• Energy efficient cloud computing based radio access networks in 5G: Design and evaluation of an energy aware 5G cloud radio access networks framework using base station sleeping, cloud computing based workload consolidation and mobile edge computing

      Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun; Sigwele, Tshiamo
      Fifth Generation (5G) cellular networks will experience a thousand-fold increase in data traffic with over 100 billion connected devices by 2020. In order to support this skyrocketing traffic demand, smaller base stations (BSs) are deployed to increase capacity. However, more BSs increases energy consumption which contributes to operational expenditure (OPEX) and CO2 emissions. Also, an introduction of a plethora of 5G applications running in the mobile devices causes a significant amount of energy consumption in the mobile devices. This thesis presents a novel framework for energy efficiency in 5G cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) by leveraging cloud computing technology. Energy efficiency is achieved in three ways; (i) at the radio side of H-C-RAN (Heterogeneous C-RAN), a dynamic BS switching off algorithm is proposed to minimise energy consumption while maintaining Quality of Service (QoS), (ii) in the BS cloud, baseband workload consolidation schemes are proposed based on simulated annealing and genetic algorithms to minimise energy consumption in the cloud, where also advanced fuzzy based admission control with pre-emption is implemented to improve QoS and resource utilisation (iii) at the mobile device side, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is used where computer intensive tasks from the mobile device are executed in the MEC server in the cloud. The simulation results show that the proposed framework effectively reduced energy consumption by up to 48% within RAN and 57% in the mobile devices, and improved network energy efficiency by a factor of 10, network throughput by a factor of 2.7 and resource utilisation by 54% while maintaining QoS.
    • Propagation channel models for 5G mobile networks. Simulation and measurements of 5G propagation channel models for indoor and outdoor environments covering both LOS and NLOS Scenarios

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Manan, Waqas (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      At present, the current 4G systems provide a universal platform for broadband mobile services; however, mobile traffic is still growing at an unprecedented rate and the need for more sophisticated broadband services is pushing the limits on current standards to provide even tighter integration between wireless technologies and higher speeds. This has led to the need for a new generation of mobile communications: the so-called 5G. Although 5G systems are not expected to penetrate the market until 2020, the evolution towards 5G is widely accepted to be the logical convergence of internet services with existing mobile networking standards leading to the commonly used term “mobile internet” over heterogeneous networks, with several Gbits/s data rate and very high connectivity speeds. Therefore, to support highly increasing traffic capacity and high data rates, the next generation mobile network (5G) should extend the range of frequency spectrum for mobile communication that is yet to be identified by the ITU-R. The mm-wave spectrum is the key enabling feature of the next-generation cellular system, for which the propagation channel models need to be predicted to enhance the design guidance and the practicality of the whole design transceiver system. The present work addresses the main concepts of the propagation channel behaviour using ray tracing software package for simulation and then results were tested and compared against practical analysis in a real-time environment. The characteristics of Indoor-Indoor (LOS and NLOS), and indoor-outdoor (NLOS) propagations channels are intensively investigated at four different frequencies; 5.8 GHz, 26GHz, 28GHz and 60GHz for vertical polarized directional, omnidirectional and isotropic antennas patterns. The computed data achieved from the 3-D Shooting and Bouncing Ray (SBR) Wireless Insite based on the effect of frequency dependent electrical properties of building materials. Ray tracing technique has been utilized to predict multipath propagation characteristics in mm-wave bands at different propagation environments. Finally, the received signal power and delay spread were computed for outdoor-outdoor complex propagation channel model at 26 GHz, 28 GHz and 60GHz frequencies and results were compared to the theoretical models.