• Development of a Dry Powder Inhaler and Nebulised Nanoparticle-Based Formulations of Curcuminoids for the Potential Treatment of Lung Cancer. Development of Drug Delivery Formulations of Curcuminoids to the Lungs using Air Jet Milling and Sonocrystallisation Techniques for Dry Powder Inhaler Preparations; and Nanoemulsion and Microsuspension for Nebuliser Formulations

      Assi, Khaled H.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Al Ayoub, Yuosef (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2017)
      Curcuminoids have strong anticancer activities but have low bioavailability. The highest rate of cancer deaths comes from lung tumours; therefore, inhaled curcuminoids could treat lung cancer locally. To date, there are no nebulised formulations of curcuminoids, and there are no inhalable curcuminoids particles without excipients using air jet mill and sonocrystallisation methods for DPI formulations. It is the first time; the aerodynamic parameters of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were measured individually using NGI. The size, shape, free surface energy, and the crystal polymorphism of the produced inhalable curcuminoid particles were characterised using laser diffraction, SEM, IGC, DSC and XRPD, respectively. Several DPI formulations with a variable particle size of curcuminoids were prepared in two drug-carrier ratios (1:9 and 1:67.5). The best performance of the DPI formulations of the sonocrystallised particles, which exist in crystal structure form1, were obtained from ethanol- heptane, as illustrated FPF 43.4%, 43.6% and 43.4% with MMAD of 3.6µm, 3.5µm and 3.4µm, whereas the best DPI formulation of the air jet milled particles was presented FPF 38.0%, 38.9%, and 39.5% with MMAD of 3.6µm, 3.4µm and 3.2µm for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, respectively. Nebulised curcuminoids using nanoemulsion and microsuspension formulations were prepared. The physical properties, such as osmolality, pH and the viscosity of the aerosolised nanoemulsion and the microsuspension formulations were determined. The FPF% and MMAD of nebulised nanoemulsion ranged from 44% to 50% and from 4.5µm to 5.5µm respectively. In contrast, the FPF% of microsuspension ranged from 26% to 40% and the MMAD from 5.8µm to 7.05µm. A HPLC method was developed and validated in order to be used in the determination of curcuminoids from an aqueous solution.
    • Use of nanoemulsion liquid chromatography (NELC) for the analysis of inhaled drugs. Investigation into the application of oil-in-water nanoemulsion as mobile phase for determination of inhaled drugs in dosage forms and in clinical samples.

      Assi, Khaled H.; Clark, Brian J.; Althanyan, Mohammed S. (University of BradfordPostgraduate Studies in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Institute of Pharmaceutical Innovation., 2011-11-09)
      There has been very little research into the bioanalytical application of Microemulsion High Performance Liquid Chromatography (MELC), a recently established technique for separating an active pharmaceutical ingredient from its related substances and for determining the quantity of active drug in a dose. Also, the technique is not good at separating hydrophilic drugs of very similar chemical structures. Different phase diagrams of oil (octane or ethyl acetate), co-surfactant (butanol), surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or Brij-35) and buffer (Phosphate pH 3) were developed and several nanoemulsion mobile phases identified. Nanoemulsion mobile phase that is, prepared with SDS, octane, butanol and a phosphate buffer, failed to separate hydrophilic compounds with a very close chemical structure, such as terbutaline and salbutamol. A nanoemulsion mobile phase containing a non-ionic surfactant (Brij-35) with ethyl acetate, butanol and a phosphate buffer, was, however, successful in achieving a base line separation, and the method was validated for simultaneous determination of terbutaline and salbutamol in aqueous and urine samples. An oil-in-water (O/W) NELC method was developed and validated for the determination of formoterol in an Oxis® Turbuhaler® using pre-column fluorescence derivatisation. Although the same mobile phase was extended for separation of formoterol in urine, the formoterol peak¿s overlap with endogenous peaks meant that fluorescence detection could not determine formoterol in urine samples. Solid phase extraction, concentrating the final analyte 40 times, enabled determination of a low concentration of formoterol in urine samples by UV detection. The method was validated and an acceptable assay precision %CV <4.89 inter-day and %CV <2.33 intra-day was achieved. Then after the application of O/W nanoemulsion mobile phase for HPLC was extended for the separation of lipophilic drugs. The nanoemulsion liquid chromatography (NELC) method was optimised for the determination of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate in good validation data was achieved. This thesis shows that, in general, the performance of O/W NELC is superior to that of conventional High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for the analysis of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs in inhaled dosage formulations and urine samples. It has been shown that NELC uses cheaper solvents and that analysis time is faster for aqueous and urine samples. This considerable saving in both cost and time will potentially improve efficiency within quality control.