• Biometric authentication systems for secured e-transactions in Saudi Arabia. An empirical investigation of the factors affecting users' acceptance of fingerprint authentication systems to improve online security for e-commerce and e-government websites in Saudi Arabia.

      Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Al-Harby, Fahad M. (University of BradfordInformatics Research Institute, 2010-08-19)
      Security is becoming an increasingly important issue for business, and with it comes the need for appropriate authentication; consequently, it is becoming gradually more important to develop secure e-commerce systems. Fraud via the web, identity theft, and phishing are raising concerns for users and financial organisations. In addition, current authentication methods, like passwords, have many problems (e.g. some users write them down, they forget them, or they make them easy to hack). We can overcome these drawbacks by using biometric authentication systems. Biometric systems are being used for personal authentication in response to the rising issue of authentication and security. Biometrics provide much promise, in terms of preserving our identities without the inconvenience of carrying ID cards and/or remembering passwords. This research is important because the securing of e-commerce transactions is becoming increasingly important. Identity theft, hacking and viruses are growing threats to Internet users. As more people use the Internet, more identity theft cases are being reported. This could harm not only the users, but also the reputation of the organisations whose names are used in these illegal acts. For example, in the UK, online banking fraud doubled in 2008 compared to 2007. More users took to e-shopping and online banking, but failed to take necessary protection. For non-western cultures, the figures for web security, in 2008, illustrated that Saudi Arabia was ranked ninth worldwide for users who had been attacked over the web. The above statistics reflect the significance of information security with e-commerce systems. As with any new technology, user acceptance of the new technology is often hard to measure. In this thesis, a study of user acceptance of biometric authentication systems in e-transactions, such as online banking, within Saudi society was conducted. It examined whether Saudis are practically willing to accept this technology. This thesis focuses upon Saudi Arabia, which has developing economy. It has achieved a rapid rate of growth, and therefore makes an interesting and unique case study. From an economist¿s point of view, Saudi Arabia is the powerhouse of the Middle East. It has the leading regional economy, and, even though it is still relatively young. It has a young and rapid growing population; therefore, this makes Saudi Arabia an attractive potential market for all kinds of e-commerce applications. Having said that, with more than half of population under the age of 30 are more to be expected to take the risk of accepting new technology. For this work, 306 Saudi participants were involved in the experiments. A laboratory experiment was created that actively tested a biometric authentication system in combination with a survey. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was adopted in the first experimental phase as the theoretical basis on which to develop the iv research framework, the model has proven its efficiency as a good predictor for the biometric authentication system. Furthermore, in a second experimental phase, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) with moderating variables such as age, gender and education level was examined as a proposed conceptual framework to overcome the limitations of TAM. The aim of the study was to explore factors affecting users¿ acceptance of biometric authentication systems. The findings from Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis indicate that education level is a significant moderating factor, while gender and age do not record as significant. This thesis added new knowledge to this field and highlighted the importance of the perceptions of users regarding biometric security technologies. It helps determine the factors affecting the acceptance of biometric technology. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study of this issue carried out by academic and non-biased researchers in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the thesis presents security technology companies and developers of information security products with information to help in the determination of what is significant to their user base when taking into account the introduction of new secure systems and products.
    • Performance modelling and analysis of e-commerce systems using class based priority scheduling. An investigation into the development of new class based priority scheduling mechanisms for e-commerce system combining different techniques.

      Awan, Irfan U.; Holton, Robert; Younas, M.; Nafea, Ibtehal T. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-11-28)
      Recently, technological developments have affected most lifestyles, especially with the growth in Internet usage. Internet applications highlight the E-commerce capabilities and applications which are now available everywhere; they receive a great number of users on a 24-7 basis because online services are easy to use, faster and cheaper to acquire. Thus E-commerce web sites have become crucial for companies to increase their revenues. This importance has identified certain effective requirements needed from the performance of these applications. In particular, if the web server is overloaded, poor performance can result, due to either a huge rate of requests being generated which are beyond the server¿s capacity, or due to saturation of the communication links capacity which connects the web server to the network. Recent researches consider the overload issue and explore different mechanisms for managing the performance of E-commerce applications under overload condition. This thesis proposes a formal approach in order to investigate the effects of the extreme load and the number of dropped requests on the performance of E- III commerce web servers. The proposed approach is based on the class-based priority scheme that classifies E-commerce requests into different classes. Because no single technique can solve all aspects of overload problems, this research combines several techniques including: admission control mechanism, session-based admission control, service differentiation, request scheduling and queuing model-based approach. Request classification is based on the premise that some requests (e.g. buy) are generally considered more important than others (e.g. browse or search). Moreover, this research considers the extended models from Priority Scheduling Mechanism (PSM). These models add a new parameter, such as a review model or modify the basic PSM to low priority fair model, after the discovery of ineffectiveness with low priority customers or to add new features such as portal models. The proposed model is formally specified using the ¿ -calculus in early stage of models design and a multi-actor simulation was developed to reflect the target models as accurately as possible and is implemented as a Java-based prototype system. A formal specification that captures the essential PSM features while keeping the performance model sufficiently simple is presented. Furthermore, the simplicity of the UML bridges the gap between ¿-calculus and Java programming language. IV There are many metrics for measuring the performance of E-commerce web servers. This research focuses on the performance of E-commerce web servers that refer to the throughput, utilisation, average response time, dropped requests and arrival rate. A number of experiments are conducted in order to test the performance management of the proposed approaches.