Now showing items 41-60 of 1448

    • Professionalism and Civil-Military Relations: A Case Study of the Nigerian Armed Forces

      Harris, David; Macaulay, Fiona; Openiyi, Adebiyi (University of BradfordDivision of Peace Studies and International Development, 2020)
      This study examined the relationship between military professionalism and civil-military relations in Nigeria. Focusing on the period between 1960 and 2007, it explored the connection between understandings of professionalism amongst members of the armed forces and the way they relate to the rest of Nigerian society. Prolonged military rule (1966-1999) and the military’s heavy involvement in domestic security, resulted in increased militarization of Nigerian society and placed considerable strain on civil-military relations. The conduct of Nigerian military personnel in their dealings with civilians and their representatives faced criticism by members of the Nigerian civil society and the international community for being exploitative, heavy-handed and inconsistent with expected standards of military professionalism. Yet, during this period the military also increased its international profile, and came to be regarded, especially in the area of international peacekeeping, as a significant force within its region and beyond. Greater accountability and stricter adherence to professional standards were part of the democracy dividends expected by Nigerians when successful elections were held in 1999. Yet, two decades later, the relationship between the military sphere and the civilian sphere has been fractious and conflictual. This thesis considers that efforts to promote military professionalism need to engage with apparent and evidential understandings of military professionalism held amongst military personnel themselves. On this basis, the study has sought to introduce military voices into the discourse on military professionalism. The study adopted a mixed methods approach incorporating both qualitative and quantitative methods in gathering perspectives held by members of the Nigerian military and the civil population about military professionalism. It found that the military’s self-image, in terms of its professionalism and values, is markedly at odds with the way it is perceived by the civilian population many of whom see it as a highly politicised, unethical and coercive institution. Further, that the military identity is deeply complicated by pluralism, religious and ethnic diversity in Nigeria with specific consequences for its professionalism.
    • Environmental Regulations and Industrial Trade Competitiveness: Evidence from South Asian Countries

      Jalilian, Hossein; Saleem, Irfan (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
      This thesis examines the impact of environmental regulations on trade competitiveness for South Asian countries. The study further investigates whether South Asian countries have become a pollutive haven of industrial exports to OECD countries during 1984-2004. The thesis also analyses whether tariff walls created by the governments to offsets stringent environmental regulations negatively affect pollutive industrial trade flows. This study has identified gaps in the literature after critically reviewing both competing trade theories and empirical literature surrounding the subject. Firstly, most of the empirical literature on the subject has focused on developed countries while ignoring less developed regions like South Asia. Second, several studies concluded trade competitiveness impact of environmental policy following a single estimation method when results are sensitive to the choice of the method used. Hence, for robust results, cross-methods analysis was imperative. Thirdly, the empirical literature on the subject focused on most pollutive industries and ignored the research on somewhat pollutive and least pollutive sectors as well as comparative analysis between those industries. This study has contributed to the literature by filling these gaps. Following the neo-classical theory, the central hypothesis of this thesis is that environmental regulations negatively affect different categories of pollutive industrial export competitiveness. By using the highest dis-aggregated ISIC level trade data and incorporating other socio-economic variables, this study has deployed comparative advantage trade models by Balassa (1965), competitiveness indicator by XU (1999), and bilateral RCA model by Grether and de Melo (2004). The study used the gravity model to control for un-observed effects over time on trade flows while capturing environmental regulations impact on pollutive industrial trade competitiveness. Accordingly, to avert endogeneity/data sensitivity issues and to ascertain robust estimates, the present research has among others computed Random Effect and Newey-West standard error models. The statistical modeling results show that while India gained trade competitiveness in most pollutive industrial trade, Pakistan and Bangladesh lost their trade competitiveness in the same category. The research finds evidence of most pollutive industries of South Asian countries increasing their bilateral RCAs and exports with OECD countries and reset of the world. A comparative analysis between most pollutive to less pollutive industries showed a lack of support for any systematic specialization patterns of trade for South Asia during 1984-2004. Nonetheless, this study findings based on gravity modeling clearly depicted a statistically significant negative impact of environmental regulations on total exports, most pollutive exports, and less pollutive industrial exports for South Asia and OECD countries. This study rejected the pollution haven hypothesis between South Asian pollutive industrial exports with OECD. It further concluded that tariff barriers created by countries to offsets environmental regulation costs would prove counterproductive to competitiveness. At the policy level, instead of lobbing for protectionism to balance out environmental regulatory costs, the governments in both developed and developing countries need to focus on forming better environmental policies fostering both competitiveness and environmental quality. Also, trade-offs between environmental regulations and competitiveness are challenging situations for South Asia and OECD countries. Therefore, sustainable production and trade policies combined with innovative and cost-effective environmental policies are needed to accomplish environmental gains and competitiveness.
    • A Novel Multiple Access Quantum Key Distribution Network for Secure Communication. An Investigation into The Use of Laws of Quantum Physics And Communication Protocols To Enable Multiple Clients To Exchange Quantum Keys In A Lan Environment For Secure Communication

      Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Awan, Irfan U.; Saleem, Faisal (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
      Every business and household rely on internet in this day and age. We are using electronic devices connected to the Internet. These devices are generating a considerable amount of data, which is usually transmitted using public/insecure communication channels. On the one hand, the technological advancement of universal connectivity brought so much ease for humans’ race in business, shopping, and financial transactions. The rapid pace of this technological advancement also introduced several concerns in terms of the security and secrecy of data. Security researchers developed several encryption algorithms that are in use to ensure the safety and confidentiality of data. The mathematical difficulty of prime factorisation is the fundamental element of modern encryption algorithms, and they require a considerable amount of processing power to reverse engineer (or break) these algorithms. Scientists and government agencies are trying to build quantum computers to solve some complex problems. These problems include prime factorisation of large numbers, a critical factor in the field of cryptography. Quantum computers are much more potent because of their nature. It processes information by using laws of quantum. The successful development of quantum computers will pit the security and secrecy of our data at risk because it is trivial for the quantum computer to break the currently used encryption algorithms. Bearing this in mind, Research have started working on systems that will provide secure communications in the age of quantum computing. Considering the importance of quantum physics-based communication systems, we have some working examples of these systems, which are called quantum key distribution systems (QKD). These system uses quantum physics to transmit quantum states from one party to another. In case of the presence of Eavesdropping, the whole system will be disturbed, letting both parties know the existence of eve. QKD systems have some success and have different protocols, but until now, they have a very long way to go. When these systems are mature enough, they will require to work with current internet infrastructure, which is very costly and brings so much complexity to the network that it will not be feasible to implement. This thesis proposes a Multiple Access QKD Network integrated with Internet infrastructure to addresses these issues of Secure Communication. The system proposed in this thesis takes existing protocols of data communication, QKD, along with hardware architecture of communication devices. A QKD based client and network switch have been designed and developed along with its operating system to enable multi-access communication in the LAN environment. A simulation model of the model proposed in this thesis has been by using OMNet++ simulation framework to test and evaluate the viability of this model. The proposed QKD mechanism will reduce the complexity for network administrators, reduce the cost of implementation for businesses, and ensure the secrecy and security of the data even in the age of quantum computing.
    • Modelling and Evaluation of Performance, Security and Database Management Trade-offs in Cloud Computing Platforms. An investigation into quantitative modelling and simulation analysis of ‘optimal’ performance, security and database management trade-offs in Cloud Computing Platforms (CCPs), based on Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) and a three-tier combined metrics

      Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Akinyemi, Akinwale A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
      A framework for the quantitative analysis of performance, security and database management within a network system (e.g. a cloud computing platform) is presented within this research. Our study provides a methodology for modelling and quantitatively generating significant metrics needed in the evaluation of a network system. To narrow this research, a study is carried-out into the quantitative modelling and analysis of performance, security and database management trade-offs in cloud computing platforms, based on Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) and combined metrics. Cloud computing is an innovative distributed computing archetypal based on the infrastructure of the internet providing computational power, application, storage and infrastructure services. Security mechanisms such as: batch rekeying, intrusion detection, encryption/decryption or security protocols come at the expense of performance and computing resources consumption. Furthermore, database management processing also has an adverse effect on performance especially in the presence of big data. Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) that offer synchronisation, timeliness and parallelism are proposed for the modelling and quantitative evaluations of ‘optimal’ trade-offs involving performance, security and database management. Performance modelling and analysis of computer network systems has mostly been considered of utmost importance. Quantification of performance for a while has been assessed using stochastic models with a rising interest in the quantification of security stochastic modelling being applied to security problems. Quantitative techniques that includes analytical valuations founded on queuing theory, discrete-event simulations and correlated approximations have been utilised in the examination of performance. Security suffers from the point that no interpretations can be made in an optimal case. The most consequential security metrics are in analogy with reliability metrics. The express rate at which data grows increases the prominence for research into the design and development of cloud computing models that manages the workload intensity and are suitable for data exploration. Handling big data especially within cloud computing is a resource consuming, time-demanding and challenging task that necessitates titanic computational infrastructures to endorse successful data exploration. We present an improved Security State Transition Diagram (SSTD) by adding a new security state (Failed/Freeze state). The presence of this new security state signifies a security position of the computing network system were the implemented security countermeasures cannot handle the security attacks and the system fails completely. In a more sophisticated security system, when the security countermeasure(s) cannot in any form categorise the security attack, the network system is moved to the Failed/Freeze security state. At this security state, the network system can only resume operation when restored by the system administrator. In this study, we propose a cloud computing system model, defined security countermeasures and evaluated the optimisation problems for the trade-offs between performance, security and database management using SANs formalism. We designed, modelled and implemented dependency within our presented security system, developing interaction within the security countermeasures using our proposed Security Group Communication System (SGCS). The choice of Petri-Nets enables the understanding and capturing of specified metrics at different stages of the proposed cloud computing model. In this thesis, an overview of cloud computing including its classification and services is presented in conjunction with a review of existing works of literature. Subsequently, a methodology is proposed for the quantitative analysis of our proposed cloud computing model of performance-security-database trade-offs using Möbius simulator. Additionally, numerical experiments with relevant interpretations are presented and appropriate interpretations are made. We identified that there are system parameters that can be used to optimise the presented abstract combined metrics but they are optimal for neither performance or security or database management independently. Founded on the proposed quantitative simulation model framework, reliable numerical experiments were observed and indicated scope for further extensions of this work. For example, the use of Machine Learning (ML) or Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the predictive and prevention aspects of the security systems.
    • Lived experiences of failure among healthcare entrepreneurs: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Spicer, David P.; Zueva-Owens, Anna; Parkinson, Caroline; Van der Linden, Edgar W.J. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences. School of Management, 2020)
      Venture failure has been studied from the entrepreneur’s perspective through previous qualitative research. However, very few studies have considered the specific business environment in which entrepreneurs operate. This thesis addresses entrepreneurial failure and focuses on the EU healthcare sector. The paucity of academic research combining the lived experience of venture failure and the healthcare industry context, highlights the importance of this study. An interpretative phenomenological approach is used to provide situated insights, rich details and thick descriptions of participants’ experiences whilst allowing appreciation of the business context and development of common themes. Through in-depth interviews with seven entrepreneurs, this study develops a deeper understanding of what it is like to experience venture failure in the healthcare industry. Findings show that entrepreneurs were not only deeply affected by emotional hardship, but also suffered from detrimental social consequences as a result of stigmatisation and no longer being part of the healthcare industry. Findings suggest there is a relationship between entrepreneurial optimism, post-failure effects and longer-term outcomes, with a central role for healthcare entrepreneurs’ intrinsic motivation. This work adds empirical weight to the existing body of entrepreneurial failure theory. The exclusive focus on the healthcare industry adds a new perspective to academic theory and is also of value to entrepreneurship practice. Entrepreneurs’ genuine desire to make a difference in healthcare, despite the industry’s complexity and the challenges it entails, deserves more attention from policy makers, investors and other stakeholders in the healthcare ecosystem. Finally, the insights derived from the narratives of entrepreneurs who experienced failure, might help other entrepreneurs in their endeavours.
    • Suprathreshold Visual Function in Glaucoma

      Denniss, Jonathan; McKeefry, Declan J.; Bham, Habiba A. (University of BradfordSchool of Optometry and Vision Science. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2020)
      Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide but the effect of glaucoma on patients’ vision under suprathreshold conditions relevant to their natural visual environment is poorly understood. This project aimed to investigate and further understand the effects of glaucoma on three aspects of suprathreshold vision; apparent contrast of suprathreshold stimuli, detection and discrimination of image blur and crowding of peripheral vision. Psychophysical methods were employed to assess these three visual functions by measuring contrast matches of Gabor stimuli, blur detection and discrimination thresholds of edge stimuli and crowding ratios of Vernier targets. These measures were obtained from glaucoma observers tested within and outside of visual field defects and the data compared with healthy controls. Contrast matching ratios were similar between glaucoma and healthy age similar controls despite sensitivity loss in the glaucoma group. Blur detection and discrimination thresholds were similar between glaucoma observers’ tested within and outside of visual field defects and age-similar controls, though thresholds were slightly elevated for high contrast stimuli in the glaucoma visual field defect group. Crowding ratios were similar between participants with glaucoma and healthy young controls. The results demonstrate that aspects of suprathreshold visual function can be maintained in early glaucoma despite sensitivity loss at threshold. The results provide empirical evidence as to the asymptomatic nature of the disease in its early stages. It appears that in early glaucoma, there may be compensatory mechanisms at work within the visual system under suprathreshold conditions that can overcome loss of sensitivity at threshold.
    • Corporate Tax Planning: Measurement, Incentives and Governance Effects

      Ozkan, Aydin; Pinto, Helena; Elshandidy, Tamer; Li, Jing; Khawar, Muhammad (University of BradfordFaculty of Management Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
      This research reviews the existing Tax Planning (TP) measures and explores the consistency of UK firms’ engagement in TP; evaluates incentives for TP and its value relevance in a signalling theory framework; and studies corporate governance effects on TP for the firms in an institutional theory framework. It analyses a unique set of 1,482 hand-collected firm-year observations and proposes ‘undisclosed TP’ as a new TP measure. It finds that firms consistently engage in TP and their TP disclosures have improved; internationally oriented firms do not engage in TP to save taxes; risky firms, firms with low operating cashflows and growing firms, however, do not engage in TP to arrange funds internally – so they signal their non-engagement in TP to the market. Further findings confirm public awareness and market valuation of firms’ TP engagements. Boards’ tax affiliations result in reductions in tax payments (expenses) for strongly (weakly) governed firms. Professional accountancy qualifications on the board result in significantly higher tax payments for weakly governed firms. The auditors’ provided tax services (institutional ownership) result in higher tax payments for weakly (strongly) governed firms suggesting supplementary (complementary) role of auditors (institutional ownership) for the internal governance on TP. This research concludes that there is a need for further TP disclosures to reduce the information asymmetry associated with negatively valued TP activities; recommends auditors’ involvement in TP services; and recommends tax affiliates on the board to bring tax savings in a strongly governed environment. The current study’s findings have important theoretical and practical implications.
    • New Media and Social Movements. How the Indigenous People of Biafra Movement Has Used the Internet to Mobilise for an Independent Biafran State

      Goodall, Mark D.; Reeve, Carlton; Nwofe, Emmanuel S. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics. School of Media, Design and Technology, 2019)
      This study has examined the implications of the internet for the IPOB movement, focusing on the extent to which it has empowered the movement to engage in collective action mobilisation, enhance identity construction, framing and discourses for an independent Biafran state against multiple forms of state repressions. The thesis adopted a flexible approach that incorporated three level analysis including a macro-level analysis, which looked at the socio political and institutional environment; a meso-level, which examined the organisational infrastructure; and a micro-level exploring how the social movement made sense of their reality. The thesis addresses the debate between technology and society, and between the agency and political opportunity structures in Nigeria. It discussed the radical and agnostic democratic potential of the internet for African social movements and the dialectic between Biafra activism and the socio-political rootedness of Nigerian democracy. This approach allowed for providing analogies and new perspectives from the research and interpreting implications of human action. The thesis has found inconsistent, sometimes contradicting, data on the implication of internet technology for the IPOB movement. While there is some clear and robust evidence suggesting that new media technology has enhanced the movement's capabilities to organise, coordinate and mobilise for Biafran cause on many levels. The study reveals some severe limitations in the appropriation of internet technology in IPOB’s collective action objectives. The implication of the findings is discussed.
    • Machine Learning for 3D Visualisation Using Generative Models

      Ugail, Hassan; Mehmoud, Irfan; Taif, Khasrouf M.M.; Yarmouk University (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics. School of Media, Design and Technology, 2020)
      One of the state-of-the-art highlights of deep learning in the past ten years is the introduction of generative adversarial networks (GANs), which had achieved great success in their ability to generate images comparable to real photos with minimum human intervention. These networks can generalise to a multitude of desired outputs, especially in image-to-image problems and image syntheses. This thesis proposes a computer graphics pipeline for 3D rendering by utilising generative adversarial networks (GANs). This thesis is motivated by regression models and convolutional neural networks (ConvNets) such as U-Net architectures, which can be directed to generate realistic global illumination effects, by using a semi-supervised GANs model (Pix2pix) that is comprised of PatchGAN and conditional GAN which is then accompanied by a U-Net structure. Pix2pix had been chosen for this thesis for its ability for training as well as the quality of the output images. It is also different from other forms of GANs by utilising colour labels, which enables further control and consistency of the geometries that comprises the output image. The series of experiments were carried out with laboratory created image sets, to pursue the possibility of which deep learning and generative adversarial networks can lend a hand to enhance the pipeline and speed up the 3D rendering process. First, ConvNet is applied in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) in order to pair 3D objects with their corresponding shadows, which can be applied in Augmenter Reality (AR) scenarios. Second, a GANs approach is presented to generate shadows for non-shadowed 3D models, which can also be beneficial in AR scenarios. Third, the possibility of generating high quality renders of image sequences from low polygon density 3D models using GANs. Finally, the possibility to enhance visual coherence of the output image sequences of GAN by utilising multi-colour labels. The results of the adopted GANs model were able to generate realistic outputs comparable to the lab generated 3D rendered ground-truth and control group output images with plausible scores on PSNR and SSIM similarity index metrices.
    • Public Expenditure and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Nigeria

      Jalilian, Hossein; Batonyi, Gabor; Obiechina, Michael E. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
      Theoretical and empirical literature suggest that public expenditure plays very important role in economic growth, especially in the developing countries. Available statistics show that Nigeria’s 5-year average annual real public expenditure/GDP ratio grew during the greater part of the study period 1981-2015, while the 5-year average annual real GDP growth and real GDP per capita growth rates are positive during the same study period, except for 1981-1985 and 1986-1990, respectively. The incidence of poverty, however, maintained upward movement, except for 2006-2010. The foregoing interactions have been seldom, the focus of empirical studies in Nigeria. This study examines the effects of public expenditure on economic growth and poverty reduction in Nigeria from 1981-2015, using variants of two models and simulation exercise: augmented Solow growth model and growth-poverty model. Real public expenditure/GDP ratio is used as the policy variable and the simulation duration is for 5-years, 2016-2020. We use the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure by Pesaran et al. (2001) to estimate the two models, given that the annual data used for the models’ estimations were integrated of order I(1) and I(0) and small sample size. The results from the two models confirmed that public expenditure increases economic growth, though not significant, while economic growth does not reduce poverty. The same findings are confirmed through the simulation exercise. We, however, offer measures that would ensure growth and poverty reduction in Nigeria; public expenditure switch that encourages more investments in capital public expenditure, social sector public expenditure and private capital investment.
    • Functional Analysis of Polished-edge Discoidal Knives of the British Isles

      Not named; Metzger, Melissa A. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeology and Forensic Science. Faculty of Life Science, 2018)
      Polished-edge discoidal knives are part of the lithic material culture from the British Isles with an approximate Late Neolithic date. These artefacts are manufactured in three basic shapes: circular to D-shaped, triangular, and broad leaf to lozenge (Clark 1929). The aim of this project was to explore the function of polished-edge discoidal knives. To achieve this aim, the following objectives were completed: Objective 1: Develop a broad understanding of the literature surrounding polished-edge discoidal knives; Objective 2: Develop a database containing all the available information regarding the known knives for study in this project and as a tool to help further research and select archaeological samples for study based on type, condition, find location, and current location; Objective 3: Understand how these tools were used; and Objective 4: Review all data and produce a narrative about polished-edge discoidal knives’ function in Late British Neolithic Society. This project has revealed that these knives were possibility used for activities involving birch bark, clay, or other wood types. This research has also produced a database of knives, a modern distribution map, a revised typology, an archaeological date and possible contexts, and an object itinerary.
    • Evaluating the use of a theory-based intervention to improve medication-taking behaviours: A Longitudinal mixed-methods study in patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Applying Health Belief Model theory to understand patients’ medication and disease beliefs and using this to develop and evaluate targeted interventions delivered by a pharmacist to improve medication adherence

      Morgan, Julie D.; Quinn, Gemma L.; Palmer, Timothy M.; Jackson, Michael P. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, 2020)
      Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a rare incurable condition affecting both the cardiac and respiratory systems. Patients living with PAH face the burden of both intensive medication regimens and debilitating disease symptoms. This study’s primary aim was to identify patients’ medication-taking behaviours and beliefs using a framework derived from the extended health belief model (EHBM), and to use this information to deliver personalised interventions to improve medication-taking behaviours. A mixed-methodology longitudinal study design recorded patients’ parameters over a 12-month period. Thirteen participants from Northern Ireland completed the study. The results showed that the level of high-adherence to PAH medicines, as assessed using the MARS questionnaire was 80%, but this value differed when assessed via pill counting and interview data. There was a trend to improvement in observed and predicted medication adherence over the study duration. Participants’ beliefs showed a non-statistical increase in the specific-necessity beliefs and a reduction in general-overuse belief. This study added to the EHBM new constructs of trust and support in being able to better predict nonadherent behaviours. Key medication-taking themes were self-confidence, perceived ranking of medicines, uncertainty and knowledge. This study developed important learning that can be applied to future research on behavioural health studies.
    • Development of Three-Dimensional Learning Materials for Key Stage 3 Design and Engineering Students. An Introductory Aid to SolidWorks CAD Teaching for Secondary Schools

      Not named; Hill, Elliot (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      This thesis looks at the development of a physical 3D learning model designed to introduce key stage 3 students to the basics of SolidWorks with the ultimate aim of developing the model to a level where schools can use it in the education of students. The purpose of this thesis is to identify any problems with the author’s final year undergraduate project (a three-dimensional card model of Tower Bridge, which features instructions to help teach the fundamentals of SolidWorks), and to create a new learning material based on those findings. The creation of the new learning material was in part based on feedback during visits to local secondary schools. Small scale user trials were also conducted throughout the product development in order to gain first-hand insight into how the solution was meeting its objectives, i.e. being a viable learning pack for Secondary Schools. The overall project aim was to create 3 – Dimensional teaching material designed to assist in classrooms for secondary education. This aim was partially realised in that a clear and concise learning path was created. However, due to lack of engagement from local secondary schools it was not feasible to conduct user trials. These trials and subsequent review have been suggested as possible future work. It should be noted that apart from the Tower Bridge product, reviewed in chapter 3, all work presented within this thesis was conducted as part of this master study.
    • Robust Noise Filtering techniques for improving the Quality of SODISM images using Imaging and Machine Learning

      Not named; Algamudi, Abdulrazag A.M. (University of BradfordSchool of Electrical Engineering and computer Science. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
      Life on Earth is strongly related to the Sun, which makes it a vital star to study and understand. To improve our knowledge of the way the Sun works, many satellites have been launched into space to monitor the Sun‟s activities where the one of main focus is the effect of these activities on the Earth‟s climate; PICARD is one such satellite. Due to the noise associated with SODISM images, the clarity of these images and the appearance of solar features are affected. Image denoising and enhancement are the main techniques to improve the visual appearance of SODISM images. Affective de-noising algorithm methods depend on a proper detecting of noise present in the image. The aim is to identify which type of noise is present in the image. To reach this point, supervised machine-learning (ML) classifier is used to classify the type of noise present in the image. Furthermore, this work introduces a novel technique developed to enhance the quality of SODISM images. In this thesis, the Modified Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform (M-UDWT) technique is used to de-noise and enhance the quality of SODISM images. The proposed method is robust and effectively improves the quality of SODISM images, and produces more precise information and clear feature are brought out. In addition, the non wavelet enhancement is developed as well in this thesis. The results of this algorithm is discussed. The new methods are also assessed using two different methods: subjective (by human observation) and objective (by calculation)
    • Gender inequality in education: An Investigation into the effects of School Management Practices on Health Behaviours of Female Students. (A Study of Selected Senior Secondary Schools in Lagos State)

      Archibong, Uduak E.; Walton, Sean; Eyanuku, Julius P. (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies. Diversity and Inclusion Management, 2020)
      This research explores gender inequality in education, with a focus to examine the implications of gender disparities in schools on girls’ health and education. The study sought to investigate whether school management practices is a possible factor impacting the health behaviours of female students in senior secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The study employed mixed methods design and gathered primary data in two consecutive phases, in line with sequential explanatory design. Data in Phase one was gathered through the use of questionnaire while phase 2 gathered primary data using semi-structured interviews to complement survey data. The sample frame included 2 public secondary schools, 42 students, 9 teachers, 1 vice principal and 2 principals. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), while qualitative data were analyzed with help of ATLAS.ti. The findings of the study revealed school related barriers that influence high absenteeism and dropout among girls. Further findings also show the schools lack appropriate school management policies that promote healthful behaviours and encourage positive learning environment for girls. The researcher recommends leadership and school management training for school principals and their deputies, improving quality of health instruction in the curriculum, developing strict policy against school-related gender-based violence and adopting health-promoting policies.
    • From Bradford Moor to Silver Dale. The life, work, and legacy of W. Riley, 1866-1961

      Sheeran, George; Copeland, David M. (University of BradfordSchool of Lifelong Education and Development, 2008)
      This thesis presents the first full account of the life and achievements of Bradford-born W. Riley (1866-1961), once internationally known as a popular and prolific Yorkshire author. Before becoming a famous writer, he was Managing Director of the successful Bradford Optical Lantern Company, Riley Brothers and was also, for 75 years, a Methodist local preacher and an important layman within northern Methodism. He wrote 39 books, published many stories and articles, and was a busy lecturer. Riley located most of his 30 novels in the Yorkshire Dales and has left a legacy of vivid portraits of people and places in the dales that he knew and loved. This biography of Riley draws upon material never seen hitherto, expanding upon the author's diffident autobiography. The complete bibliography of his extensive writings includes much new and long-lost material. In presenting Riley to a new generation, this account places him in context with his contemporaries. Riley proclaimed his Christianity sympathetically and attractively to his receptive public in much of his output. This thesis includes an insight into the spiritual life, outlook and thinking of a popular and much-respected committed and active Methodist local preacher. Riley's life story is the account of a remarkably successful, self-motivated Victorian. He was a household name in his time, both in Yorkshire and internationally. The research for this thesis has uncovered important material relating to Riley, which will be held in the W. Riley Archive, at the Special Collections Section of the University of Bradford J.P. Priestley Library.
    • Addressing Food Waste and Loss in Nigerian Food Supply Chain: Use of Lean Six Sigma and Double-Loop Learning

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Mishra, J.; Kolawole, Olushola A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2020)
      The purpose of this research is to explore how Double Loop Learning (DLL) and Lean Six Sigma tool (i.e. DMAIC-Defined, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control) can be used to reduce Food Waste and Loss (FWL) in the processing and distribution units of the Food Supply Chain (FSC) in the developing countries. This study is motivated base on the identified research problem of which about one-third of every food produce is wasted yearly, which equates to 1.3 billion tonnes of food throughout the entire food supply chain, with up to 50% of FWL occur at the pre-consumption stage of FSC in the developing countries. The economic values of FWL in Sub-Saharan Africa amount to $230 billion yearly. Therefore, the focus has been on how to reduce the magnitude of FWL at the pre-consumption stage of the FSC in the developing countries while promoting continuous improvement practices. Though technological, environmental, and Supply Chain Strategies (SCS) aimed at reducing FWL are effective in some parts of the world but the effectiveness of those strategies in some countries is hindered by poor supply chain activities. This research adopted a qualitative research method through the use of multiple case study strategies, with the aid of semi-structured interviews, observation, and documents to explore the perception, understanding, and experience of the FSC stakeholders on how DMAIC-DLL can be used to reduce FWL. The findings of this study show that with the DMAIC-DLL framework, the root causes of FWL at the pre-consumption stage were identified. The study found that some Lean tools, employee improvisation, learning practices are some of the strategies that could be used in reducing FWL. The findings suggest that experiential learning, collaborative learning, and on-job training are effective learning mechanisms that could be used to promote learning in the adoption of DMAIC-DLL in the FSC. Therefore, this research contributes towards the ongoing debate on how to reduce FWL as well as the wider debate learning mechanisms that support continuous improvement practices. Future research should explore how DMAIC-DLL can be extended to other settings other than the food industry.
    • The role of inter-organisational knowledge management in the UEA's public policing sector

      Not named; Alghafli, Saif (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law & Social Sciences, 2020)
      Inter-organisational knowledge sharing between airport security organisations has become increasingly vital to maintain the highest standards of security and public safety. Social networks are considered a significant space for knowledge sharing within and across organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate inter-organisational knowledge sharing in social media between key organisations in policing and airport security. A cross-sectional case study strategy combining qualitative and quantitative methods was employed to investigate the use of social media in inter-organisational knowledge sharing in the context of airport security in the UAE. Findings showed that the structural characteristics within knowledge sharing were highly centralised and polarised with low intensity in knowledge sharing. Social capital was constrained at a relational level due to cultural factors of trust, risk aversion and power distance that influenced a closed culture and reduced the scope for tacit knowledge sharing practices as well as low level cognitive capital. Analysis of dimensions of the SECI model for knowledge creation revealed that knowledge and the process of knowing was impacted by cultural distinctions that constrained socialisation, externalisation, combination and internalisation processes. The key barriers to knowledge sharing were identified and associated with trust, risk aversion, organisational culture, resource constraints and interoperability factors. This study makes a contribution to theory and practice in terms of the relationship between social capital dimensions and knowledge creation processes and the characteristics of knowledge-sharing within social media. The study further adds to knowledge on the antecedents of inter-organisational knowledge sharing, particularly in the Arabic context.
    • Creating Copreneurial Identities. A phenomenological study of how copreneurs make sense of their lived experience of work and family life in copreneurial business

      Cunliffe, Ann L.; Smith, Andrew J.; Parkinson, Caroline; Muscatelli, Sophie M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Science, School of Management, 2020)
      The purpose of my research is to examine how copreneurial couples make sense of their lived experience of working in a copreneurial business and shape their mutual identity. The research context is copreneurs operating micro-businesses in the Greek leisure and tourism industry. Given the size of the tourism industry worldwide and the fact that many businesses within this sector are family-owned, this is an important area of inquiry. The aim is twofold: 1. To build theory in the field of entrepreneurship by focusing specifically on the undertheorized topic of how copreneurs understand and shape their identity and responsibilities within copreneurial businesses 2. To bring an under-utilized methodology to entrepreneurship studies, that of interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA), as a means of enhancing the understanding of the lived experience of copreneurs. Drawing on phenomenological philosophy, IPA foregrounds the meanings research participants give to their experience and therefore offers rich interpretations from copreneurial couples While taking an idiographic approach, which focuses on the first-person experience of copreneurs in a particular context, the findings will resonate with other copreneurs. The contribution of this research therefore lies in advancing our understanding of copreneurship and familial entrepreneurship by elucidating the interrelationship between personal and business partnerships. The study makes visible the often invisible recursive links between paid work and family life for men and women
    • Fast and Accurate Image Feature Detection for On-The-Go Field Monitoring Through Precision Agriculture. Computer Predictive Modelling for Farm Image Detection and Classification with Convolution Neural Network (CNN)

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Sheriff, Ray E.; Mahieddine, Fatima; Abdullahi, Halimatu S. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2020)
      This study aimed to develop a novel end-to-end plant diagnosis model for the analysis of plant health conditions in near real-time to optimize the rate of production on farmlands for an intensive, yet environmentally safe farming production to preserve the natural environment. First, field research was conducted to determine the extent of the problems faced by farmers in agricultural production. This allowed us to refine the research statement and the level of technology involved in the production processes. The advantages of unmanned aerial systems were exploited in the continuous monitoring of farm plantations to develop automated and accurate measures of farm conditions. To this end, this thesis applies the Precision Agricultural technology as a data based management system that takes into account spatial variations by using the Global Positioning System, Geographical Information System, remote sensing, yield monitors, mapping, and guidance system for variable rate applications. An unmanned aerial vehicle embedded with an optic and radiometric sensor was used to obtain high spectral resolution images of plantation status during normal production/growth cycle. Then, an ensemble of classifiers with Convolution Neural Networks (CNN) was used as off the shelf feature extractor to train images to develop an end-to-end feature detection and multiclass classification system for plant overall health’s conditions. Whereby previous works have concentrated on using CNN as off the shelf feature extractor and model training to detect only plant diseases from plants. To date, no research has yet been carried out to develop an end-to-end model for the overall plant diagnosis system. Previous studies focused on the detection of diseases at any given time, making it difficult to implement comprehensive real-time PA systems. Applying the pretrained model to the new images showed that the model can accurately predict any plant condition with an average of 97% accuracy.