• Development of National Drug Policy in the State of Kuwait

      Clark, Brian J.; Alali, Khaled Y.A.A (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2016)
      This Thesis examines the benefits and usefulness of a National Drug Policy (NDP) for the developing of the Health Care System in Kuwait. The NDP is one of the most important structures of the Health System which can lead to improved health services by establishing guidelines, proposals and directives to organize, structure and regulate health legislation; it is of help to ensure the availability of quality, safety and efficacy in using medicines and it can reduce the irrational use of medicines. The NDP is a frame work between the government, schools and universities, media, health professionals, pharmaceutical industries and companies and public. It is cooperation between the public and private sectors to achieve the goal of access to good quality medicines for all. However there are many key factors which need to be examined before the National Drug Policy is introduced and these are considered the baseline for establishing a good policy, and includes; selection of essential drugs, affordability of drugs, drug financing, supply management, drug regulation, rational use of drugs, drugs registration, purchasing of drugs, health research and human resource development. During this research study from 2012 – 2015 several visits to the public and private health areas, were undertaken. At this time there were discussions with 121 health professionals and data was collected and this indicated that in Kuwait there are no such policies. This is despite the availability of financial means, specialized human resources and the existence of the ministerial decisions and regulations governing the health sector in both public and private, whether hospitals, health centers, pharmacies and health departments. In addition it is suggested that the process of a good NDP should be built around 3 main components which includes: 1.Development, 2. Implementation and 3. Monitoring and Evaluation. Therefore the establishing of a NDP without implementation and monitoring is not enough and does not achieve the desired results. The aim of this Thesis is to establish a NDP in the State of Kuwait. This policy is necessary for the State of Kuwait to ensure development an improvement of the Health Care System and ensure better health for population.
    • An empirical study of IT based knowledge management systems implementation: A comparative study with the Kuwait and the UK public sectors and proposed model for best practice knowledge management.

      Zairi, Mohamed; Alazmi, Mutiran A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2009-10-21)
      Knowledge Management (KM) helps extend the knowledge of individuals or groups across organisations in ways that directly affect performance. Further, it is a formalised and integrated approach to identify and manage an organisation's knowledge assets. The study is an exploratory investigation of the implementation of IT-based Knowledge Management Systems. It is also a comparative study of the Kuwait and UK public sectors with the specific aim of building a best practice model for KM implementation in conjunction with IT. This includes examination of the relevant literature, a comprehensive analysis of case studies of KM implementation in 91 organisations presented in the literature, in order to arrive at the most critical factors of KM implementation and their degree of criticality, and an exploratory survey of 68 organisations both in the UK and Kuwait relating to their experiences in implementing initiatives such as KM and the role of IT in that process. In view of the intensive and extensive data for interdependence relationships between variables, statistical techniques were used, and in-depth studies of 16 leading organisations, to understand how the KM implementation processes and the critical factors identified were addressed and implemented. This study identifies critical factors of success in KM domain that applicable to Kuwaiti organisations. These factors were categorised under four different headings: (1) Technology, (2) KM processes, (3) Change management, (4) Top management commitment. A generic holistic model for effective KM implementation is proposed.
    • Establishing an Essential Medicine List for the State of Kuwait

      Clark, Brian J.; Lawler, John A.; Anand, Prathivadi B.; Alayadhi, Nadyah Y.A.H. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences and Faculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
      The Health Sector at the state of Kuwait is facing many challenges. One of which is public expectations in health are high, and thus, the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Kuwait has amplified the health expenditure by 86% since 2007. And since the medicine budget represents half of the total MOH budget, it is proposed that the development in health policy might be a suitable tool to control the inflation within the health budget. This thesis examines the opportunities and challenges of introducing an EML in Kuwait and the factors influencing its effectiveness. A mixed-methodology approach has been used to enhance and validate the data, in the form of interviews, comparative studies and questionnaires. One major limitation to the research was the lack of previous data relating to this work, and the information should be gathered in person in the form of hard copies, and later, the data was analysed using qualitative and quantitative approaches. It has been attained that, the EML might be a valuable tool if adopted and implemented appropriately, EML adjustment to country health situation is crucial for successful utilisation and fulfilling the concept objectives. Standard Treatment Guidelines are fundamental part of EM selection process, in Kuwait there were lack in the uniformity of the local STG, but fortunately, there is an eagerness to innovate, and the medicine situation might benefit from a type of organisation, overall, if the EML implemented efficiently in Kuwait, it might help in improving the general health and control the inflation in MOH budget.
    • Exposing institutional influences on entrepreneurship among Kuwaiti youth

      Parkinson, Caroline; Kalantaridis, Christos; Almethen, Abdullah K.M.K. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, Faculty of Management & Law, 2015)
      This research focuses on the influence of institutions on entrepreneurship among Kuwaiti youth. It aims to capture the role played by institutions on youth entrepreneurship at the backdrop of a dampening ‘spirit’ for it. This research is currently very important due to various economic and geo-political factors leading to an economic downturn, which has led to the need for entrepreneurial ventures. It reviews and consolidates concepts and factors purported to facilitate and increase entrepreneurship for the benefit of the society and economy of Kuwait. This research uses a social constructionist approach to make sense of how institutions influence Kuwaiti youth in their quest to become entrepreneurs. It exposes institutional endorsement and legitimacy from formal and informal institutions. It shows the use of regulative, normative and cognitive dimensions and influences on entrepreneurial intentions and actions. This research shows how institutions interact with Kuwaiti youth and what role they play in the formulation of intentions and actions concerning entrepreneurship. A number of key formal and informal institutions have come to the fore that influence one another (in)directly as living entities, and likewise influence the youth (in)directly. The research contribution also shows that young people have to approach some key institutions and in return their desire to become entrepreneurs is strengthened or weakened depending on how institutions respond and what role they are willing to play in their lives.
    • Human resource development : training and development practices and related organisational factors in Kuwaiti organisations.

      Weir, David; Taylor, David; Al-Ali, Adnan A.S. (University of BradfordManagement Centre, 2011-07-07)
      This study examines and aims to disclose the current policies and practices of Training and Development (T&D) within Kuwaiti government and private/joint-venture organisations. The literature review indicates that although much attention has been devoted in studying Training and Development practices, a very few focus on T&D related factors on organisation performance in developing countries. The literature also indicates the need for considering these factors in order to have a better T&D effectiveness, and hence organisation overall performance. In this study the Training for Impact model was adopted and tested within Kuwaiti context in terms of training needs assessment and evaluation and follow-up. This research uses data collected from 100 organisations in Kuwait. 50 of these were government and 50 private /joint venture listed in Kuwait Stock Exchange. Therefore, all managers (100 training personnel) who are in charge of T&D function/programmes, were samples of the respondents of the present study. The main data collection methods adopted by this study were interviews (semi-structured) and "drop-in and pick-up" self-completion questionnaires. The data were quantitatively analysed and triangulation of quantitative findings was carried out in order to find out the difference between the two sectors in Kuwait in terms of T&D practices and related factors. To establish a causal connection between related factors and identified dimensions (T&D effectiveness, organisational rating, and satisfaction with evaluation process), a multiple regression technique was employed. The major findings of this study are noted below: Results indicate that the majority of the investigated organisations do not have a formal T&D system. T&D programmes are still carried out on a piecemeal basis rather than a systematic long-term policy. Findings which were common among the majority of the approached organisations were absence of a systematic organisational training needs analysis, use of conventional training methods, lack of effective procedures for T&D evaluation. The study explores the training personnel's way of thinking towards their T&D function and to the proposed T&D dimensions framework (integrated HRD strategy, top and line management commitment, a supportive formal system, T&D mechanism, organisational culture, and training budget). The findings indicate that most of the training personnel perceived these dimensions as providing motivation, commitment and support to their T&D function. Six main factors were found to influence T&D practices in government and private/joint venture organisations. These factors are: top management commitment, mutual support between organisational philosophy and T&D activities, line management support T&D involvement in organisation strategy, T&D policies and plans, and T&D effects on employees self-development. The study also identifies T&D effects on organisation performance in Kuwaiti organisations in terms of eliminating problems; increasing commitment and motivation; fulfilling individual needs and personal objectives, improving interpersonal and interdepartmental relations, improving quality of goods and services; and leading to effective utilisation and investment in human resources. In addition the study establishes a causal connection of T&D related factors with performance dimensions, organisation rating, and satisfaction of T&D evaluation. The author recommends that for the T&D function to be treated as seriously as other organisational functions, then Kuwaiti training personnel, as well as top and line management, need to be more willing to play proactive and strategic organisational roles in T&D activities.
    • Identifying organizational learning dimensions that promote patient safety culture: A study of hospital pharmacies in Kuwait

      Johnson, Craig L.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Abdallah, Wael (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2019)
      The need for a positive safety culture in healthcare is essential. It not only advances the prevention and reduction of possible medical errors and threats to patient safety, but also enhances the overall quality of healthcare services provided, especially in respect of medication safety. While the evolution and surge in hospital pharmacies has bolstered treatment possibilities, the risk of harm to patients has also increased as errors in the provision of medication by pharmacists create a threat to patient safety. The increasing need to deploy a protective measure to enhance patient safety culture in the healthcare is imperative suggesting the necessity for the inclusion of new knowledge through the process of organizational learning. Safety culture and organizational learning are complex constructs which may be measured, to some extent, by validated instruments. The current study seeks to assess the reliability and validity of a translated Arabic version of the learning organization survey short-form (LOS-27), and the pharmacy survey on patient safety culture (PSOPSC) through the evaluation of pharmacy staff’s knowledge about organizational learning and patient safety culture in public and private hospital pharmacies of Kuwait. The aim is to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings through the LOS-27 and PSPOSC instruments. In addition, the relationship between the different dimensions of organizational learning and pharmacy patient safety culture is explored. The results highlighted the adequacy of the Arabic translation of the LOS-27 and PSOPSC questionnaires as they depicted the reliability and validity consistent with the original surveys results. It was also found that in the context of Kuwaiti pharmacies, organizational learning was positively related to performance of the staff in creating a positive patient safety culture. Several dimensions of the organizational learning showed association with various elements of patient safety culture in pharmacy settings, specifically: training, management that reinforces learning, and a supportive learning environment had the strongest effects on the pharmacy patient safety culture dimensions. The contribution of this thesis is in three areas. First, it is the first research that links organizational learning with patient safety culture in a hospital pharmacy setting (theoretical contribution). Second, the research is useful for research scholars as it combines the two questionnaires, LOS-27 and PSOPSC, on the same participants using a single form to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in a hospital pharmacy setting and their dimensions (method contribution). Third, this research contributed to the currently limited literature that examines patient safety culture and organizational learning by considering the context of Kuwait (Contextual Contribution).
    • The role of clinical pharmacy in the treatment of hypertension in the State of Kuwait. An analysis of the current treatment of hypertension in Kuwait and the role of the clinical pharmacist in advancing treatment strategies.

      Naylor, Ian; Naylor, Robert J.; Al-Shammari, Ayed M.H.M. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2012-10-31)
      The thesis investigated nicotine levels and their effects on hypertensive subjects and whether aspirin could be used in the treatment of hypertension to bring about not only an anti thrombotic effect but reduce the systemic blood pressure especially in those individuals who smoke cigarettes. The study, which also audits the use of aspirin, was conducted in Kuwait and so provides an insight of hypertensive patients very rarely considered in the literature The thesis begins in Chapter One with an extensive literature review which analyses the properties and problems that nicotine causes and its ability to cause hypertensive changes along with its multitude of other events. The physiological and pathological problems caused by nicotine are reviewed on the basis of its chemistry and pharmacological properties using a worldwide perspective rather than just focus on Kuwait. The second Chapter uses extensive analysis of the literature to determine the pharmacological properties of aspirin and its use in cardiovascular disease. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects are presented with emphasis to its inhibitory effects on platelet activation which is central to the development of serious cardiovascular consequences such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The third Chapter returns to consider the literature in detail and why nicotine has specific effects on the cardiovascular system in terms of receptor stimulation and how aspirin may be able to reduce nicotine¿s cardiovascular effects and concludes with the Aims and Objectives of the thesis. The fourth Chapter investigates urinary nicotine levels in smokers from cigarettes available in Kuwait to indicate the actual levels which could be achieved by smokers in this study. This established that the levels would cause pharmacological effects demonstrating also the effects of passive smoking. The number of cigarettes smoked per day has an unpredictable effect on metabolism and urinary output of nicotine. The fifth Chapter is the major investigational section of the thesis and considers if aspirin ability to reduce cardiovascular effects, may be useful in terms of diastolic blood pressure and lipid levels in the 4 blood. The effects were suggestive that aspirin did reduce the blood pressure in hypertensive subjects but was not universal and was limited to those suffering from mild - moderate hypertension. It was determined that aspirin should be sued at the earliest age possible in these patients. The sixth Chapter involved a large scale trial of the effectiveness of aspirin treatment in hypertensive patients over a one year period in Kuwait. This used ambulatory blood pressure measurements to determine the effectiveness of daytime and nightime changes in blood pressure in patients with and without aspirin treatment. The overall conclusion was a reduced relative risk of suffering cardiovascular events in mild to moderate hypertension when aspirin (75mg/day) was administered. Specifically in smokers, aspirin lowers the systolic daytime BP and diastolic nightime BP. To support this work a comprehensive audit is provided of the use of the current use of aspirin in Kuwait hospitals
    • The role of institutional systems and government policy in securing inward foreign direct investment in Kuwait. The impact of institutional and government policy systems on the inward foreign direct investment decision in Kuwait

      McDonald, Frank; Owens, Martin D.; Alawadhi, Salah A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2014-05-01)
      Promoting economic diversity is important for states reliant on natural resources as the major source of economic development. Many of these states suffer from the Dutch disease leading to negative effects, which hinders economic diversification. One of the ways to reduce dependency on national resources is to encourage Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, which aids diversification by the transfer of technology, the creation of new employment opportunities, and the adoption of modern management practices. The Gulf Council Cooperation (GCC) countries recognised the necessity and benefits of FDI as an aid to economic diversification; it seems, however, that Kuwait is lagging behind in this endeavour. The government of Kuwait has engaged in a series of policy measures to induce Multinational Companies (MNCs) to invest in Kuwait, but the results, thus far, have been disappointing. The formal and informal institutions interact in a variety of ways. However, ineffective formal rules can create different outcomes; particularly, in the presence of strong informal institutions. In such a case, formal rules and procedures are not enforced systematically, that is, enabling actors who are involved in the policy process to ignore or violate them, which subsequently results in a failure to attract inward FDI to a host country. Thus, this study investigates the reasons behind this failure by examining the role of formal and informal institutions on FDI policy and on decisions on whether to grant FDI licences by means of using a New Institutional Economics (NIE) approach. The conceptual framework is used as a guide for an inquiry into the subject of study by constructing a category of intellectual scaffolding, which would provide a coherent structure (Schlager, 2007). The conceptual framework in this study systematically organises the investigation into how a MNC examines a potential investment location by dividing the host country assessments into four distinct ¿stages¿. When systematically conducted, the respective approach is grounded in the existing literature, which provides theories regarding the behaviour of MNCs in relation to their decision-making processes for considering locations for their FDI projects. The research questions derived from the conceptual framework are answered using a mixed methods research approach that uses three sets of data survey, semi-structured interviews, and secondary data. Firstly, the findings show that almost that all MNCs in the Gulf region have a limited awareness regarding investment opportunities in Kuwait, FDI laws and regulations. Secondly, the findings reveal a number of attractive and unattractive locations, and institutional factors of Kuwait. Finally, it is discovered that the high rejection rate of FDI applications is linked to unsuccessful policy implementation, which is a result of interaction of both formal and informal institutions in Kuwait. Subsequently, the results are utilised to make a number of recommendations for government policy makers, administrators, and for MNCs regarding how to improve FDI inflows into Kuwait. The results are also used to contribute towards the international business literature concerning the institution based view of FDI, and for government policy connected to attracting FDI.