Browsing Theses by Subject "Quality by design"
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Thermal and rheological approaches for the systematic enhancement of pharmaceutical polymeric coating formulations. Effects of additives on glass transition temperature, dynamic mechanical properties and coating performance in aqueous and solvent-free coating process using DSC, shear rheometry, dissolution, light profilometry and dynamic mechanical analysis.Additives, incorporated in film coating formulations, and their process parameters are generally selected using a trial-and-error approach. However, coating problems and defects, especially those associated with aqueous coating systems, indicate the necessity of embracing a quality-by-design approach to identify the optimum coating parameters. In this study, the feasibility of using thermal and rheological measurements to help evaluate and design novel coating formulations has been investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), an enteric coating polymer, was used as the film forming polymer. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), and Parallel Plate Shear Rheometery (PPSR) were used to evaluate the effect of different plasticisers on the performance of HPMCAS. The results illustrate that, for identical formulations, the DSC and DMA methods yielded up to 40% differences in glass transition temperature (Tg) values. Moreover, Tg measured using loss modulus signals were always 20-30 oC less than those measured using tan delta results in DMA testing. Absolute and relative Tg values can significantly vary depending on the geometry of the samples, clamp size, temperature ramping rate and the frequency of the oscillations. Complex viscosity data for different formulations demonstrated a variable shear thinning behaviour and a Tg independent ranking. It is, therefore, insufficient to rely purely on Tg values to determine the relative performance of additives. In addition, complex viscosity results, obtained using both the DMA and PPSR techniques at similar temperatures, are shown to be comparable. The results from both techniques were therefore used to produce continuous master curves for the HPMCAS formulations. Additionally, step strain tests showed that HPMCAS chains do not fully III disentangle after 105 seconds as predicted by the Maxwell model. Finally, in situ aqueous-based coating experiments proved that mixtures of triethyl acetyl citrate and acetylated monoglyceride (TEAC/AMG), even without cooling of the suspension, do not cause blocking of the spray nozzle whereas triethyl citrate (TEC) based formulae did. TEAC (alone or in a combination with AMG) exhibits superior wettability to HPMCAS than TEC/AMG formulations and can be used to enhance the efficiency and film quality of the dry coating process.