Browsing Theses by Subject "Laminar conditions"
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Laminar heat transfer to Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids in tubes. Temperature and velocity profiles were determined experimentally for heating and cooling of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in tubes and the results compared with theoretical predictions incorporating a temperature-dependent viscosity.This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and experimental study of the hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of viscous fluids flowing in tubes under laminar conditions. Particular attention has been given to the effects of the rheological properties and their variation with temperature. A review of problems of this type showed that in spite of the many potential applications of the results in a wide range of industries the subject had not been well developed and further work is justified in order to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge. The early part of the thesis considers the justification of the work in this way and sets down the scope and objectives. A computer progracune was then developed to allow the governing equations of the problem to be solved numerically to give the velocity and temperature profiles and pressure drop for both heating and cooling conditions. The results were also presented in the form of Nusselt numbers as a function of the Graetz numberp since this form is useful for engineering design purposes. The validity of the predictions were then checked by a programme of experimental work. Temperature and velocity profiles have been measured in order to provide a more severe test of the theory than could be imposed by the measurement of overall heat transfer rates. A combined thermocouple probe/Pitot tube was developed to allow simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature to be made. A Newtonian oil and two non-Newtonian Carbopol solutions were studied. This is the first time that velocity and temperature profiles have been measured for non-Newtonian fluids in this type of situation. The results of the work heve shown that (a) the velocity and temperature profiles and pressure drops are greatly affected by the temperature dependence of the rheological properties and since real viscous fluids are normally very temperature-sensitive it is important that this effect is properly taken into account. (b) the engineering design correlations commonly used for the prediction of heat transfer coefficients can be seriously in error, especially for cooling conditions and when non-Nevitonian fluids are being considered. (c) a mathematical model can be developed which accurately describes all the phenomena and gives predictions which are very close to those observed experimentally. An important objective was to develop more accurate engineering design correlations for non-isothermal pressure drop and heat transfer rates.