• Specificity of aldehyde oxidase towards N-heterocyclic cations. Oxidation of quinolinium and related cations by aldehyde oxidase in vitro; the isolation of two products formed simultaneously from a single substrate.

      Stell, J. Godfrey P.; Beedham, Christine; Taylor, Susan M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2009-10-02)
      Aldehyde oxidase catalysed oxidation of various quinolinium and related cations has been studied in vitro. Oxidation products were identified by comparison of their spectral and chromatographic characteristics with those of authentic compounds. The N-heterocyclic cations and quinolones used required synthesis. Incubation of N-methylquinolinium, N-methyl-7,8-benzoquinolinium and N-phenylquinolinium yielded the corresponding 2- and 4-quinolones simultaneously. The ratio of 2- to 4-quinolone formation was found to be species dependent; the proportion of 4-quinolone was greater with guinea pig enzyme than with rabbit enzyme. Incubation of N-methyl-4-methylquinolinium, N-methyl-4-phenylquinolinium and N-methylphenanthridinium produced the expected 2-quinolones. Cations substituted adjacent to the ring nitrogen, i. e. N-methyl-2- methylquinolinium, N-methyl-2-phenylquinolinium and N-phenyl-2-phenylquinolinium, were oxidised to the corresponding 4-quinolones. Kinetic constants were determined spectrophotometrically. The Km values obtained with rabbit enzyme ranged from 1.6 x 10-3 M for N-methylquinolinium to <10-5 M for N-phenyl-2-phenylquinolinium. Quaternary compounds were found to be better substrates than their non-quaternary counterparts, except for N-methylisoquinolinium and N-methylphenanthridinium. In general, guinea pig aldehyde oxidase was shown to have a greater affinity for N-heterocyclic cations than rabbit enzyme. The substrate binding site has been discussed in the light of the results outlined below. Oxidation of N-methyl-4-phenylquinolinium (to the 2-quinolone) was competitively inhibited by N-methyl-2-phenylquinolinium (which yields the 4-quinolone), indicating that both these cations interact at the same active site. The ratio of 2- to 4-quinolone production from N-methylquinolinium was constant under various conditions, including purification of the enzyme but changed at high pH or in the presence of N-methylphenanthridinium. Inhibition studies indicated that both quaternary and non-quaternary compounds act at the same site on the enzyme. Km and Vmax values for phthalazine, N-methyl-2-phenylquinolinium and N-methylquinolinium were determined over the pH range 5.4 to 10.2. In each case, results indicated that the enzyme has an ionisable group at the active site with a pK ca. 8. Aldehyde oxidase was shown to catalyse the dehydrogenation of the pseudobases 3,4-dihydro-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-quinazolinone and 3,4-dihydro- 4-hydroxy-3-methylquinazoline.