• Pieces of a Puzzle: Fitting Electromagnetic Induction into Geophysical Strategies to Produce Enhanced Archaeological Characterisation

      Gaffney, Christopher F.; Batt, Catherine M.; Harris, Jane C. (University of BradfordFaculty of Archaeological Sciences, 2016)
      Electromagnetic induction (EM) methods have been utilised in a recent surge of archaeological applications across continental Europe, Ireland and Scandinavia. Development of multi-exploration depth instruments and improvements to instrument stability have improved its reputation as an effective method for mapping archaeological remains. Despite these advances, EM methods are comparatively lacking in rigour when for British sites. Through a structured scheme of experimental analysis and fieldwork, this thesis develops an understanding of the responses of EM instruments over a range of British archaeology, including earthworks, field systems, burials, modern remains, and a Cistercian abbey; the results of which demonstrate its effective over a diversity of environments. The impact of instrument-based issues on the collected measurements was quantified through a scheme of experiments targeting instrument drift, calibration and elevation. Dedicated instrument operation and processing workflows were developed based on the collective field and experimental results, which recommend best practice guidelines for improving the quality and accuracy of collected data. The link between instrument measurements and buried archaeology was further developed through a structured analysis of the EM datasets with complementary earth resistance and magnetic results. The integration of the EM, earth resistance and magnetic datasets was utilised to develop an enhanced archaeological characterisation of subsurface features. While the earth resistance and magnetic methods generally responded to different aspects of the buried archaeology, the EM surveys were able to detect a range of responses evident in the results of the former methods. Therefore, the role of EM methods within this characterisation are shown to “bridge the gap” between the earth resistance and magnetic methods, while providing a comprehensive characterisation of the remains in their own right.