to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) in Nigeria. The research questions in this study sought to determine the contributions made by SHWs to combating malaria and ‘other diseases’ and ensuring gender equality in health at work, thus ascertaining the contributions of the studied organisations to the MDGs 3 and 6 in Nigeria. A qualitative, eclectic case study of two SHWs was carried out. Data were sourced through documentary analysis and the use of semi-structured interviews, with 22 and 13 purposive sampled participants at organisations ‘A’ and ‘B’ respectively. Also, descriptive and thematic data analyses were utilised for numerical and textual data respectively, and these analyses were then compared and interpreted. The results showed that both organisations contributed to the achievement of the two MDGs studied with policies and practices that were available but inadequate. Both implemented relevant and gender-specific policies but conducted inadequate workplace health promotion programmes (WHPPs). Organisation ‘B’ had basic structural facilities to promote healthy lifestyle choices, which were missing at organisation ‘A’. Given this, there was no record of significant levels of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at organisation ‘B’, unlike organisation ‘A’ with its remarkable record. A decline in reported cases of malaria (a communicable disease - CD) occurred throughout the study period at organisation ‘A’, with the highest recorded in 2012 (25.4%) and the lowest in 2014 (21.8%). No pattern was observed at organisation ‘B’ but the highest incidence of this disease was recorded in 2014 (75.6%) and the lowest in 2013 (30.7%). At organisation ‘A’, there was a steady rise in sickness absences among male employees, contrary to the documented decline among that of female employees. No consistent pattern was observed regarding sickness absence for gender categories at organisation ‘B’. Deaths were recorded at organisation ‘A’ during the study period, except in 2014 when there were none. Organisation ‘B’ had no recorded mortality throughout the entire study period. The findings from the literature review, using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) and Clearinghouse for Labour Evaluation and Research (CLEAR) checklists for quality assessment of the selected articles, showed that any effort aimed at preventing and combating diseases while ensuring gender equality in health among the workforce had a positive impact on stakeholders. This led to the most important element of the social and economic development agenda, including the MDGs, being addressed. Additionally, findings from organisations ‘A’ and ‘B’ revealed positive, but inadequate, and varied contributions to the attainment of the MDGs, with better performance recorded at organisation ‘B’. This implied the need for these organisations to have done more in order to make a better contribution to the MDGs. The MDGs had 2015 as their target date, but they have now been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Hence, the lesson learnt from MDGs can be transferred to the implementation of the current SDGs, which are termed the ‘Global Goals’.
    • Development of a health safety and environment (HSE) performance review. Methodology for the oil and gas industry in Libya

      Henry, R.M.; Ahmed, Giuma A.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      The oil and gas industry in Libya has suffered a number of health and safety accidents including environmental disasters due to the nature of the work involved and the hazardous materials it handles in all facets of exploration and production. Such issues have hitherto not received due attention by the Libyan Authorities. The fact that strict HSE assessment standards are neither well-defined nor established in Libya is not helpful. Furthermore, oil and gas industry in new free Libya has suffered immensely during the 2011 Arab Spring and its rebuilding poses a number of critical HSE challenges. The purpose of the research is to develop and validate a HSE Performance Review Methodology for Libyan oil and gas industry based on clearly defined and measurable aspects for assessment. The thesis starts by performing a comprehensive literature review on all aspects of HSE including universal standards. The review indicates that there is a gap in respect of semi-qualitative methods for assessing HSE performance commensurate with other disciplines. The thesis then identifies four key research problems in the context of Libyan oil and gas industries. Based on these problems, an empirical research was conducted and included three distinct Stages. Stage 1 consisted of a pilot study based on an interview questionnaire with 15 experienced HSE professionals working in oil and gas companies in Libya to help identify key issues pertaining to HSE assessment. Data analysis results for Stage 2 have been used to derive a list of 12 main groups of HSE questions which have then been tested on 84 HSE professionals working in Libya stemming from 35 medium and large oil and gas companies. Modal distribution analyses have been performed to scope down the number of HSE performance factors, which would then be used in Stage 3 of the empirical research. This consisted of issuing the same 84 interviewees with a questionnaire requesting their assessment of how Critical, Important and Less Important were the 60 factors identified. Central Tendency, Variation Ratios and Indices of Diversity were used to successfully analyse the data. With the QAA Subject Review in mind as a potential model for the sought methodology, and a mapping of the four research problems with data analysis results from Stages 1, 2 and 3; six HSE Performance Review Aspects emerged: Prevention, Surveillance, Response, Achievements, Resource and HSE Management and Enhancement – judged and graded using a 1 to 4 scale. The HSE Performance Review methodology has been validated by direct application to five comprehensive studies starting from the self-assessment document written by the companies, an extensive review visit by peer-assessors and a final report showing grades, benchmarks and shortcomings. Lessons learned from the validation exercise have been used to revise the definition of the six Aspects and used to propose an appropriate implementation plan in Libya. The results of the validation exercise are very encouraging and readily confirm that the methodology can be applied to other industry sectors.