Browsing Theses by Subject "ß,ß'-dioxo sugar-derived phosphorus ylides"
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Novel sugar phosphorus ylides: Their synthesis, structure and reactivity. Synthesis of a series of sugar-derived phosphorus ylides from protected sugar derivatives and beta-oxo ylides as a route to novel alkynes and trioxo compounds.Higher carbon chain sugars have gained increased interest recently; they are important building blocks of natural and unnatural products with biological properties. The synthesis of these higher sugar skeletons is commonly known to be achieved with the Wittig methodology which exploits phosphorus ylide chemistry. This method has been successfully used for the synthesis of the higher carbon sugars. The aim of this project was to synthesise ß,ß'-dioxo sugar-derived phosphorus ylides, a new class of ylides, as versatile intermediates to valuable higher carbon sugar derivatives and carbohydrate mimics. Model reactions were initially conducted; tetrahydro-2-furoic acid and tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-carboxylic acid, compounds which are structurally similar to the precursor sugars, were identified as suitable model compounds. These compounds were converted to acyl chlorides and then converted to ß,ß'-dioxo phosphorus ylides precursors by acylation. The methodology proved successful and 8 examples were isolated. However, low yields were obtained due to the inevitable formation of triphenylphosphine oxide. The method was then extended to sugar derivatives, prepared using standard protecting group chemistry. It was found that acylation could be achieved using the simple acyl chloride route or peptide coupling methodology for sugar derivatives which were acid sensitive. ß,ß'-dioxo sugar-derived phosphorus ylides (16 examples) were successfully isolated in low yields. The oxidation and thermal reactivity of the ß,ß'-dioxo ylides were studied. Oxidation resulted in the successful synthesis of vicinal tricarbonyls, isolated as a mixture with the gem-diols (hydrates). The thermal decomposition of the ylides gave alkynes in moderate yields.