• Five paradigms of induction programmes in teacher education: A comparative analysis of teacher induction programmes in Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States and Canada

      Burns, Robert; Wideen, Marvin; Andrews, Ian H. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Social Analysis (Research in Education Unit)., 1986)
      This thesis is a comparative case study of induction programmes from five different countries: Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and Canada. The intent was to investigate pedagogical and structural factors prevailing within these induction programmes that would encourage the confluence of pre-service, induction, and in-service education. An examination of how these induction programmes might enhance ongoing professional development opportunities for the beginning teacher was also undertaken. Based on a review of literature concerning i) issues, parameters, and pedagogical perspectives of teacher education; ii) the socialization experiences and instructional challenges of beginning teachers; and iii) the processes, academic systems, and programme variations of induction the argument is made that many conflicting and complex pedagogical variables as well as historical, cultural, and educational factors may influence the establishment and institutionalization of induction. A qualitative research methodology was employed using naturalistic inquiry techniques within a case and field study design. Data was derived from interviews, extant documentations, field notes, and evaluation summaries over a three-year period. Documented evidence revealed that no two induction programmes were iden'tical, although various academic, governance and organisational factors did indicate similarities within and among various countries. Confluence of the three stages of teacher education were generally absent from most programmes. Teacher assessment and supervision were identified as important strategies that could either enhance or obstruct professional development among beginning teachers. Self-evaluative activities incorporated as basic teacher assessment procedures were also profiled as critical factors in promoting a self directed beginning teacher. From these findings an identification of five distinguishable paradiams of induction were developed. The five models have been categorized as the laissez-faire model, the Collegial model, the formalized mentor-protege model, the mandated competency-based model, and the self-directing professional model. The latter was absent from the induction programmes that were investigated. Thirteen recommendations were proposed based upon the research findings. Twelve recommendations described how induction may enhance the confluence of teacher education as well as how induction may establish continuous development for beginning teachers. A thirteenth recommendation identified how programme efficacy may be achieved within induction.
    • Pharmacological characterisation of selected pyrrolobenzodiazepines as anti-cancer agents. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterisation of the pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer SJG-136 and the monomers D709119, MMY-SJG and SJG-303

      Loadman, Paul M.; Jenkins, Terence C.; Wilkinson, Gary P. (University of BradfordTom Connors Cancer Research Centre, 2004)
      This study aimed to investigate the pharmacology of selected pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) compounds shown to have cytotoxic activity with predicted DNA sequence selectivity. Research focused upon the PBD dimer, SJG-136, selected for clinical trials, and the novel PBD monomer compounds D709119, MMY-SJG and SJG-303. SJG-136, a novel sequence-selective DNA minor groove cross-linking agent, was shown to have potent tumour cell type selective cytotoxicity in in vitro assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice via both the i.p. and i.v. route (dosed at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD)) showed that SJG-136 reaches concentrations in plasma well in excess of the in vitro IC50 values for 1 h exposure, and was detected in tumour and brain samples also above the in vitro IC50 values. Furthermore, SJG-136 showed linear pharmacokinetics over a 3-fold drug dose range. Metabolism studies showed SJG-136 is readily metabolised in vitro by hepatic microsomes, predominantly to a monodemethylated metabolite; this metabolite could be detected in vivo. Analytical method development work was also conducted for the imminent Phase I clinical trial of SJG-136 resulting in a sensitive and selective bio-analytical detection protocol. Comet analysis showed that SJG-136 dosed at the MTD and ⅓MTD causes significant interstrand DNA cross-linking in lymphocytes in vivo. In vitro studies demonstrated that SJG-136 localises within the cell nucleus, and acts to disrupt cell division via a G2/M block in the cell cycle at realistic concentrations and exposure times that are achievable in vivo. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of D709119 showed the compound is easily detectable in mouse plasma following i.p. dosing at the MTD, but could not be detected in either tumour or brain samples. In vitro cytotoxicity studies revealed D709119 to have potent activity across a selection of tumour cell lines. SJG-136, D709119, MMY-SJG, SJG-303 and DC-81 demonstrated a non-enzyme-catalysed reactivity with the biologically relevant thiol, reduced glutathione (GSH). Studies demonstrated that reactivity of the PBD compounds toward GSH was dependent on GSH concentrations. At levels of GSH found in plasma, the PBD compounds showed considerably lower reactivity with GSH than at intracellular GSH levels. SJG-136 and D709119 also showed favourable pharmacokinetic profiles in mice, and warrant further study for anti-tumour activity in vivo and progression to use in patients.
    • Banks, credit and culture. Cross border lending and credit ratings, their effectiveness and the impact of cultural differences.

      Welford, Richard; Mulder, Gert Jan (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2005)
      Having the author been involved in banking and finance for almost 25 years, this thesis intends to reflect on the role of banks with emphasis on cross border lending and credit rating, their effectiveness and the impacts of cultural differences. Perhaps this would not differ substantially from a researcher or a scholar, yet the exploratory approach taken in this research will be somewhat different as it deliberately seeks to answer a number of questions relevant to practitioners in today’s banking. In trying to achieve this goal, this thesis hopefully may find its way to international bankers wondering about the perspectives of their business in general and their profession in specific. It even may perhaps improve the understanding of their clients. The Basel committee which published the new Basel II framework on bank regulation and supervision was the result of long and careful discussions, wide consultations and comprehensive impact studies. Whereas Basel II covers the entire risk profile and supervision of financial institutions, this research is limited to the cross border lending by banks to companies and provides the views from both practicing international bankers and their customers on their 3 expectations regarding Basel II, credit rating and the relevance of context and culture differences. Bankers all over the world are being trained on how to read balance sheets, yet less attention is being paid as to by whom they are being created and how precisely these balance sheets came into existence, other than the accountancy standards applied. Bankers furthermore seem to agree on the fact that credit risks in large part are related to the management competencies, effective corporate governance and integrity of management and organization. The argument could be made that the assessment of management capabilities, governance and integrity may be hindered in those cases where the culture is little understood. In a three days conferences titled; “The Future of Relationship Banking”, 80 senior executives from international banks and large companies were gathered in Punta del Este, Uruguay and were asked to speak about these aspects. A transcript of the conference is provided as annex to this thesis (Annex 1) and serves to triangulate the findings of the research. Main findings of three management papers were presented by the researcher during the conference. A survey was performed during the conference and in addition, through an online survey, in total over 100 practitioners in the field participated in the survey. Results show a variation of conclusions, but very especially seem to confirm the view, contrary to the approach taken in Basel II, that cultural differences and context are felt to be highly relevant in cross border lending.
    • A study of factors leading to growth in small firms. An examination of factors that impact on growth of small manufacturing in least developed countries: The case of Ghana.

      Hogarth-Scott, Sandra; Owusu, Kwame (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2007)
      The focus of this study is to examine the factors that lead to growth in small firms in a Least Developed Country (LDC). The research is based on the manufacturing sector in Ghana. The main objectives of the research are to identify the key variables that lead to small firms' growth and to ascertain the critical barriers that impede growth. A research model which is developed out of an initial exploratory research and existing literature focuses on how the characteristics of the owner/manager, the characteristics of the firm and the business strategy variables interact to affect growth in employment. In addition factors that are perceived to have constrained the growth of the small firms during the study period are ascertained and discussed. To properly test the hypotheses developed a face to face interview survey involving 122 owner/managers of small manufacturing firms is conducted. This resulted in a range of variables that allowed for the construction of a comprehensive multivariate model of small firm growth. A resulting regression model provides about 68 percent of the explanation for the growth of the small firms sampled. It also indicates that the owner/manager characteristics variables offer the most powerful explanation to small firm growth. We find that the owner/manager's growth aspiration is the most influential factor in achieving growth. The other owner/manager characteristics variables that have positive influence on growth are level of education, prior industry experience and entrepreneurial family background. Owner/managers with local experience and/or with other business interests are less likely to achieve faster growth. Foreign owned/managed firms grow faster. Younger and smaller firms appear to grow faster. While firms with multiple ownerships tend to grow at a slower rate than firms owned and managed by one person. Business planning, marketing and export have positive and significant impacts on growth. Other business strategies such as innovations and staff training also have direct relationships with growth but not significant. Some of the main constraining factors to growth are cost of borrowing, lack of access to credit, high cost of inputs, lack of trust within the business community, high bureaucracy, late payments and lack of efficient support system. While the external environment plays important role in small firm growth and development, the behaviours, response and strategies pursued by individual owner/manager are significant factors that determine the rate at which a firm will grow.
    • Neural network based hybrid modelling and MINLP based optimisation of MSF desalination process within gPROMS: Development of neural network based correlations for estimating temperature elevation due to salinity, hybrid modelling and MINLP based optimisation of design and operation parameters of MSF desalination process within gPROMS

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Sowgath, Md Tanvir (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007)
      Desalination technology provides fresh water to the arid regions around the world. Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) distillation process has been used for many years and is now the largest sector in the desalination industry. Top Brine Temperature (TBT) (boiling point temperature of the feed seawater in the first stage of the process) is one of the many important parameters that affect optimal design and operation of MSF processes. For a given pressure, TBT is a function of Boiling Point Temperature (BPT) at zero salinity and Temperature Elevation (TE) due to salinity. Modelling plays an important role in simulation, optimisation and control of MSF processes and within the model, calculation of TE is therefore important for each stages (including the first stage, which determines the TBT). Firstly, in this work, several Neural Network (NN) based correlations for predicting TE are developed. It is found that the NN based correlations can predict the experimental TE very closely. Also predictions of TE by the NN based correlations were found to be good when compared to those obtained using the existing correlations from the literature. Secondly, a hybrid steady state MSF process model is developed using gPROMS modelling tool embedding the NN based correlation. gPROMS provides an easy and flexible platform to build a process flowsheet graphically. Here a Master Model connecting (automatically) the individual unit model (brine heater, stages, etc.) equations is developed which is used repeatedly during simulation and optimisation. The model is validated against published results. Seawater is the main source raw material for MSF processes and is subject to seasonal temperature variation. With fixed design the model is then used to study the effect of a number of parameters (e.g. seawater and steam temperature) on the freshwater production rate. It is observed that, the variation in the parameters affect the rate of production of fresh water. How the design and operation are to be adjusted to maintain a fixed demand of fresh water through out the year (with changing seawater temperature) is also investigated via repetitive simulation. Thirdly, with clear understanding of the interaction of design and operating parameters, simultaneous optimisation of design and operating parameters of MSF process is considered via the application MINLP technique within gPROMS. Two types of optimisation problems are considered: (a) For a fixed fresh water demand throughout the year, the external heat input (a measure of operating cost) to the process is minimised; (b) For different fresh water demand throughout the year and with seasonal variation of seawater temperature, the total annualised cost of desalination is minimised. It is found that seasonal variation in seawater temperature results in significant variation in design and some of the operating parameters but with minimum variation in process temperatures. The results also reveal the possibility of designing stand-alone flash stages which would offer flexible scheduling in terms of the connection of various units (to build up the process) and efficient maintenance of the units throughout the year as the weather condition changes. In addition, operation at low temperatures throughout the year will reduce design and operating costs in terms of low temperature materials of construction and reduced amount of anti-scaling and anti-corrosion agents. Finally, an attempt was made to develop a hybrid dynamic MSF process model incorporating NN based correlation for TE. The model was validated at steady state condition using the data from the literature. Dynamic simulation with step changes in seawater and steam temperature was carried out to match the predictions by the steady state model. Dynamic optimisation problem is then formulated for the MSF process, subjected to seawater temperature change (up and down) over a period of six hours, to maximise a performance ratio by optimising the brine heater steam temperature while maintaining a fixed water demand.
    • Computation of electromagnetic fields in assemblages of biological cells using a modified finite difference time domain scheme. Computational electromagnetic methods using quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, modified Berenger absorbing boundary and Floquet periodic boundary conditions to investigate the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007-07-10)
      There is an increasing need for accurate models describing the electrical behaviour of individual biological cells exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this area of solving linear problem, the most frequently used technique for computing the EM field is the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. When modelling objects that are small compared with the wavelength, for example biological cells at radio frequencies, the standard Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method requires extremely small time-step sizes, which may lead to excessive computation times. The problem can be overcome by implementing a quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, based on transferring the working frequency to a higher frequency and scaling back to the frequency of interest after the field has been computed. An approach to modeling and analysis of biological cells, incorporating the Hodgkin and Huxley membrane model, is presented here. Since the external medium of the biological cell is lossy material, a modified Berenger absorbing boundary condition is used to truncate the computation grid. Linear assemblages of cells are investigated and then Floquet periodic boundary conditions are imposed to imitate the effect of periodic replication of the assemblages. Thus, the analysis of a large structure of cells is made more computationally efficient than the modeling of the entire structure. The total fields of the simulated structures are shown to give reasonable and stable results at 900MHz, 1800MHz and 2450MHz. This method will facilitate deeper investigation of the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems. Moreover, the nonlinear response of biological cell exposed to a 0.9GHz signal was discussed on observing the second harmonic at 1.8GHz. In this, an electrical circuit model has been proposed to calibrate the performance of nonlinear RF energy conversion inside a high quality factor resonant cavity with known nonlinear device. Meanwhile, the first and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to the loading of the cavity with the lossy material will also be demonstrated. The results from proposed mathematical model, give good indication of the input power required to detect the weakly effects of the second harmonic signal prior to perform the measurement. Hence, this proposed mathematical model will assist to determine how sensitivity of the second harmonic signal can be detected by placing the required specific input power.
    • Development of active integrated antennas and optimization for harmonic suppression antennas. Simulation and measurement of active antennas for amplifiers and oscillators and numerical solution on design and optimization of active patch antennas for harmonic suppression with adaptive meshing using genetic algorithms.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Zhou, Dawei (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007-07-10)
      The objectives of this research work are to investigate, design and implement active integrated antennas comprising active devices connected directly to the patch radiators, for various applications in high efficiency RF front-ends, integrated oscillator antennas, design and optimization of harmonic suppression antennas using a genetic algorithm (GA). A computer-aided design approach to obtain a class F operation to optimizing the optimal fundamental load impedance and designing the input matching circuits for an active integrated antenna of the transmitting type is proposed and a case study of a design for 1.6 GHz is used to confirm the design principle. A study of active integrated oscillator antennas with a series feed back using a pseudomorphic high electronmobility transistor (PHEMT) confirms the design procedure in simulation and measurement for the oscillator circuit connected directly to the active antenna. Subsequently, another design of active oscillator antenna using bipolar junction transistor (BJT) improves the phase noise of the oscillation and in addition to achieve amplitude shift keying (ASK) and amplitude modulation (AM) modulation using the proposed design circuit. Moreover, the possibility of using a sensor patch technique to find the power accepted by the antenna at harmonic frequencies is studied. A novel numerical solution, for designing and optimizing active patch antennas for harmonic suppression using GA in collaboration with numerical electromagnetic computation (NEC), is presented. A new FORTRAN program is developed and used for adaptively meshing any planar antenna structure in terms of wire grid surface structures. The program is subsequently implemented in harmonic suppression antenna design and optimization using GA. The simulation and measurement results for several surface structures show a good agreement.
    • Co-processing of drugs and co-crystal formers and its effect on pharmaceutical dosage-form performance. Co-crystallization of urea/ 2-methoxybenzamide, caffeine/ malonic acid, caffeine/ oxalic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid systems: Solid-state characterization including imaging, thermal, X-ray and Raman spectroscopic techniques with subsequent evaluation of tableting behaviour

      Forbes, Robert T.; Grimsey, Ian M.; Bonner, Michael C.; Ibrahim Mohamed, Asim Y. (University of BradfordDrug Delivery Group, School of Pharmacy, 2008)
      This dissertation has focused on the solid-state characterization of different co-crystal system as well as the effect of co-crystallization of these systems on pharmaceutical dosage form performance. Urea/ 2-MB, caffeine/ malonic acid, caffeine/ oxalic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid co-crystals were prepared using co-grinding- and co-precipitation techniques. In addition, the synthesis of co-crystals through two novel methods has been demonstrated. This includes compaction and convection mixing. The solid-state characterization of the co-crystals has been carried out using XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TGA, hot-stage microscopy and SEM. After preparation of co-crystals, tablets have been produced from co-ground-, co-precipitated-, and physical mixtures using Compaction Studies Press (Kaleva), and the data were recorded to compare between the different mixtures, regarding compactibilty, compressibility and deformational properties. The DSC results showed that the physical mixtures of all systems, formed co-crystals during heating process. For systems of urea/ 2-MB, caffeine/ malonic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid, the co-ground mixture produced tablets with higher tensile strength compared with either co-precipitated or physical mixture. However, for caffeine/ oxalic acid system, the tensile strengths of compacts produced from the physical mixture were greater than those obtained from either co-ground or co-precipitated mixtures. The Heckel data suggested that urea/ 2-MB, caffeine/ malonic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid systems are Type 1 materials, as an extensive linearity during compression was indicative of a plastic deformation mechanism, while the caffeine/ oxalic acid system was Type 2 materials. However, the co-precipitated mixture of urea/ 2-MB system was the least compressible, as it possessed the greatest value of yield pressure (85 MPa) and the highest elastic recovery (7.42%). The co-precipitated mixture of both of caffeine/ malonic acid and theophylline/ malonic acid systems was the most compressible with small yield pressure values of (44 & 80 MPa) and elastic recovery of (7.2% & 6.56%), respectively. The co-ground mixture of caffeine/ oxalic acid possessed the highest value of yield pressure (166 MPa) and thus the lowest compressibility among other mixtures. Furthermore, the addition of microcrystalline cellulose and α-lactose monohydrate has affected the crystallinity as well as the tableting properties of the co-crystals. After the addition of excipients, the tensile strength of compacts was about 2 times higher than any other mixture. Finally, urea/ 2-MB and caffeine/ malonic acid co-crystals were successfully synthesized through convection mixing and compaction.
    • The contributory factors in drug errors and their reporting

      Not named; Armitage, Gerry R. (University of BradfordSchool of Health, 2008)
      The aim of this thesis is to examine the contributory factors in drug errors and their reporting so as to design an enhanced reporting scheme to improve the quality of reporting in an acute hospital trust. The related research questions are: 1. What are the contributory factors in drug errors? 2. How effective is the reporting of drug errors? 3. Can an enhanced reporting scheme, predicated on the analysis of local documentary and interview data, identify the contributory factors in drug errors and improve the quality of their reporting in an acute hospital trust? The study aim and research questions reflect a growing consensus, articulated by Boaden and Walshe (2006), that patient safety research should focus on understanding the causes of adverse events and developing interventions to improve safety. Although there are concerns about the value of incident reporting (Wald & Shojania 2003, Armitage & Chapman 2007), it would appear that error reporting systems remain a high priority in advancing patient safety (Kohn et al 2000, Department of Health 2000a, National Patient Safety Agency 2004, WHO & World Alliance for Patient Safety 2004), and consequently it is the area chosen for intervention in this study. Enhancement of the existing scheme is based on a greater understanding of drug errors, their causation, and their reporting.
    • Coin: the missing currency in peace support operations and beyond

      Whitman, Jim R.; Pinder, David (University of BradfordPeace Studies, 2009-02-03)
      The United Nations has a long history of peacekeeping missions. These have evolved over time but since the end of the Cold War there has been rapid growth in those missions where the remit placed on the peacekeepers, both military and civilian, is more complex and demanding. In trying to define these missions and their mandates a wide range of terminology has been developed in an effort to describe the exact nature of the mission. Since many of these deployments take place into theatres where there is no peace to keep, or where a fragile peace reverts to a conflict situation such tight definitions often lead to the troops involved no longer having an appropriate mandate. More recently some of these larger missions constitute in fact interventions to impose peace. Attempts to find a `peace¿ classification for such deployments often confuse the issue rather than bring clarity. In reality these missions are not peacekeeping at all. The almost forgotten doctrine, principles and practices of Counterinsurgency provide a better framework for defining these missions, the respective roles of the key players and the factors necessary to bring success.
    • A scientific investigation of the brick and tile industry of York in the mid-eighteenth century

      Warren, Stanley E.; Betts, Ian M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Physics, 2009-05-26)
      Petrological and neutron activation analysis of bricks and tiles from York and neighbouring sites with discussion of the analytical and documentary evidence for their production in York up until AD 1750.
    • On-line shear and extensional rheometry of polymer melts in the extrusion process.

      Coates, Philip D.; Kelly, Adrian L. (University of BradfordInterdisciplinary Research Centre for Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering., 2009-06-11)
      A novel on-line capillary rheometer (OLR) was used to examine the shear and extensional characteristics of polyolefin melts during twin screw extrusion (TSE). Comparisons with off-line rheometry were made using a twin-bore capillary rheometer and a modular in-line slit die rheometer (ILR) provided in-line rheometry comparisons. Both capillary rheometers were controlled via PCs running dedicated software, and the extrusion line and ELR were fully instrumented allowing real-time process monitoring to be carried out by IBM compatible PCs via data acquisition hardware and software. The prototype OLR was developed by the re-design of several key features including an instrumented transfer section and capillary die block which facilitated the use of various die geometries. Shear and extensional on-line rheometry of three polyethylenes (linear and branched), and four molecular weight grades of polypropylene were examined, and a direct comparison with off-line capillary rheometry showed a good correlation. The effect of a high loading of filler on two of the polyethylenes was investigated. In-line shear stress and entry pressure measurements showed a reasonable correlation with on-line rheometry. A study of entry flows in the OLR using capillary dies approaching orifice showed non-linearities occurred at very low capillary length to diameter(L:D) ratios, and this was repeatable using off-line rheometry. Predicted zero length entry pressures (Po) were used to estimate apparent extensional viscosity using a number of standard models. Melt instability and capillary wall slip were also investigated using on-line rheometry. Melt pressure and temperature in the twin screw extruder and OLR were monitored at various process conditions to examine the ability of the OLR to condition melt during testing, and the effect of OLR testing on extrusion conditions. Pressure variation in the extruder, OLR and off-line rheometer were compared in order to quantify process noise. The effect of OLR testing on melt rheology and polymer molecular weight were examined using off-line rheometry and gel permeation chromatography(GPC).
    • The provenance of Bronze Age pottery from Central and Eastern Greece

      Warren, Stanley E.; White, Selina (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Physics, 2009-06-18)
      Samples from nearly 800 Bronze Age pottery sherds from Euboea, Eastern Boeotia and Eastern Thessaly were analysed together with 9 raw clays from the same areas. The-analysis was carried out in an attempt to identify areas of pottery manufacture, to discover the origin of specific groups of pottery, to relate pottery to, raw clays and to see how far pottery compositions can be associated with, and predicted by, geology. The work was done on the same lines as earlier studies at the Oxford Laboratory and at the British School at Athens. The main analytical technique used was therefore optical emission spectroscopy. Some 25% of the total number of sherds were also analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry so that the results obtained by the two techniques could be compared. The interpretation of the results was facilitated by the use of, computer program packages for cluster and discriminant analysis. Both optical emission and atomic absorption analysis resulted in broadly similar groupings although the absolute concentrations were not directly comparable. The groupings obtained after atomic absorption analysis had the narrower concentration ranges. Nine elements were measured by both techniques but in atomic absorption potassium was added and proved; useful as an additional discriminant. Six composition groups were distinguished from the data. One of them was identified as Euboean, 2 as Boeotian and 3 as coming from different regions of Thessaly. The greatest movement of pottery within these areas was from Euboea to Thessaly. No composition group which originated from outside these regions was identified. Six of the 9 raw clays were associated with the prevailing composition group in the area from which they came. It was not possible to predict trends in pottery composition by examination of the local geology.
    • Responding to children affected by armed conflict: A case study of Save the Children Fund (1919-1999).

      Rigby, Andrew; Sellick, Patricia (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2009-06-18)
      Save the Children Fund (SCF) was at its foundation in 1919 a value-driven organization. The values, or guiding principles, of the founding generation are the lens through which I look at the history of SCF, and the associated histories of war and peace, human rights and NGO-state relations. These guiding principles are identified as universalism, utilitarianism and optimistic pacificism. They can be understood as a paradigm to which the social community which made up the founding generation of SCF gave their assent. The first chapter locates the founding generation within the political culture of the anti-war movement. Succeeding chapters detail the metamorphosis of SCIF from a'contentious social movement into a respectable national organization. As soon as the organization adopted a national rather than a universal orientation, the coordinates of all its guiding principles shifted. In particular the optimistic pacificism of the founding generation was replaced by pessimistic defencism. It was not until after the Cold War that SCIF began to realign itself with its original guiding principles. The three guiding principles are found to be of continuing relevance. Universalism has been reasserted as a positive creed leading SCF to seize political opportunities to reach out to children from all sides. The organization has adopted a utilitarian perspective that affirms the dynamic role of young people in generating their own futures. Lastly, the primacy attached to peace by war-affected people has underlined SCFs urgent mission to uphold an optimistic belief in the possibility of peace.
    • Asian-named minority groups in a British school system: A study of the education of the children of immigrants of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin from the Indian sub-continent or East Africa in the City of Bradford.

      Curle, Adam; Rogers, Paul F.; Rigby, Andrew; Thompson, Brenda M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Peace Studies, 2009-06-18)
      This thesis was planned as an -interdisciplinary work, a possible exemplar of 'a peace study' (see Appendix 5). It offers an analysis of the situation of the Asian children of immigrant families, socially and racially disadvantaged in Britain, in the Bradford school system from the mid-1970's to 1980*, and their relative success in terms of external examination assessment in comparison with their peers. This is seen against the backcloth of pioneering Local Authority policies to support their education and observations of practice in schools. The findings are generalised as models of what is perceived by the policy-makers and practitioners to be progress towards racial justice and peace. It is argued that the British school system has shown limited facility to offer equal opportunity of success to pupils in socially disadvantaged groups and that this is borne out in an analysis of the situation of the Asian pupils in the County Upper schools in Bradford (CB), less likely to be allocated to external examination-orientated groups or to gain success in these than their peers. There are indications that their potential may not be being realised. It is argued that while language support for the bilingual child is important, account should also be taken of a more general cultural dominance in the school system and stereotyped low expectations from teachers which may feed racial bias in institutions. The data show that the LEA policies, though benevolent in intention, demonstrate institutional racism in effect. With four case studies from observations in Bradford schools, models are developed for practice that has potential for power-sharing and greater equity of opportunity -for pupils, involving respect for cultural diversity and antiracist education strategies supporting and supported by community participation in schools. It is argued that white educationists need to listen to black clients, pupils and their parents, involving them in dialogue to ascertain their real needs, to implement appropriate policy. As there was a considerable lapse of time between the field work research and writing up of this thesis, and its final presentation, an addendum (with bibliography) reviews some of the research and literature in the fleld since 1980. This situates the field work historically. The issues raised and discussed in the context of the 1970's are still far from being solved. The additional work stregthens, rather than changes my original conclusion that society is locked into a cycle of inequality. A counter-hegemony must emerge from 'grass-roots', community initiatives with a values-base linked not to self-seeking or confrontational power group politics but to a notion of the common good.
    • Successfully implementing strategic decisions: The implementation of top level decisions in organizations.

      Hickson, David J.; Miller, Susan J. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Management and Administration, 2009-06-18)
      This thesis investigates the implementation of eleven strategic decisions in six organizations. The decisions concern the installation of new technology, the carrying out of various building programmes and the re-organization of organizational structures The organizations comprise a university, a water authority, two mail order companies and two chemical firms. The objective is to describe and explain implementation processes and outcomes. To this end, eleven independent variables and three dependent variables are distinguished. These conceptualise the success of implementation outcomes and define the factors which affect the level of success. Two groupings are isolated within the independent variables. The 'Enabler' group of variables is concerned with how familiar people are with what has to be implemented, the priority of implementation, having enough resources available, having a favourable organizational structure and maintaining a flexible approach during implementation. All these factors help to secure a moderate degree of success. However the second grouping of variables - the 'Realizers' - are required to achieve the highest level of success in implementation. These are to do with being clear about what has to be done and being able to evaluate what has been achieved, enjoying favourable conditions and support inside the organization, and having a little luck along the way. Conclusions are drawn about the levels of risk associated with implementing different topics and the steps which managers can take to reduce risk and enhance the chances of success.
    • The reconfiguration of the state in an era of neoliberal globalism: State violence and indigenous responses in the Costa Chica-Montaña of Guerrero, Mexico.

      Pearce, Jenny V.; Parra-Rosales, L.P. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2009-07-31)
      The adoption of the neo-liberal model in the mid-1980s has forced the governing elites to reconfigure the Mexican State. However, the consolidation of a neoliberal State continues to be incomplete and it has been problematic to fully integrated the Mexican economy in the global market due to the increasing organized crime, the dismantling of previous post-revolutionary control mechanisms, and the growing mobilisation of organised indigenous opposition ranging from the peaceful obstruction of hydroelectric mega-projects in their territories to armed struggle. In view of the State crisis, this thesis argues that there has been a shift in the system of control mechanisms of the State that is leaning towards a more recurrent use of open violence to implement its neo-liberal State project. From a theoretical perspective, the research proposes an innovative approach to understanding the formation of the post-revolutionary State, which transcends the State violence dichotomy established between the ´corporatist´ and the ´critical´ approaches in the contemporary literature. The research highlights the wide spectrum of control mechanisms from hegemonic domination to violence used by the governing elites to compensate the unfinished State formation process in order to maintain socio-political stability without profound structural changes. It explores the enhanced tendency of State violence to replace incorporation in Statesociety relations since the efforts to restructure the economy from the 1980s onwards. The thesis analyses how this tendency has grown particularly in response to indigenous movements in the South of Mexico. The argument is substantiated empirically with two case studies undertaken in the sub-region of Costa Chica-Montaña of Guerrero with data from 79 semi-structured interviews with a wide range of social and political actors, and participant observation in ten indigenous communities. The case studies explore the different State control mechanisms used to advance the State formation model in the post revolutionary period; the impact of the crisis of those mechanisms in the sub-region; the violent resistance of local bosses to the loss of power, and the multiples indigenous responses to the implementation of neoliberal policies in their territories. This research also includes a comparative study to explain some factors that strengthen indigenous articulations, as well as their limits in an era of neoliberal globalisation. One of the most important research findings is that neoliberalism has further weakened the ¿civilianisation¿ power of the State to deal peacefully with civil society sectors, particularly with indigenous peoples, while it has strengthened its ¿centralised-coercive¿ power to carry out the imposed State model. Another finding is that the indigenous initiatives that have reinvented themselves through a new version of their practices and broader alliances have consolidated their alternative models. In contrast, the indigenous responses that have reproduced their traditions have failed.
    • A framework for semantic web implementation based on context-oriented controlled automatic annotation.

      Neagu, Daniel; Ramadan, Haider; Hatem, Muna Salman (University of BradfordDepartment of Computer Science, 2009-07-31)
      The Semantic Web is the vision of the future Web. Its aim is to enable machines to process Web documents in a way that makes it possible for the computer software to "understand" the meaning of the document contents. Each document on the Semantic Web is to be enriched with meta-data that express the semantics of its contents. Many infrastructures, technologies and standards have been developed and have proven their theoretical use for the Semantic Web, yet very few applications have been created. Most of the current Semantic Web applications were developed for research purposes. This project investigates the major factors restricting the wide spread of Semantic Web applications. We identify the two most important requirements for a successful implementation as the automatic production of the semantically annotated document, and the creation and maintenance of semantic based knowledge base. This research proposes a framework for Semantic Web implementation based on context-oriented controlled automatic Annotation; for short, we called the framework the Semantic Web Implementation Framework (SWIF) and the system that implements this framework the Semantic Web Implementation System (SWIS). The proposed architecture provides for a Semantic Web implementation of stand-alone websites that automatically annotates Web pages before being uploaded to the Intranet or Internet, and maintains persistent storage of Resource Description Framework (RDF) data for both the domain memory, denoted by Control Knowledge, and the meta-data of the Web site¿s pages. We believe that the presented implementation of the major parts of SWIS introduce a competitive system with current state of art Annotation tools and knowledge management systems; this is because it handles input documents in the ii context in which they are created in addition to the automatic learning and verification of knowledge using only the available computerized corporate databases. In this work, we introduce the concept of Control Knowledge (CK) that represents the application¿s domain memory and use it to verify the extracted knowledge. Learning is based on the number of occurrences of the same piece of information in different documents. We introduce the concept of Verifiability in the context of Annotation by comparing the extracted text¿s meaning with the information in the CK and the use of the proposed database table Verifiability_Tab. We use the linguistic concept Thematic Role in investigating and identifying the correct meaning of words in text documents, this helps correct relation extraction. The verb lexicon used contains the argument structure of each verb together with the thematic structure of the arguments. We also introduce a new method to chunk conjoined statements and identify the missing subject of the produced clauses. We use the semantic class of verbs that relates a list of verbs to a single property in the ontology, which helps in disambiguating the verb in the input text to enable better information extraction and Annotation. Consequently we propose the following definition for the annotated document or what is sometimes called the ¿Intelligent Document¿ ¿The Intelligent Document is the document that clearly expresses its syntax and semantics for human use and software automation¿. This work introduces a promising improvement to the quality of the automatically generated annotated document and the quality of the automatically extracted information in the knowledge base. Our approach in the area of using Semantic Web iii technology opens new opportunities for diverse areas of applications. E-Learning applications can be greatly improved and become more effective.
    • Relative bioavailability of terbutaline to the lungs following inhalation using different methods.

      Assi, Khaled H.; Chrystyn, Henry; Abdelrahim, M.E.A. (University of BradfordPostgraduate studies in clinical Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Innovation, School of Pharmacy., 2009-08-03)
      The primary aim was to validate and implement a urinary pharmacokinetic method for terbutaline to determine the relative lung and systemic bioavailability following inhalation and to measure the in-vitro characteristics of the emitted dose by these inhalation methods. Two new robust, accurate and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography methods for the determination of terbutaline in aqueous and urine samples were validated in accordance with the FDA and ICH guidelines. Terbutaline was extracted using solid phase extraction with salbutamol and bamethane as internal standards. The accuracy, precision, lower limit of detection and recovery for both methods were within recognized limits. The in-vitro characteristics of terbutaline sulphate inhalers were measured according to standard compendial methodology as well as adaptation of this methodology to simulate routine patient use. The dose emission of terbutaline sulphate from a Bricanyl Turbuhaler was determined using an inhalation volume of 4 L at inhalation flows of 10-60 L min-1. The particle size distribution was measured using an Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI) with a mixing inlet valve to allow measurement at different flows. A steady increase in total emitted dose (TED) and the fine particle dose (FPD) was observed as the inhalation flow increased thereby highlighting the flow dependent dose emission characteristics of the Turbuhaler. The in-vitro dose emission characteristics of terbutaline sulphate from Bricanyl MDIs were measured according to the standard compendial methodology at a flow of 28.3 L min-1 using a 4 L inhalation volume. The TED and particle size distribution of terbutaline sulphate from the Bricanyl MDI were determined alone and with different spacers [AeroChamber Max (AMAX), AeroChamber Plus (APLUS), Fisonair and Nebuhaler]. The TED from the MDI alone was significantly higher than all MDI+spacers (p<0.001). The MDI with APLUS resulted in the smallest mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and the highest fine particle fraction (FPF). The MDI with AMAX resulted in the highest FPD. The in-vitro characteristics of terbutaline sulphate from Bricanyl respules using the Aeroneb Pro (vibrating mesh) and Sidestream jet nebulisers were determined by the CEN methodology and the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) methodology. The Aeroneb Pro was found to have significantly better aerodynamic properties than the Sidestream. The results from the NGI method were significantly different from the CEN method suggesting further evaluation of both methods. Cooling the NGI decreased the evaporation effect. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 females) completed in-vivo urinary terbutaline pharmacokinetic studies to determine the relative bioavailability following inhalation. The differences between the amounts excreted 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour post inhalation from a Bricanyl MDI (I) and oral (O) dosing of 500 µg terbutaline sulphate and with the co-administration of oral charcoal (IC and OC, respectively) were studied. No terbutaline was found in OC samples. The amount of terbutaline excreted 30 minutes post I and IC were significantly (p<0.001) higher than post O suggesting that the amount of terbutaline excreted 30 minutes post dosing can be used as an index of the lung deposition. The amount of terbutaline excreted 24 hour post I was significantly (p<0.01) higher than post O suggesting that the amount of terbutaline excreted 24 hour post dosing can be used as an index of the relative systemic bioavailability. The dose response relationships and the low inter and intra-subject variability studies confirm the feasibility of this method. To demonstrate the application of the method the effect of inhalation technique on the lung and systemic bioavailability following inhalation from a dry powder inhaler was evaluated. The effect of different spacers on the dose emitted from the Bricanyl MDI and the effect of different nebulisers on the dose emitted were also studied using twelve healthy volunteers (6 females) for each study. A fast inhalation flow using the Bricanyl Turbuhaler resulted in significantly higher amounts of terbutaline excreted 0.5 and 24 hour post dosing (2 doses of 500µg terbutaline sulphate from Bricanyl Turbuhaler) than slow inhalation flow (p<0.001). The Bricanyl MDI alone resulted in a significantly higher amount of terbutaline excreted 24 hour post dosing (2 doses of 250µg terbutaline sulphate from Bricanyl MDI) and significantly lower amounts excreted 30 minutes post dosing than the MDI+Spacers. The AMAX provided a greater amount of urinary terbutaline excreted 30 minutes post dosing than the APLUS and Nebuhaler. The Aeroneb Pro resulted in significantly higher amounts of terbutaline excreted 0.5 and 24 hour post dosing (1 dose of 5mg/2ml terbutaline sulphate from Bricanyl respule) than a Sidestream Jet nebuliser (p<0.001). Further application of the method was demonstrated by 12 (6 female) COPD non-invasive mechanically ventilated patients. One dose of 2mg in 0.8ml terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution from Aeroneb Pro and one dose of 5mg in 2ml terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution from Sidestream jet nebuliser resulted in a similar amounts of urinary terbutaline excreted 0.5 and 24 hour post dosing. The results were consistent with the results of the ex-vivo study performed on the same patients. The thesis highlights extension of the urinary pharmacokinetic method following inhalation to terbutaline and its application in volunteer and patient studies.
    • Vibrational spectroscopic techniques (Raman, FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy) as a means for the solid-state structural analysis of pharmaceuticals

      Edwards, Howell G.M.; Ali, H.R.H. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2009-08-21)
      The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of vibrational spectroscopic techniques (Raman, FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy) as a means for the solid-state structural analysis of pharmaceuticals. Budesonide, fluticasone propionate, salbutamol hemisulfate, terbutaline hemisulfate, ipratropium bromide, polymorphic forms of salmeterol xinafoate and two polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole were selected since they are used in the management of certain respiratory disorders and from different chemical and pharmacological entities along with some pharmaceutical excipients. Conventional visual examination is not sufficient to identify and differentiate spectra between different pharmaceuticals. To confirm the assignment of key molecular vibrational band signatures, quantum chemical calculations of the vibrational spectra were employed for better understanding of the first five selected drugs. The nondestructive nature of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques and the success of quantum chemical calculations demonstrated in this work have indeed offered a new dimension for the rapid identification and characterisation of pharmaceuticals and essentially warrant further research. The application of simultaneous in situ Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry for the preliminary investigation of the polymorphic transformation of salmeterol xinafoate polymorphs and two polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole has also been explored in this work leading to the development of a new method for the solid-state estimation of the transition temperature of entantiotropically related pharmaceutical polymorphs which represents the first analytical record of the use of this approach for pharmaceutical polymorphs.