• Five paradigms of induction programmes in teacher education: A comparative analysis of teacher induction programmes in Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States and Canada

      Burns, Robert; Wideen, Marvin; Andrews, Ian H. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Social Analysis (Research in Education Unit)., 1986)
      This thesis is a comparative case study of induction programmes from five different countries: Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and Canada. The intent was to investigate pedagogical and structural factors prevailing within these induction programmes that would encourage the confluence of pre-service, induction, and in-service education. An examination of how these induction programmes might enhance ongoing professional development opportunities for the beginning teacher was also undertaken. Based on a review of literature concerning i) issues, parameters, and pedagogical perspectives of teacher education; ii) the socialization experiences and instructional challenges of beginning teachers; and iii) the processes, academic systems, and programme variations of induction the argument is made that many conflicting and complex pedagogical variables as well as historical, cultural, and educational factors may influence the establishment and institutionalization of induction. A qualitative research methodology was employed using naturalistic inquiry techniques within a case and field study design. Data was derived from interviews, extant documentations, field notes, and evaluation summaries over a three-year period. Documented evidence revealed that no two induction programmes were iden'tical, although various academic, governance and organisational factors did indicate similarities within and among various countries. Confluence of the three stages of teacher education were generally absent from most programmes. Teacher assessment and supervision were identified as important strategies that could either enhance or obstruct professional development among beginning teachers. Self-evaluative activities incorporated as basic teacher assessment procedures were also profiled as critical factors in promoting a self directed beginning teacher. From these findings an identification of five distinguishable paradiams of induction were developed. The five models have been categorized as the laissez-faire model, the Collegial model, the formalized mentor-protege model, the mandated competency-based model, and the self-directing professional model. The latter was absent from the induction programmes that were investigated. Thirteen recommendations were proposed based upon the research findings. Twelve recommendations described how induction may enhance the confluence of teacher education as well as how induction may establish continuous development for beginning teachers. A thirteenth recommendation identified how programme efficacy may be achieved within induction.
    • Military Intervention in Africa. External Military Interventions and Security Prospects in Africa

      Dando, Malcolm R.; O'Connell, James; Rogers, Paul F.; Bob-Manuel, Kio L. (University of BradfordSchool of Peace Studies, 1990)
      The research was an investigation into the phenomenon of external military interventions in Africa. The broad interpretation often given to intervention compelled both an African view on the subject and an operational definition. External military intervention was defined as the execution of any military plans by a state or its citizens in another state, in a manner that radically alters the existing socio-political, economic and military conditions in the target state, with or without its consent. The role and effects of external powers in six conflict cases in Africa were examined. A taxonomy on intervention identified the phenomenon in its internal and external manifestations. Apart from the more publicised military role of extra-African powers in the region, the increasing role of African States as intra-continental interventionists was also considered. The research concluded that aspects of the problems perceived as endemically African may have their roots in events influenced by external actions. However, some African states were seen as contributing to this situation as well. The view was expressed that restraints by states in their exercise of power and perceived wisdom may reduce the level of conflicts in the contemporary world.
    • In-line process measurements for injection moulding control. In-line rheology and primary injection phase process measurements for injection moulding of semi-crystalline thermoplastics, using instrumented computer monitored injection moulding machines, for potential use in closed loop process control

      Coates, Philip D.; Speight, Russell G. (University of BradfordDepartment in Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, 1993)
      In-line rheological and process measurements are studied, during the primary injection phase, as a potential aid to closed loop process control for injection moulding. The feasibilities of attaining rheological and process measurements of sufficient accuracy and precision for use in process control are investigated. The influence of rheological and process measurements on product quality are investigated for semi-crystalline thermoplastic materials. A computer based process and machine parameter monitoring system is utilised to provide accurate and precise process data for analysis
    • Stone tools employed in prehistoric metal mining. A functional study of cobblestone tools from prehistoric metalliferous mines in England and Wales in relation to mining strategies by use-wear analysis and cobble morphometry

      Ottaway, Barbara; Pollard, A. Mark; Gale, David (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 1995)
      This is a study of cobblestone tools from metalliferous mine sites in England and Wales dated to the Bronze Age which were most probably used to extract copper ore. The site assemblages studied are from the Great Orme, Copa Hill in Cwmystwyth, Nantyreira, Parys Mountain and Alderley Edge. The majority of the tools are hammerstones used to mine and beneficiate metal ore. Some of these have been modified to facilitate hafting. The functional uses of these tools have been identified by the form and position of use- wear on a macroscopic level. The recording procedure encompasses cobble morphology, the degree, type and direction of use, breakage patterns, the reuse of tools and tool fragments and the classification of hafting modification. The possibility of tool specialization within tool types has been examined by the analysis of use-wear and cobble shape and size. The analysis of stone hammer size suggests that the Great Orme material is related to specific working techniques employed to extract ore from the different types of ore deposits. Ore comminution has been demonstrated to have been generally achieved by ‘block-on-block’ crushing with flat-sided hammers. Conclusions are draw on the overall efficiency of ore extraction in the Bronze Age and theories on the organization of mining are presented. The sedimentary form of the cobblestone tools has also been examined, including the identification of natural abrasion marks and features. At Cwmystwyth and the Great Orme possible sources of cobblestones have been studied in order to assess the nature of cobble selection.
    • Pharmacological characterisation of selected pyrrolobenzodiazepines as anti-cancer agents. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterisation of the pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer SJG-136 and the monomers D709119, MMY-SJG and SJG-303

      Loadman, Paul M.; Jenkins, Terence C.; Wilkinson, Gary P. (University of BradfordTom Connors Cancer Research Centre, 2004)
      This study aimed to investigate the pharmacology of selected pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) compounds shown to have cytotoxic activity with predicted DNA sequence selectivity. Research focused upon the PBD dimer, SJG-136, selected for clinical trials, and the novel PBD monomer compounds D709119, MMY-SJG and SJG-303. SJG-136, a novel sequence-selective DNA minor groove cross-linking agent, was shown to have potent tumour cell type selective cytotoxicity in in vitro assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice via both the i.p. and i.v. route (dosed at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD)) showed that SJG-136 reaches concentrations in plasma well in excess of the in vitro IC50 values for 1 h exposure, and was detected in tumour and brain samples also above the in vitro IC50 values. Furthermore, SJG-136 showed linear pharmacokinetics over a 3-fold drug dose range. Metabolism studies showed SJG-136 is readily metabolised in vitro by hepatic microsomes, predominantly to a monodemethylated metabolite; this metabolite could be detected in vivo. Analytical method development work was also conducted for the imminent Phase I clinical trial of SJG-136 resulting in a sensitive and selective bio-analytical detection protocol. Comet analysis showed that SJG-136 dosed at the MTD and ⅓MTD causes significant interstrand DNA cross-linking in lymphocytes in vivo. In vitro studies demonstrated that SJG-136 localises within the cell nucleus, and acts to disrupt cell division via a G2/M block in the cell cycle at realistic concentrations and exposure times that are achievable in vivo. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of D709119 showed the compound is easily detectable in mouse plasma following i.p. dosing at the MTD, but could not be detected in either tumour or brain samples. In vitro cytotoxicity studies revealed D709119 to have potent activity across a selection of tumour cell lines. SJG-136, D709119, MMY-SJG, SJG-303 and DC-81 demonstrated a non-enzyme-catalysed reactivity with the biologically relevant thiol, reduced glutathione (GSH). Studies demonstrated that reactivity of the PBD compounds toward GSH was dependent on GSH concentrations. At levels of GSH found in plasma, the PBD compounds showed considerably lower reactivity with GSH than at intracellular GSH levels. SJG-136 and D709119 also showed favourable pharmacokinetic profiles in mice, and warrant further study for anti-tumour activity in vivo and progression to use in patients.
    • Banks, credit and culture. Cross border lending and credit ratings, their effectiveness and the impact of cultural differences.

      Welford, Richard; Mulder, Gert Jan (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2005)
      Having the author been involved in banking and finance for almost 25 years, this thesis intends to reflect on the role of banks with emphasis on cross border lending and credit rating, their effectiveness and the impacts of cultural differences. Perhaps this would not differ substantially from a researcher or a scholar, yet the exploratory approach taken in this research will be somewhat different as it deliberately seeks to answer a number of questions relevant to practitioners in today’s banking. In trying to achieve this goal, this thesis hopefully may find its way to international bankers wondering about the perspectives of their business in general and their profession in specific. It even may perhaps improve the understanding of their clients. The Basel committee which published the new Basel II framework on bank regulation and supervision was the result of long and careful discussions, wide consultations and comprehensive impact studies. Whereas Basel II covers the entire risk profile and supervision of financial institutions, this research is limited to the cross border lending by banks to companies and provides the views from both practicing international bankers and their customers on their 3 expectations regarding Basel II, credit rating and the relevance of context and culture differences. Bankers all over the world are being trained on how to read balance sheets, yet less attention is being paid as to by whom they are being created and how precisely these balance sheets came into existence, other than the accountancy standards applied. Bankers furthermore seem to agree on the fact that credit risks in large part are related to the management competencies, effective corporate governance and integrity of management and organization. The argument could be made that the assessment of management capabilities, governance and integrity may be hindered in those cases where the culture is little understood. In a three days conferences titled; “The Future of Relationship Banking”, 80 senior executives from international banks and large companies were gathered in Punta del Este, Uruguay and were asked to speak about these aspects. A transcript of the conference is provided as annex to this thesis (Annex 1) and serves to triangulate the findings of the research. Main findings of three management papers were presented by the researcher during the conference. A survey was performed during the conference and in addition, through an online survey, in total over 100 practitioners in the field participated in the survey. Results show a variation of conclusions, but very especially seem to confirm the view, contrary to the approach taken in Basel II, that cultural differences and context are felt to be highly relevant in cross border lending.
    • A study of factors leading to growth in small firms. An examination of factors that impact on growth of small manufacturing in least developed countries: The case of Ghana.

      Hogarth-Scott, Sandra; Owusu, Kwame (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2007)
      The focus of this study is to examine the factors that lead to growth in small firms in a Least Developed Country (LDC). The research is based on the manufacturing sector in Ghana. The main objectives of the research are to identify the key variables that lead to small firms' growth and to ascertain the critical barriers that impede growth. A research model which is developed out of an initial exploratory research and existing literature focuses on how the characteristics of the owner/manager, the characteristics of the firm and the business strategy variables interact to affect growth in employment. In addition factors that are perceived to have constrained the growth of the small firms during the study period are ascertained and discussed. To properly test the hypotheses developed a face to face interview survey involving 122 owner/managers of small manufacturing firms is conducted. This resulted in a range of variables that allowed for the construction of a comprehensive multivariate model of small firm growth. A resulting regression model provides about 68 percent of the explanation for the growth of the small firms sampled. It also indicates that the owner/manager characteristics variables offer the most powerful explanation to small firm growth. We find that the owner/manager's growth aspiration is the most influential factor in achieving growth. The other owner/manager characteristics variables that have positive influence on growth are level of education, prior industry experience and entrepreneurial family background. Owner/managers with local experience and/or with other business interests are less likely to achieve faster growth. Foreign owned/managed firms grow faster. Younger and smaller firms appear to grow faster. While firms with multiple ownerships tend to grow at a slower rate than firms owned and managed by one person. Business planning, marketing and export have positive and significant impacts on growth. Other business strategies such as innovations and staff training also have direct relationships with growth but not significant. Some of the main constraining factors to growth are cost of borrowing, lack of access to credit, high cost of inputs, lack of trust within the business community, high bureaucracy, late payments and lack of efficient support system. While the external environment plays important role in small firm growth and development, the behaviours, response and strategies pursued by individual owner/manager are significant factors that determine the rate at which a firm will grow.
    • Neural network based hybrid modelling and MINLP based optimisation of MSF desalination process within gPROMS: Development of neural network based correlations for estimating temperature elevation due to salinity, hybrid modelling and MINLP based optimisation of design and operation parameters of MSF desalination process within gPROMS

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Sowgath, Md Tanvir (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007)
      Desalination technology provides fresh water to the arid regions around the world. Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) distillation process has been used for many years and is now the largest sector in the desalination industry. Top Brine Temperature (TBT) (boiling point temperature of the feed seawater in the first stage of the process) is one of the many important parameters that affect optimal design and operation of MSF processes. For a given pressure, TBT is a function of Boiling Point Temperature (BPT) at zero salinity and Temperature Elevation (TE) due to salinity. Modelling plays an important role in simulation, optimisation and control of MSF processes and within the model, calculation of TE is therefore important for each stages (including the first stage, which determines the TBT). Firstly, in this work, several Neural Network (NN) based correlations for predicting TE are developed. It is found that the NN based correlations can predict the experimental TE very closely. Also predictions of TE by the NN based correlations were found to be good when compared to those obtained using the existing correlations from the literature. Secondly, a hybrid steady state MSF process model is developed using gPROMS modelling tool embedding the NN based correlation. gPROMS provides an easy and flexible platform to build a process flowsheet graphically. Here a Master Model connecting (automatically) the individual unit model (brine heater, stages, etc.) equations is developed which is used repeatedly during simulation and optimisation. The model is validated against published results. Seawater is the main source raw material for MSF processes and is subject to seasonal temperature variation. With fixed design the model is then used to study the effect of a number of parameters (e.g. seawater and steam temperature) on the freshwater production rate. It is observed that, the variation in the parameters affect the rate of production of fresh water. How the design and operation are to be adjusted to maintain a fixed demand of fresh water through out the year (with changing seawater temperature) is also investigated via repetitive simulation. Thirdly, with clear understanding of the interaction of design and operating parameters, simultaneous optimisation of design and operating parameters of MSF process is considered via the application MINLP technique within gPROMS. Two types of optimisation problems are considered: (a) For a fixed fresh water demand throughout the year, the external heat input (a measure of operating cost) to the process is minimised; (b) For different fresh water demand throughout the year and with seasonal variation of seawater temperature, the total annualised cost of desalination is minimised. It is found that seasonal variation in seawater temperature results in significant variation in design and some of the operating parameters but with minimum variation in process temperatures. The results also reveal the possibility of designing stand-alone flash stages which would offer flexible scheduling in terms of the connection of various units (to build up the process) and efficient maintenance of the units throughout the year as the weather condition changes. In addition, operation at low temperatures throughout the year will reduce design and operating costs in terms of low temperature materials of construction and reduced amount of anti-scaling and anti-corrosion agents. Finally, an attempt was made to develop a hybrid dynamic MSF process model incorporating NN based correlation for TE. The model was validated at steady state condition using the data from the literature. Dynamic simulation with step changes in seawater and steam temperature was carried out to match the predictions by the steady state model. Dynamic optimisation problem is then formulated for the MSF process, subjected to seawater temperature change (up and down) over a period of six hours, to maximise a performance ratio by optimising the brine heater steam temperature while maintaining a fixed water demand.
    • Computation of electromagnetic fields in assemblages of biological cells using a modified finite difference time domain scheme. Computational electromagnetic methods using quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, modified Berenger absorbing boundary and Floquet periodic boundary conditions to investigate the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007-07-10)
      There is an increasing need for accurate models describing the electrical behaviour of individual biological cells exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this area of solving linear problem, the most frequently used technique for computing the EM field is the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. When modelling objects that are small compared with the wavelength, for example biological cells at radio frequencies, the standard Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method requires extremely small time-step sizes, which may lead to excessive computation times. The problem can be overcome by implementing a quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, based on transferring the working frequency to a higher frequency and scaling back to the frequency of interest after the field has been computed. An approach to modeling and analysis of biological cells, incorporating the Hodgkin and Huxley membrane model, is presented here. Since the external medium of the biological cell is lossy material, a modified Berenger absorbing boundary condition is used to truncate the computation grid. Linear assemblages of cells are investigated and then Floquet periodic boundary conditions are imposed to imitate the effect of periodic replication of the assemblages. Thus, the analysis of a large structure of cells is made more computationally efficient than the modeling of the entire structure. The total fields of the simulated structures are shown to give reasonable and stable results at 900MHz, 1800MHz and 2450MHz. This method will facilitate deeper investigation of the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems. Moreover, the nonlinear response of biological cell exposed to a 0.9GHz signal was discussed on observing the second harmonic at 1.8GHz. In this, an electrical circuit model has been proposed to calibrate the performance of nonlinear RF energy conversion inside a high quality factor resonant cavity with known nonlinear device. Meanwhile, the first and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to the loading of the cavity with the lossy material will also be demonstrated. The results from proposed mathematical model, give good indication of the input power required to detect the weakly effects of the second harmonic signal prior to perform the measurement. Hence, this proposed mathematical model will assist to determine how sensitivity of the second harmonic signal can be detected by placing the required specific input power.
    • Development of active integrated antennas and optimization for harmonic suppression antennas. Simulation and measurement of active antennas for amplifiers and oscillators and numerical solution on design and optimization of active patch antennas for harmonic suppression with adaptive meshing using genetic algorithms.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Zhou, Dawei (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007-07-10)
      The objectives of this research work are to investigate, design and implement active integrated antennas comprising active devices connected directly to the patch radiators, for various applications in high efficiency RF front-ends, integrated oscillator antennas, design and optimization of harmonic suppression antennas using a genetic algorithm (GA). A computer-aided design approach to obtain a class F operation to optimizing the optimal fundamental load impedance and designing the input matching circuits for an active integrated antenna of the transmitting type is proposed and a case study of a design for 1.6 GHz is used to confirm the design principle. A study of active integrated oscillator antennas with a series feed back using a pseudomorphic high electronmobility transistor (PHEMT) confirms the design procedure in simulation and measurement for the oscillator circuit connected directly to the active antenna. Subsequently, another design of active oscillator antenna using bipolar junction transistor (BJT) improves the phase noise of the oscillation and in addition to achieve amplitude shift keying (ASK) and amplitude modulation (AM) modulation using the proposed design circuit. Moreover, the possibility of using a sensor patch technique to find the power accepted by the antenna at harmonic frequencies is studied. A novel numerical solution, for designing and optimizing active patch antennas for harmonic suppression using GA in collaboration with numerical electromagnetic computation (NEC), is presented. A new FORTRAN program is developed and used for adaptively meshing any planar antenna structure in terms of wire grid surface structures. The program is subsequently implemented in harmonic suppression antenna design and optimization using GA. The simulation and measurement results for several surface structures show a good agreement.
    • The contributory factors in drug errors and their reporting

      Not named; Armitage, Gerry R. (University of BradfordSchool of Health, 2008)
      The aim of this thesis is to examine the contributory factors in drug errors and their reporting so as to design an enhanced reporting scheme to improve the quality of reporting in an acute hospital trust. The related research questions are: 1. What are the contributory factors in drug errors? 2. How effective is the reporting of drug errors? 3. Can an enhanced reporting scheme, predicated on the analysis of local documentary and interview data, identify the contributory factors in drug errors and improve the quality of their reporting in an acute hospital trust? The study aim and research questions reflect a growing consensus, articulated by Boaden and Walshe (2006), that patient safety research should focus on understanding the causes of adverse events and developing interventions to improve safety. Although there are concerns about the value of incident reporting (Wald & Shojania 2003, Armitage & Chapman 2007), it would appear that error reporting systems remain a high priority in advancing patient safety (Kohn et al 2000, Department of Health 2000a, National Patient Safety Agency 2004, WHO & World Alliance for Patient Safety 2004), and consequently it is the area chosen for intervention in this study. Enhancement of the existing scheme is based on a greater understanding of drug errors, their causation, and their reporting.
    • Co-processing of drugs and co-crystal formers and its effect on pharmaceutical dosage-form performance. Co-crystallization of urea/ 2-methoxybenzamide, caffeine/ malonic acid, caffeine/ oxalic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid systems: Solid-state characterization including imaging, thermal, X-ray and Raman spectroscopic techniques with subsequent evaluation of tableting behaviour

      Forbes, Robert T.; Grimsey, Ian M.; Bonner, Michael C.; Ibrahim Mohamed, Asim Y. (University of BradfordDrug Delivery Group, School of Pharmacy, 2008)
      This dissertation has focused on the solid-state characterization of different co-crystal system as well as the effect of co-crystallization of these systems on pharmaceutical dosage form performance. Urea/ 2-MB, caffeine/ malonic acid, caffeine/ oxalic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid co-crystals were prepared using co-grinding- and co-precipitation techniques. In addition, the synthesis of co-crystals through two novel methods has been demonstrated. This includes compaction and convection mixing. The solid-state characterization of the co-crystals has been carried out using XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TGA, hot-stage microscopy and SEM. After preparation of co-crystals, tablets have been produced from co-ground-, co-precipitated-, and physical mixtures using Compaction Studies Press (Kaleva), and the data were recorded to compare between the different mixtures, regarding compactibilty, compressibility and deformational properties. The DSC results showed that the physical mixtures of all systems, formed co-crystals during heating process. For systems of urea/ 2-MB, caffeine/ malonic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid, the co-ground mixture produced tablets with higher tensile strength compared with either co-precipitated or physical mixture. However, for caffeine/ oxalic acid system, the tensile strengths of compacts produced from the physical mixture were greater than those obtained from either co-ground or co-precipitated mixtures. The Heckel data suggested that urea/ 2-MB, caffeine/ malonic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid systems are Type 1 materials, as an extensive linearity during compression was indicative of a plastic deformation mechanism, while the caffeine/ oxalic acid system was Type 2 materials. However, the co-precipitated mixture of urea/ 2-MB system was the least compressible, as it possessed the greatest value of yield pressure (85 MPa) and the highest elastic recovery (7.42%). The co-precipitated mixture of both of caffeine/ malonic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid systems was the most compressible with small yield pressure values of (44 & 80 MPa) and elastic recovery of (7.2% & 6.56%), respectively. The co-ground mixture of caffeine/ oxalic acid possessed the highest value of yield pressure (166 MPa) and thus the lowest compressibility among other mixtures. Furthermore, the addition of microcrystalline cellulose and α-lactose monohydrate has affected the crystallinity as well as the tableting properties of the co-crystals. After the addition of excipients, the tensile strength of compacts was about 2 times higher than any other mixture. Finally, urea/ 2-MB and caffeine/ malonic acid co-crystals were successfully synthesized through convection mixing and compaction.
    • An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in the Libyan Oil Industry

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Abushhewa, Tarek (University of BradfordBradford University School of Management, 2008)
      This study investigates the major factors that have restricted the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) into the oil sector in Libya. The study focuses on the period from 2000 to 2009. This period is significant since, during this time Libya witnessed dramatic foreign and economic policy changes. The research objectives are: (1) To identify the determinants of foreign direct investment into Libya’s oil industry for the period 2000-2009; (2) To reveal the obstacles and barriers which hinder FDI in Libya’s oil industry; (3) To determine the extent that the Libyan Government FDI policy influenced FDI in Libya’s oil industry. The rationale for this thesis was driven by filling an empirical void of FDI studies on the oil industry in Libya and by the intention of providing practical insights for current and future Libyan governments. This study comprises of an analysis of the 30 multinational (MNCs) oil companies that are operating in the Libyan oil industry through questionnaire and interview data from executives employed by those MNCs, as well as data from ten Libyan senior government officials involved in the Libyan oil industry and/or FDI policies. The research has provided support for several of the determinants of FDI flows traditionally found in the literature. The survey and time series analysis further reveals that access to Libya’s proven oil and gas reserves was the singular most important determinate for influencing the MNCs to undertake FDI. Furthermore, the findings identified that Libyan government foreign policy had some impact on the MNCs decision to undertake FDI. The research findings with regards to the role played by environmental risk as a determinate of FDI, demonstrate that there is no significant relationship between overall levels of environmental risk and a country‘s performance in attracting FDI. Also, this research has identified a number of factors that are causing obstacles and challenges to the attractiveness of Libya as a location for foreign investment. It has revealed that MNCs are significantly dissatisfied by the stability of the public institutions and the lack of effective regulations in Libya.
    • The impact of business orientations on customer loyalty. An empirical study using a case study approach.

      Mohammed, Zairi; Yang, Deli; Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Bettany, Shona M.M.; Khan, Osman (University of BradfordEuropean Centre for TQM, 2009)
      Customer loyalty is considered to be critically important to growth, profitability and sustainability. It has received much attention by practitioner and managers. However, some important variables about the different types of loyalty have remained unclear. While businesses look towards adopting various strategies to help them grow and succeed in the marketplace, a number of key business orientations have emerged. Each of these orientations has claimed to increase both profitability and customer loyalty for an organization. This research has examined both of these factors, as well as their inter-relationships. The research was conducted in a two part study, based on a sequential triangulation approach. The first study focused on finding out the differences between two of the highest types of loyalties, attitudinal and emotional. The study, based on 40 interviews with customers from three different companies, across two cultural settings (Asian and European), has led to the emergence of key differentiating factors. The second study focused on the relationships between business orientations and customer loyalty. This study was based on six case studies of best practice firms. The study found a positive link between business orientations and loyalty. Moreover, a set of critical success factors were identified that would enable companies to implement effective loyalty management systems. Based on both of these two studies, a loyalty management model has been presented. The model helps to improve our understanding of loyalty, and would be of use to managers who would want to develop and manage customer loyalty in an organisation.
    • Coin: the missing currency in peace support operations and beyond

      Whitman, Jim R.; Pinder, David (University of BradfordPeace Studies, 2009-02-03)
      The United Nations has a long history of peacekeeping missions. These have evolved over time but since the end of the Cold War there has been rapid growth in those missions where the remit placed on the peacekeepers, both military and civilian, is more complex and demanding. In trying to define these missions and their mandates a wide range of terminology has been developed in an effort to describe the exact nature of the mission. Since many of these deployments take place into theatres where there is no peace to keep, or where a fragile peace reverts to a conflict situation such tight definitions often lead to the troops involved no longer having an appropriate mandate. More recently some of these larger missions constitute in fact interventions to impose peace. Attempts to find a `peace¿ classification for such deployments often confuse the issue rather than bring clarity. In reality these missions are not peacekeeping at all. The almost forgotten doctrine, principles and practices of Counterinsurgency provide a better framework for defining these missions, the respective roles of the key players and the factors necessary to bring success.
    • A scientific investigation of the brick and tile industry of York in the mid-eighteenth century

      Warren, Stanley E.; Betts, Ian M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Physics, 2009-05-26)
      Petrological and neutron activation analysis of bricks and tiles from York and neighbouring sites with discussion of the analytical and documentary evidence for their production in York up until AD 1750.
    • On-line shear and extensional rheometry of polymer melts in the extrusion process.

      Coates, Philip D.; Kelly, Adrian L. (University of BradfordInterdisciplinary Research Centre for Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering., 2009-06-11)
      A novel on-line capillary rheometer (OLR) was used to examine the shear and extensional characteristics of polyolefin melts during twin screw extrusion (TSE). Comparisons with off-line rheometry were made using a twin-bore capillary rheometer and a modular in-line slit die rheometer (ILR) provided in-line rheometry comparisons. Both capillary rheometers were controlled via PCs running dedicated software, and the extrusion line and ELR were fully instrumented allowing real-time process monitoring to be carried out by IBM compatible PCs via data acquisition hardware and software. The prototype OLR was developed by the re-design of several key features including an instrumented transfer section and capillary die block which facilitated the use of various die geometries. Shear and extensional on-line rheometry of three polyethylenes (linear and branched), and four molecular weight grades of polypropylene were examined, and a direct comparison with off-line capillary rheometry showed a good correlation. The effect of a high loading of filler on two of the polyethylenes was investigated. In-line shear stress and entry pressure measurements showed a reasonable correlation with on-line rheometry. A study of entry flows in the OLR using capillary dies approaching orifice showed non-linearities occurred at very low capillary length to diameter(L:D) ratios, and this was repeatable using off-line rheometry. Predicted zero length entry pressures (Po) were used to estimate apparent extensional viscosity using a number of standard models. Melt instability and capillary wall slip were also investigated using on-line rheometry. Melt pressure and temperature in the twin screw extruder and OLR were monitored at various process conditions to examine the ability of the OLR to condition melt during testing, and the effect of OLR testing on extrusion conditions. Pressure variation in the extruder, OLR and off-line rheometer were compared in order to quantify process noise. The effect of OLR testing on melt rheology and polymer molecular weight were examined using off-line rheometry and gel permeation chromatography(GPC).
    • The provenance of Bronze Age pottery from Central and Eastern Greece

      Warren, Stanley E.; White, Selina (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Physics, 2009-06-18)
      Samples from nearly 800 Bronze Age pottery sherds from Euboea, Eastern Boeotia and Eastern Thessaly were analysed together with 9 raw clays from the same areas. The-analysis was carried out in an attempt to identify areas of pottery manufacture, to discover the origin of specific groups of pottery, to relate pottery to, raw clays and to see how far pottery compositions can be associated with, and predicted by, geology. The work was done on the same lines as earlier studies at the Oxford Laboratory and at the British School at Athens. The main analytical technique used was therefore optical emission spectroscopy. Some 25% of the total number of sherds were also analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry so that the results obtained by the two techniques could be compared. The interpretation of the results was facilitated by the use of, computer program packages for cluster and discriminant analysis. Both optical emission and atomic absorption analysis resulted in broadly similar groupings although the absolute concentrations were not directly comparable. The groupings obtained after atomic absorption analysis had the narrower concentration ranges. Nine elements were measured by both techniques but in atomic absorption potassium was added and proved; useful as an additional discriminant. Six composition groups were distinguished from the data. One of them was identified as Euboean, 2 as Boeotian and 3 as coming from different regions of Thessaly. The greatest movement of pottery within these areas was from Euboea to Thessaly. No composition group which originated from outside these regions was identified. Six of the 9 raw clays were associated with the prevailing composition group in the area from which they came. It was not possible to predict trends in pottery composition by examination of the local geology.
    • Responding to children affected by armed conflict: A case study of Save the Children Fund (1919-1999).

      Rigby, Andrew; Sellick, Patricia (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2009-06-18)
      Save the Children Fund (SCF) was at its foundation in 1919 a value-driven organization. The values, or guiding principles, of the founding generation are the lens through which I look at the history of SCF, and the associated histories of war and peace, human rights and NGO-state relations. These guiding principles are identified as universalism, utilitarianism and optimistic pacificism. They can be understood as a paradigm to which the social community which made up the founding generation of SCF gave their assent. The first chapter locates the founding generation within the political culture of the anti-war movement. Succeeding chapters detail the metamorphosis of SCIF from a'contentious social movement into a respectable national organization. As soon as the organization adopted a national rather than a universal orientation, the coordinates of all its guiding principles shifted. In particular the optimistic pacificism of the founding generation was replaced by pessimistic defencism. It was not until after the Cold War that SCIF began to realign itself with its original guiding principles. The three guiding principles are found to be of continuing relevance. Universalism has been reasserted as a positive creed leading SCF to seize political opportunities to reach out to children from all sides. The organization has adopted a utilitarian perspective that affirms the dynamic role of young people in generating their own futures. Lastly, the primacy attached to peace by war-affected people has underlined SCFs urgent mission to uphold an optimistic belief in the possibility of peace.
    • Asian-named minority groups in a British school system: A study of the education of the children of immigrants of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin from the Indian sub-continent or East Africa in the City of Bradford.

      Curle, Adam; Rogers, Paul F.; Rigby, Andrew; Thompson, Brenda M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Peace Studies, 2009-06-18)
      This thesis was planned as an -interdisciplinary work, a possible exemplar of 'a peace study' (see Appendix 5). It offers an analysis of the situation of the Asian children of immigrant families, socially and racially disadvantaged in Britain, in the Bradford school system from the mid-1970's to 1980*, and their relative success in terms of external examination assessment in comparison with their peers. This is seen against the backcloth of pioneering Local Authority policies to support their education and observations of practice in schools. The findings are generalised as models of what is perceived by the policy-makers and practitioners to be progress towards racial justice and peace. It is argued that the British school system has shown limited facility to offer equal opportunity of success to pupils in socially disadvantaged groups and that this is borne out in an analysis of the situation of the Asian pupils in the County Upper schools in Bradford (CB), less likely to be allocated to external examination-orientated groups or to gain success in these than their peers. There are indications that their potential may not be being realised. It is argued that while language support for the bilingual child is important, account should also be taken of a more general cultural dominance in the school system and stereotyped low expectations from teachers which may feed racial bias in institutions. The data show that the LEA policies, though benevolent in intention, demonstrate institutional racism in effect. With four case studies from observations in Bradford schools, models are developed for practice that has potential for power-sharing and greater equity of opportunity -for pupils, involving respect for cultural diversity and antiracist education strategies supporting and supported by community participation in schools. It is argued that white educationists need to listen to black clients, pupils and their parents, involving them in dialogue to ascertain their real needs, to implement appropriate policy. As there was a considerable lapse of time between the field work research and writing up of this thesis, and its final presentation, an addendum (with bibliography) reviews some of the research and literature in the fleld since 1980. This situates the field work historically. The issues raised and discussed in the context of the 1970's are still far from being solved. The additional work stregthens, rather than changes my original conclusion that society is locked into a cycle of inequality. A counter-hegemony must emerge from 'grass-roots', community initiatives with a values-base linked not to self-seeking or confrontational power group politics but to a notion of the common good.