• A cell level automated approach for quantifying antibody staining in immunohistochemistry images. A structural approach for quantifying antibody staining in colonic cancer spheroid images by integrating image processing and machine learning towards the implementation of computer aided scoring of cancer markers.

      Jiang, Jianmin; Phillips, Roger M.; Holton, Robert; Khorshed, Reema A.A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-12-09)
      Immunohistological (IHC) stained images occupy a fundamental role in the pathologist¿s diagnosis and monitoring of cancer development. The manual process of monitoring such images is a subjective, time consuming process that typically relies on the visual ability and experience level of the pathologist. A novel and comprehensive system for the automated quantification of antibody inside stained cell nuclei in immunohistochemistry images is proposed and demonstrated in this research. The system is based on a cellular level approach, where each nucleus is individually analyzed to observe the effects of protein antibodies inside the nuclei. The system provides three main quantitative descriptions of stained nuclei. The first quantitative measurement automatically generates the total number of cell nuclei in an image. The second measure classifies the positive and negative stained nuclei based on the nuclei colour, morphological and textural features. Such features are extracted directly from each nucleus to provide discriminative characteristics of different stained nuclei. The output generated from the first and second quantitative measures are used collectively to calculate the percentage of positive nuclei (PS). The third measure proposes a novel automated method for determining the staining intensity level of positive nuclei or what is known as the intensity score (IS). The minor intensity features are observed and used to classify low, intermediate and high stained positive nuclei. Statistical methods were applied throughout the research to validate the system results against the ground truth pathology data. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and provide high accuracy when compared to the ground truth pathology data.
    • Current based condition monitoring of electromechanical systems. Model-free drive system current monitoring: faults detection and diagnosis through statistical features extraction and support vector machines classification.

      Ebrahimi, Kambiz M.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Bin Hasan, M.M.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-02)
      A non-invasive, on-line method for detection of mechanical (rotor, bearings eccentricity) and stator winding faults in a 3-phase induction motors from observation of motor line current supply input. The main aim is to avoid the consequence of unexpected failure of critical equipment which results in extended process shutdown, costly machinery repair, and health and safety problems. This thesis looks into the possibility of utilizing machine learning techniques in the field of condition monitoring of electromechanical systems. Induction motors are chosen as an example for such application. Electrical motors play a vital role in our everyday life. Induction motors are kept in operation through monitoring its condition in a continuous manner in order to minimise their off times. The author proposes a model free sensor-less monitoring system, where the only monitored signal is the input to the induction motor. The thesis considers different methods available in literature for condition monitoring of induction motors and adopts a simple solution that is based on monitoring of the motor current. The method proposed use the feature extraction and Support Vector Machines (SVM) to set the limits for healthy and faulty data based on the statistical methods. After an extensive overview of the related literature and studies, the motor which is the virtual sensor in the drive system is analysed by considering its construction and principle of operation. The mathematical model of the motor is used for analysing the system. This is followed by laboratory testing of healthy motors and comparing their output signals with those of the same motors after being intentionally failed, concluding with the development of a full monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring system is proposed that can detect the presence of a fault in the monitored machine and diagnose the fault type and severity
    • A Framework for Efficient Management of Fault Tolerance in Cloud Data Centres and High-Performance Computing Systems: An Investigation and Performance analysis of a Cloud Based Virtual Machine Success and Failure Rate in a typical Cloud Computing Environment and Prediction Methods

      Awan, Irfan U.; Ugail, Hassan; Kiran, Mariam; Mohammed, Bashir
      Cloud computing is increasingly attracting huge attention both in academic research and industry initiatives and has been widely used to solve advanced computation problem. As cloud datacentres continue to grow in scale and complexity, the risk of failure of Virtual Machines (VM) and hosts running several jobs and processing large amount of user request increases and consequently becomes even more difficult to predict potential failures within a datacentre. However, even though fault tolerance continues to be an issue of growing concern in cloud and HPC systems, mitigating the impact of failure and providing accurate predictions with enough lead time remains a difficult research problem. Traditional existing fault-tolerance strategies such as regular check-point/restart and replication are not adequate due to emerging complexities in the systems and do not scale well in the cloud due to resource sharing and distributed systems networks. In the thesis, a new reliable Fault Tolerance scheme using an intelligent optimal strategy is presented to ensure high system availability, reduced task completion time and efficient VM allocation process. Specifically, (i) A generic fault tolerance algorithm for cloud data centres and HPC systems in the cloud was developed. (ii) A verification process is developed to a fully dimensional VM specification during allocation in the presence of fault. In comparison to existing approaches, the results obtained shows an increase in success rate of the VMs, a reduction in response time of VM allocation and an improved overall performance. (iii) A failure prediction model is further developed, and the predictive capabilities of machine learning is explored by applying several algorithms to improve the accuracy of prediction. Experimental results indicate that the average prediction accuracy of the proposed model when predicting failure is about 90% accurate compared to existing algorithms, which implies that the approach can effectively predict potential system and application failures within the system.
    • Phishing website detection using intelligent data mining techniques. Design and development of an intelligent association classification mining fuzzy based scheme for phishing website detection with an emphasis on E-banking.

      Hossain, M. Alamgir; Dahal, Keshav P.; Thabtah, Fadi; Abur-rous, Maher Ragheb Mohammed (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2011-05-06)
      Phishing techniques have not only grown in number, but also in sophistication. Phishers might have a lot of approaches and tactics to conduct a well-designed phishing attack. The targets of the phishing attacks, which are mainly on-line banking consumers and payment service providers, are facing substantial financial loss and lack of trust in Internet-based services. In order to overcome these, there is an urgent need to find solutions to combat phishing attacks. Detecting phishing website is a complex task which requires significant expert knowledge and experience. So far, various solutions have been proposed and developed to address these problems. Most of these approaches are not able to make a decision dynamically on whether the site is in fact phished, giving rise to a large number of false positives. This is mainly due to limitation of the previously proposed approaches, for example depending only on fixed black and white listing database, missing of human intelligence and experts, poor scalability and their timeliness. In this research we investigated and developed the application of an intelligent fuzzy-based classification system for e-banking phishing website detection. The main aim of the proposed system is to provide protection to users from phishers deception tricks, giving them the ability to detect the legitimacy of the websites. The proposed intelligent phishing detection system employed Fuzzy Logic (FL) model with association classification mining algorithms. The approach combined the capabilities of fuzzy reasoning in measuring imprecise and dynamic phishing features, with the capability to classify the phishing fuzzy rules. Different phishing experiments which cover all phishing attacks, motivations and deception behaviour techniques have been conducted to cover all phishing concerns. A layered fuzzy structure has been constructed for all gathered and extracted phishing website features and patterns. These have been divided into 6 criteria and distributed to 3 layers, based on their attack type. To reduce human knowledge intervention, Different classification and association algorithms have been implemented to generate fuzzy phishing rules automatically, to be integrated inside the fuzzy inference engine for the final phishing detection. Experimental results demonstrated that the ability of the learning approach to identify all relevant fuzzy rules from the training data set. A comparative study and analysis showed that the proposed learning approach has a higher degree of predictive and detective capability than existing models. Experiments also showed significance of some important phishing criteria like URL & Domain Identity, Security & Encryption to the final phishing detection rate. Finally, our proposed intelligent phishing website detection system was developed, tested and validated by incorporating the scheme as a web based plug-ins phishing toolbar. The results obtained are promising and showed that our intelligent fuzzy based classification detection system can provide an effective help for real-time phishing website detection. The toolbar successfully recognized and detected approximately 92% of the phishing websites selected from our test data set, avoiding many miss-classified websites and false phishing alarms.