• 3D Facial Feature Extraction and Recognition. An investigation of 3D face recognition: correction and normalisation of the facial data, extraction of facial features and classification using machine learning techniques.

      Ipson, Stanley S.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Al-Qatawneh, Sokyna M.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2011-05-11)
      Face recognition research using automatic or semi-automatic techniques has emerged over the last two decades. One reason for growing interest in this topic is the wide range of possible applications for face recognition systems. Another reason is the emergence of affordable hardware, supporting digital photography and video, which have made the acquisition of high-quality and high resolution 2D images much more ubiquitous. However, 2D recognition systems are sensitive to subject pose and illumination variations and 3D face recognition which is not directly affected by such environmental changes, could be used alone, or in combination with 2D recognition. Recently with the development of more affordable 3D acquisition systems and the availability of 3D face databases, 3D face recognition has been attracting interest to tackle the limitations in performance of most existing 2D systems. In this research, we introduce a robust automated 3D Face recognition system that implements 3D data of faces with different facial expressions, hair, shoulders, clothing, etc., extracts features for discrimination and uses machine learning techniques to make the final decision. A novel system for automatic processing for 3D facial data has been implemented using multi stage architecture; in a pre-processing and registration stage the data was standardized, spikes were removed, holes were filled and the face area was extracted. Then the nose region, which is relatively more rigid than other facial regions in an anatomical sense, was automatically located and analysed by computing the precise location of the symmetry plane. Then useful facial features and a set of effective 3D curves were extracted. Finally, the recognition and matching stage was implemented by using cascade correlation neural networks and support vector machine for classification, and the nearest neighbour algorithms for matching. It is worth noting that the FRGC data set is the most challenging data set available supporting research on 3D face recognition and machine learning techniques are widely recognised as appropriate and efficient classification methods.
    • Engineering System Design for Automated Space Weather Forecast. Designing Automatic Software Systems for the Large-Scale Analysis of Solar Data, Knowledge Extraction and the Prediction of Solar Activities Using Machine Learning Techniques.

      Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Alomari, Mohammad H. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2010-03-03)
      Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are energetic events taking place at the Sun that can affect the space weather or the near-Earth environment by the release of vast quantities of electromagnetic radiation and charged particles. Solar active regions are the areas where most flares and CMEs originate. Studying the associations among sunspot groups, flares, filaments, and CMEs is helpful in understanding the possible cause and effect relationships between these events and features. Forecasting space weather in a timely manner is important for protecting technological systems and human life on earth and in space. The research presented in this thesis introduces novel, fully computerised, machine learning-based decision rules and models that can be used within a system design for automated space weather forecasting. The system design in this work consists of three stages: (1) designing computer tools to find the associations among sunspot groups, flares, filaments, and CMEs (2) applying machine learning algorithms to the associations¿ datasets and (3) studying the evolution patterns of sunspot groups using time-series methods. Machine learning algorithms are used to provide computerised learning rules and models that enable the system to provide automated prediction of CMEs, flares, and evolution patterns of sunspot groups. These numerical rules are extracted from the characteristics, associations, and time-series analysis of the available historical solar data. The training of machine learning algorithms is based on data sets created by investigating the associations among sunspots, filaments, flares, and CMEs. Evolution patterns of sunspot areas and McIntosh classifications are analysed using a statistical machine learning method, namely the Hidden Markov Model (HMM).