Now showing items 1-20 of 1250

    • Death, disability, and diversity: An investigation of physical impairment and differential mortuary treatment in Anglo-Saxon England

      Buckberry, Jo; Croucher, Karina T.; Bohling, Solange N. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, 2020)
      Until recently, individuals with physical impairment have been overlooked within the field of archaeology due to the controversy surrounding the topics of disability and care in the past. The current research adds to the growing body of archaeological disability studies with an exploration of physical impairment and the possibility of disability-related care in Anglo-Saxon England (5th-11th centuries AD), utilising palaeopathological, funerary, and documentary analyses. Palaeopathological analysis of 86 individuals with physical impairment from 19 Anglo-Saxon cemetery populations (nine early, five middle, and five later) was performed, and the possibility of disability-related care was explored for several individuals. The mortuary treatment data (e.g. grave orientation, body position, grave good inclusion) was gathered for the entire burial population at each site (N=3,646), and the funerary treatment of the individuals with and without physical impairment was compared statistically and qualitatively, both within and between the Anglo-Saxon periods. No obvious mortuary differentiation of individuals with physical impairment was observed, although several patterns were noted. In three early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries, spatial association between individuals with physical impairment, non-adults, and females was observed. Early Anglo-Saxon individuals with physical impairment were more frequently buried in marginal locations, and two such individuals were buried in isolation. In the middle and later Anglo-Saxon periods, the funerary treatment of individuals with physical impairment became less variable, they were less frequently buried in marginal locations, and at three middle Anglo-Saxon cemeteries, they were buried in association with socially significant features in the cemetery landscape. The provision of care to ensure survival was not necessary for a majority of the individuals with physical impairment, but several individuals (lower limb paralysis, mental impairment) may have received regular, long-term care. This research proposes that the decreasing variability of mortuary treatment of individuals with physical impairment observed throughout the Anglo-Saxon period suggests that more variable attitudes about disability existed both within and between early Anglo-Saxon communities, while the political, social, and religious unification starting in the middle Anglo-Saxon period may have led to the development of more standardised perceptions of disability in later Anglo-Saxon England.
    • Assessment of lime-treated clays under different environmental conditions

      Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Ali, Hatim F.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
      Natural soils in work-sites are sometimes detrimental to the construction of engineering projects. Problematic soils such as soft and expansive soils are a real source of concern to the long-term stability of structures if care is not taken. Expansive soils could generate immense distress due to their volume change in response to a slight change in their water content. On the other hand, soft soils are characterised by their low shear strength and poor workability. In earthwork, replacing these soils is sometimes economically and sustainably unjustifiable in particular if they can be stabilised to improve their behaviour. Several techniques have evolved to enable construction on problematic soils such as reinforcement using fibre and planar layers and piled reinforced embankments. Chemical treatment using, e.g. lime and/or cement is an alternative method to seize the volume change of swelling clays. The use of lime as a binding agent is becoming a popular method due to its abundant availability and cost-effectiveness. When mixed with swelling clays, lime enhances the mechanical properties, workability and reduces sensitivity to absorption and release of water. There is a consensus in the literature about the primary mechanisms, namely cation exchange, flocculation and pozzolanic reaction, which cause the changes in the soil characteristics after adding lime in the presence of water. The dispute is about whether these mechanisms occur in a sequential or synchronous manner. More precisely, the controversy concerns the formation of cementitious compounds in the pozzolanic reaction, whether it starts directly or after the cation exchange and flocculation are completed. The current study aims to monitor the signs of the formation of such compounds using a geotechnical approach. In this context, the effect of delayed compaction, lime content, mineralogy composition, curing time and environmental temperature on the properties of lime-treated clays were investigated. The compaction, swelling and permeability, and unconfind compression strength tests were chosen to evaluate such effect. In general, the results of the geotechnical approach have been characterised by their scattering. The sources of this dispersion are numerous and include sampling methods, pulverisation degree, mixing times and delay of compaction process, a pre-test temperature and humidity, differences in dry unit weight values, and testing methods. Therefore, in the current study, several precautions have been set to reduce the scattering in the results of such tests so that they can be used efficiently to monitor the evolution in the properties that are directly related to the formation and development of cementitious compounds. Four clays with different mineralogy compositions, covering a wide range of liquid limits, were chosen. The mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of such clays that had been treated by various concentrations of lime up to 25% at two ambient temperatures of 20 and 40oC were monitored for various curing times. The results indicated that the timing of the onset of changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties that are related to the formation of cementitious compounds depends on the mineralogy composition of treated clay and ambient temperature. Moreover, at a given temperature, the continuity of such changes in the characteristics of a given lime-treated clay depends on the lime availability.
    • Dynamic soil-structure interaction of reinforced concrete buried structures under the effect of dynamic loads using soil reinforcement new technologies. Soil-structure interaction of buried rigid and flexible pipes under geogrid-reinforced soil subjected to cyclic loads

      Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Sheehan, Therese; Elshesheny, Ahmed M.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics University of Bradford, 2019)
      Recent developments in constructions have heightened the need for protecting existing buried infrastructure. New roads and buildings may be constructed over already existing buried infrastructures e.g. buried utility pipes, leading to excessive loads threatening their stability and longevity. Additionally applied loads over water mains led to catastrophic damage, which result in severe damage to the infrastructure surrounding these mains. Therefore, providing protection to these existing buried infrastructure against increased loads due to new constructions is important and necessary. In this research, a solution was proposed and assessed, where the protection concept would be achieved through the inclusion process of geogrid-reinforcing layers in the soil cover above the buried infrastructure. The controlling parameters for the inclusion of geogrid-reinforcing layers was assessed experimentally and numerically. Twenty-three laboratory tests were conducted on buried flexible and rigid pipes under unreinforced and geogrid-reinforced sand beds. All the investigated systems were subjected to incrementally increasing cyclic loading, where the contribution of varying the burial depth of the pipe and the number of the geogrid-reinforcing layers on the overall behaviour of the systems was investigated. To further investigate the contribution of the controlling parameters in the pipe-soil systems performance, thirty-five numerical models were performed using Abaqus software. The contribution of increasing the amplitude of the applied cyclic loading, the number of the geogrid-reinforcing layers, the burial depth of the pipe and the unit-weight of the backfill soil was investigated numerically. The inclusion of the geogrid-reinforcing layers in the investigated pipe-soil systems had a significant influence on decreasing the transferred pressure to the crown of the pipe, generated strains along its crown, invert and spring-line, and its deformation, where reinforcing-layers sustained tensile strains. Concerning rigid pipes, the inclusion of the reinforcing-layers controlled the rebound that occurred in their invert deformation. With respect to the numerical investigation, increasing the number of the reinforcing-layers, the burial depth of the pipe and the unit-weight of the backfill soil had positive effect in decreasing the generated deformations, stresses and strains in the system, until reaching an optimum value for each parameter. Increasing the amplitude of the applied loading profile resulted in remarkable increase in the deformations, stresses and strains generated in the system. Moreover, the location of the maximum tensile strain generated in the soil was varied, as well as the reinforcing-layer, which suffered the maximum tensile strain.
    • Flow Imaging of the Fluid Mechanics of Multilayer Slide Coating. Flow visualisation of layers formation in a 3-layers slide coating die, measurement of their thicknesses and interfacial and free surface flow instabilities

      Benkreira, Hadj; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Alpin, Richard P. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      Coating onto a moving substrate several films simultaneously on top of each other is a challenging exercise. This is due to the fact, depending on operating conditions (thickness and velocity of individual layers and the physical properties of the coating fluids), flow instabilities may arise at the interfaces between the layers and on the top layer. These instabilities ruin the application of the final multi-layered coating and must be avoided. This research addresses this coating flow situation and seeks to develop guidelines to avoid these instabilities. Following a critical literature survey, this thesis presents a novel experimental method that visualises multi-layered coating flow down an inclined multi-slot die. The visualisation is obtained using a unique configuration including a high-speed camera, telecentric objective lens and illumination. The results show for a single layer, as the die angle and Reynolds number increases, the flow becomes more unstable and for a dual layer flow, as Re increases the peak to peak amplitude and the frequency decreases at the free surface and interface. The latter was unexpected and does not conform with existing literature. The triple layer results show either a monotonically increasing or increasing from first to second layer viscosity stratifications are the most stable flows along with flow heights in the first and second layers of <22% and >18% of the total thickness respectively, which concur with current literature. The visualisation additionally obtained other instabilities including single layer back-wetting and vortices, and multilayer slot invasion with the findings concurring with current literature.
    • Distribution Network Operation with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources. Joint Active/Reactive Power Procurement: A Market-Based Approach for Operation of Distribution Network

      Mokryani, Geev; Rajamani, Haile S.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Zubo, Rana H.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
      Distributed generators (DGs) are proposed as a possible solution to supply economic and reliable electricity to customers. It is adapted to overcome the challenges that are characterized by centralized generation such as transmission and distribution losses, high cost of fossil fuels and environmental damage. This work presents the basic principles of integrating renewable DGs in low voltage distribution networks and particularly focuses on the operation of DG installations and their impacts on active and reactive power. In this thesis, a novel technique that applies the stochastic approach for the operation of distribution networks with considering active network management (ANM) schemes and demand response (DR) within a joint active and reactive distribution market environment is proposed. The projected model is maximized based on social welfare (SW) using market-based joint active and reactive optimal power flow (OPF). The intermittent behaviour of renewable sources (such as solar irradiance and wind speed) and the load demands are modelled through Scenario-Tree technique. The distributed network frame is recast using mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) that is solved by using the GAMS software and then the obtained results are being analysed and discussed. In addition, the impact of wind and solar power penetration on the active and reactive distribution locational prices (D-LMPs) within the distribution market environment is explored in terms of the maximization of SW considering the uncertainty related to solar irradiance, wind speed and load demands. Finally, a realistic case study (16-bus UK generic medium voltage distribution system) is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that ANM schemes and DR integration lead to an increase in the social welfare and total dispatched active and reactive power and consequently decrease in active and reactive D-LMPs.
    • Jordanian Citizen-Centric Cloud Services Acceptance Model in an e-Government Context: Security Antecedents for Using Cloud Services

      Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Alkhwaldi, Albeeer F.A.H. (University of BradfordSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2019)
    • Characteristics and quality of physical activity apps which provide feedback on user affect. A systematic review and evaluation of public and academic apps

      Kellar, Ian; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Lamming, Laura (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2020-12-10)
      Despite its benefits to both physical and mental health, physical activity levels worldwide remain low and new solutions for behaviour change must be sought. Smartphone apps are extremely popular and prevalent across the population, however their quality is still questionable. Physical activity produces an acute ‘feel good’ effect and intervention designers should consider the role that affect (mood) plays in uptake and maintenance of behaviours. It is timely to examine the use of affect as a motivator for physical activity, using new tools that allow real-time capture of both affect and physical activity (smartphones). The existence, characteristics and quality of physical activity apps that provide feedback on affect were explored in this thesis A mixed methods approach, comprising a systematic review (study 1) and a systematic evaluation (study 2) was taken. Data collection methods included both quantitative and qualitative assessments, using pre-existing and fit-for purpose tools. Twenty-two physical activity apps that provided feedback on affect were identified. Apps often failed to target groups most at risk of poor physical activity levels. Feedback on affect was performed in a variety of ways. Quality of apps, based on 13 criteria, was mixed. Recommendations are made for researchers, app developers and funders, including the need for development of high quality physical activity apps incorporating and emphasising affective benefits, consideration of archiving processes for developed apps once development ceases, and collaboration between researchers, developers and users when designing apps.
    • Customer Focussed Technology Selection Using Expert Opinion. Incorporating the 'Voice of the Customer' and Expert Opinion in Technology Selection.

      Campean, I. Felician; Richardson, David (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
    • Political Economy of Healthcare in Post-conflict Timor-Leste: Contestation and Ownership in Policy-Making

      Hughes, Caroline; Greene, Owen J.; Paksi, Arie K. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2018)
    • Radio-Location Techniques for Localization and Monitoring Applications. A study of localisation techniques, using OFDM system under adverse channel conditions and radio frequency identification for object identification and movement tracking

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Shuaieb, Wafa S.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      A wide range of services and applications become possible when accurate position information for a radio terminal is available. These include: location-based services; navigation; safety and security applications. The commercial, industrial and military value of radio-location is such that considerable research effort has been directed towards developing related technologies, using satellite, cellular or local area network infrastructures or stand-alone equipment. This work studies and investigates two location techniques. The first one presents an implementation scheme for a wideband transmission and direction finding system using OFDM multi-carrier communications systems. This approach takes advantage of delay discrimination to improve angle-of-arrival estimation in a multipath channel with high levels of additive white Gaussian noise. A new methodology is interpreted over the multi carrier modulation scheme in which the simulation results of the estimated channel improves the performance of OFDM signal by mitigating the effect of frequency offset synchronization to give error-free data at the receiver, good angle of arrival accuracy and improved SNR performance. The full system simulation to explore optimum values such as channel estimation and AoA including the antenna array model and prove the operational performance of the OFDM system as implemented in MATLAB. The second technique proposes a low cost-effective method of tracking and monitoring objects (examples: patient, device, medicine, document) by employing passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. A multi-tag, (totalling fifty-six tags) with known ID values are attached to the whole patient’s body to achieve better tracking and monitoring precision and higher accuracy. Several tests with different positions and movements are implemented on six patients. The aim is to be able to track the patient if he/she is walking or sitting; therefore, the tests considered six possible movements for the patient including walking, standing, sitting, resting, laying on the floor and laying on the bed, these placements are important to monitor the status of the patient like if he collapsed and fall on the ground so that the help will be quick. The collected data from the RFID Reader in terms of Time Stamp, RSS, Tag ID, and a number of channels are processed using the MATLAB code.
    • The Bronze Age funerary cups of southern England

      Gibson, Alex M.; Copper, Claire (University of BradfordSchool of Forensic and Archaeological Sciences, 2017)
      ’Pygmy’, ‘incense’, ‘accessory’ or ‘funerary’ cups are small Early Bronze Age vessels, almost all from mortuary contexts, united by their diminutive size. Although several small-scale and regional studies have previously been undertaken, until recently there has been little attempt to consider such vessels as a whole. The vessels from the north of England were recently examined in detail by Hallam (2015), and the present study of the southern English vessels will complement Hallam’s work with the ultimate goal of producing a national corpus. Details of over three hundred and fifty vessels, from thirty counties, are presented together with a comprehensive literature review. Analysis demonstrates how the form and depositional contexts of such vessels probably arose within Beaker ceramic and funerary traditions. Many have complex biographies, some being deposited ‘fresh’ whilst others are fragmented or otherwise damaged. Perforations, long seen as a key feature of the tradition, appear to be restricted to certain forms only, and it is suggested that fenestration may be a development of this practice. Regional links and networks may be discerned through the distribution of attributes and similar vessel types and probably reflect trade networks. It is suggested that the cups had a primary role within Early Bronze Age funerary rituals associated only with certain individuals, perhaps marked out by the nature of their deaths
    • Novel Technology for Crystal Engineering of Pharmaceutical Solids

      Paradkar, Anant R.; Vangala, Venu R.; Jadav, Niten B. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2018)
      The research work described in this thesis, the environmentally friendly novel "Microwave Assisted Sub-Critical water (MASCW)" technology for particle engineering of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients was developed. The present novel technology MASCW process is described as green technology as water is used as the solvent medium and microwave energy as external source of heat energy for generation of a particle with different morphological and chemical properties. In MASCW process supersaturated solution of APIs is prepared by dissolving solute in water at high temperature and pressure conditions. Upon rapid and controlled cooling, based on the aqueous solubility of solute, solute/solvent concentration and dielectric constant of water rapid precipitation of API with narrow particle size distribution occurs. Using paracetamol (pca) as API moiety understanding of the mechanism of MASCW crystallisation process was investigated. The effect of different process and experimental parameters on crystallisation pathway and end product attributes were analysed. Correlation between the degree of supersaturation concentration of pca solution against temperature and pressure parameters was explained by generating binary phase diagram. Determination of polymorphic transformation pathway of pca from form I (stable) to form II metastable polymorphs in solution was analysed using Raman spectroscopy. The difference between conventional heating and subcritical treatment was explored by determining the change in the solvent dielectric constant and solubility of hydrophobic API molecule. Based on the process understanding results, this technology was further implemented to explore its application in generating phase pure stable and metastable cocrystal phase. Based on the solubility of API and cocrystal former congruent (CBZ/SAC, SMT/SAC, SMZ/SAC) and incongruent (CAF/4HBA) cocrystal pairs were selected. For the first time generation of anhydrous phase of CAF: 4HBA cocrystal in 1:1 stoichiometric ration was reported and generation of metastable cocrystal phase of CA CBZ: SAC form II was reported. The application of this technology was explored in generating phase pure metastable polymorph of paracetamol which retain higher compressibility and dissolution rate. The potential of MASCW micronisation process, theophylline is used as the model component to produce micro sized particles for pulmonary drug delivery system via dry powder inhaler (Foradil inhaler). The results demonstrate that the THF particles generated using MASCW process displayed greater aerodynamic performance compared to conventional spray-dried THF sample. In the final chapter, synthesis of inorganic biomaterial (nano crystalline hydroxyapatite) was reported for the first time and the prospects of combining API like ibuprofen (IBU) with a biologically active component like nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) through hydrogen bonding was mechanistically explained using X-ray diffractometer and spectroscopic techniques.
    • Investigation of cytochrome p450 isoforms 1A1, 1B1 and 2W1 as targets for therapeutic intervention in head and neck cancer. Probing CYP1A1, 1B1 and 2W1 activity with duocarmycin bioprecursors

      Patterson, Laurence H.; McCaul, Jim; Pors, Klaus; Presa, Daniela (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2018)
      Cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP1A1 and CYP2W1 have been shown to be overexpressed in tumour tissue compared to surrounding normal tissue, providing an opportunity to develop targeted therapies. Recent studies have shown that re-engineered duocarmycins can be activated selectively by cancer cells expressing CYP1A1 and/or CYP2W1 to potent cytotoxins that damage DNA. This study aimed to explore CYP expression in HNC tissue, and link CYP1A1, 1B1 and 2W1 expression with capacity to bioactivate duocarmycin bioprecursors. A panel of HNC cell lines was investigated for CYP gene expression using Real Time PCR (RT-PCR), and protein expression by Western blot and/or immunofluorescence. The cell lines were also evaluated for anti proliferative activity using lead duocarmycin bioprecursor compounds (ICT2700, ICT2706 and ICT2726) and novel analogues. Various levels of mRNA expression were observed for CYP1A1 and 1B1, but not for CYP2W1, which was only detected at very low levels, contrasting with the moderate-to high CYP2W1 expression found in clinical tissues and xenografts. FaDu and Detroit-562 were identified as sensitive cell lines to several duocarmycins, and hence useful for assessing compound activity. Two novel compounds, ICT2700S and ICT11003, were shown to be the most potent duocarmycins evaluated in FaDu and Detroit-562, which primarily expressed CYP1A1. Using the comet assay and γH2AX, ICT2700S cytotoxic activity was correlated with DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs), while one benzofuran-based duocarmycin (ICT2724) was shown to cause more inter stand crosslinks (ICLs). The significance of target CYP expression and compound activity warrants further investigations in preclinical models to ascertain the clinical potential of duocarmycin-based bioprecursors.
    • The role of the SWI/SNF ATP dependent chromatin remodelling complex in the regulation of the human hair follicle cell proliferation and control of the human cutaneous wound healing

      Fessing, Michael Y.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Kellett, Carl W. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life sciences, 2018)
      Epigenetic regulation of gene expression occurs at a number of levels including covalent DNA and histone modifications, nucleosome positioning and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling as well as higher order chromatin folding and 3D genome organisation. ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes modulate nucleosome structure, positioning and chromatin de-compaction and are involved in gene activation and repression. SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes contain either BRG1 or BRM as the core ATPase together with other common and variable subunits. BRG1 is required for terminal epidermal differentiation in mice and humans and for hair follicle stem cell activation during mouse hair follicle regeneration and cutaneous wound healing. However, the role of SWI/SNF complexes in human hair growth and wound healing remain unknown. Here it is demonstrated that genes encoding SWI/SNF complex subunits are expressed in human hair follicles. It also highlights that siRNA mediated suppression of SWI/SNF complexes in hair follicle culture has no effect on hair growth, or anagen-catagen transition in the short term, but a significant increase in proliferation of the outer root sheath keratinocytes was seen. The data also documents the expression of several SWI/SNF subunits in human epidermis and that siRNA mediated SMARCA4 gene suppression in primary human keratinocyte monolayers defined the requirements of BRG1 for wound closure through control of cell migration, but not proliferation. In summary, this data revealed a diverse SWI/SNF complex subunit composition in human epidermis and hair follicle, and an essential role of the core complex ATPase BRG1 in keratinocyte migration during wound closure and re-epithelisation.
    • Experimental analysis of unreinforced and reinforced piled embankment subjected to cyclic loads

      Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Sheehan, Therese; Aqoub, Khaled M. A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      Reinforced piled embankment technique is becoming increasingly utilised for the construction over soft grounds. Most of the studies focused on studying the behaviour of piled embankments that are loaded with static surcharge load. However, less attention has been given to the behaviour of piled embankments under cyclic loading conditions. In this study, an experimental programme has been undertaken to improve our understanding for the behaviour of unreinforced and reinforced shallow piled embankments subject to cyclic loadings that are applied over a specific area of the embankment. The results showed that arching of the soil was adversely affected during the initial stages of cyclic loading regardless of the embankment height. However, regain of strength and recovery of the arching effect was observable during further stages of cyclic loadings. Inclusion of reinforcement layers was found to enhance the performance of load transfer mechanisms. The surface settlement increased with raising the embankment height and reduced with increasing the number of reinforcement layers. Two preliminary experimental studies have been carried out in order to be able to understand and design the main experiment. The results showed that with increasing number of reinforcement layers, enormous cycles of loading could be applied without experiencing excessive deformation or loss of bearing resistance. Furthermore, it was observed that alternating the direction of movement significantly affected the formation of arching during the initial cycles irrespective of the embankment height.
    • Assessing information value for harnessing knowledge needed for improving decision-making and effectiveness of a government organisation: A Case study of Abu Dhabi Police Force

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Irani, Zahir; Alketbi, Omar H. S. T. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2018)
      Due to many adverse consequences of poor decision making in organisations there is a need to focus on the quality of information and knowledge. This research focuses on how to obtain and use, or “harness” knowledge from information in improving organisational decision-making in a civil protection/security organisation to become effective and enter an organisational wide learning spiral. This is necessary in order to gain a high degree of intuitiveness and intelligence and to be effective. The researcher explores how information-knowledge can be processed and converted into deeper level knowledge, while at the same time how to get decision makers to codify knowledge in order to help them to externalise it. In order to achieve this, the “information-space” model was used to show the information-to-knowledge dynamic journey. The research involved using quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative approach is used to obtain computable results from key decision-makers, such as senior workers, and test a model derived from the literature. Seventeen hypotheses were proposed based on theory to evaluate the proposed model. Primary data was collected during the empirical phase of the research from 135 respondents. A structural equation model was used and included exogenous and endogenous latent constructs. On the other hand, a use of qualitative research helped to obtain deeper insights into the use of information and knowledge in decision making. It was underpinned by several propositions and its aim was to expose the role of information-knowledge and the creation of a learning organisation. The results of the quantitative approach revealed that twelve hypotheses are positively significant. Two hypotheses have a significant negative impact on other constructs. Additionally, three hypotheses are non-statistically significant. The results reveal some very interesting insights, such as that demographic factors, such as age, level of education, gender, work experience and level of authority, have a significant impact on problem solving and decision making. In terms of type of information, the proprietary and common sense information types have more significance for solving problem and decision making. But, much to the researcher’s surprise, the public information and personal information played a very minor role. On the other hand, the results of the qualitative data collection show how key decision makers made decisions and gained a certain degree of intuition from it. Therefore, this research has met its objective in helping towards improvement in a civil protection/security organisation to become a learning organisation and help it to enter a learning spiral and make continual improvement. Hence, the researcher succeeds in making suitable recommendations to a number of different stakeholders, in particular the civil protection/security organisations to (i) to develop their management and specialist personnel, and, (ii) to have the necessary information management strategy in place that would harness information and help towards (iii) creating an effective and robust knowledge management strategy.
    • Investigating prevalence and healthcare use of children with complex healthcare needs using data linkage. A study using multi-ethnic data from an ongoing prospective cohort: the Born in Bradford project

      Small, Neil A.; Parslow, Roger C.; Bishop, Christine F. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2017)
      Background: The impact children with complex healthcare needs have on the healthcare system is significant and requires a multidisciplinary response. Congenital anomaly (CA) is a group of conditions requiring complex and variable input from primary and secondary healthcare. This thesis explores the literature on health system preparedness for children with complex healthcare needs and quantitatively describes healthcare use for a population of children with CA, an exemplar for children with complex healthcare needs. Methods: Routine health data from primary care was explored to identify children with CA and linked to secondary care data, outpatient records, and questionnaire data from a multi-ethnic prospective birth cohort over a five-year period. Rates of CA were calculated and healthcare use for children with and without CA was analysed. Results: Out of a birth cohort of 13,857 children, 860 had a CA. Using primary care data for children aged 0 to 5 years, the number of children with CA was found to be 620.6 per 10,000 live births, above the national rate of 226.5 per 10,000 live births. Healthcare use was higher for children with CA than those without CA. Demand for use of hospital services for children with CA was higher (Incident rate ratio (IRR) 4.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.90 to 4.92) than demand for primary care services (IRR, 1.27, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.35). Conclusion: These results suggest that using primary care data as a source of CA case ascertainment reveals more children with CA than previously thought. These results have significant implications for commissioning healthcare services for children with complex healthcare needs.
    • Determinants of the application of personalised nutrition and associated technologies in dietetic practice - A mixed methods study of key stakeholders in personalised nutrition

      Not named; Abrahams, Mariette I. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Science, 2019)
      Background: Tech-enabled personalised nutrition is an emerging area that has promise to improve health outcomes, widen access to nutrition expertise and reduce healthcare expenditure, yet uptake by registered dietitians remains low. This research programme aimed to identify levers and barriers that contribute to adoption of personalised nutrition in order to guide practice and policy for registered dietitians, educators and consumers. Methods: A mixed methods study with a sequential exploratory design was adopted to determine what the barriers to adoption of technologies are, and secondly, what needs to be in place to make tech-enabled personalised nutrition a reality. The research programme was conducted online using qualitative (focus groups and interviews) and quantitative measures (survey and secondary analysis). Thematic analysis, statistical and secondary analyses of data were performed respectively. Results: Using diffusion of innovation and entrepreneurial theories, findings indicate that barriers to integration of personalised nutrition technologies include intrinsic and extrinsic factors which relate to a low self-efficacy, high perception of risk, low perceived importance and usefulness of technologies to dietetic practice as well as a lack of an entrepreneurial mindset and regulatory environment. Conclusion: Uptake of tech-enabled personalised nutrition by registered dietitians will require a multi-stakeholder approach. Educational, professional, regulatory and health policies will need to be in place and strategies that open discussion between Registered Dietitians (RD’s) at all levels are needed.
    • Identifying organizational learning dimensions that promote patient safety culture: A study of hospital pharmacies in Kuwait

      Johnson, Craig L.; Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Abdallah, Wael (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2019)
      The need for a positive safety culture in healthcare is essential. It not only advances the prevention and reduction of possible medical errors and threats to patient safety, but also enhances the overall quality of healthcare services provided, especially in respect of medication safety. While the evolution and surge in hospital pharmacies has bolstered treatment possibilities, the risk of harm to patients has also increased as errors in the provision of medication by pharmacists create a threat to patient safety. The increasing need to deploy a protective measure to enhance patient safety culture in the healthcare is imperative suggesting the necessity for the inclusion of new knowledge through the process of organizational learning. Safety culture and organizational learning are complex constructs which may be measured, to some extent, by validated instruments. The current study seeks to assess the reliability and validity of a translated Arabic version of the learning organization survey short-form (LOS-27), and the pharmacy survey on patient safety culture (PSOPSC) through the evaluation of pharmacy staff’s knowledge about organizational learning and patient safety culture in public and private hospital pharmacies of Kuwait. The aim is to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings through the LOS-27 and PSPOSC instruments. In addition, the relationship between the different dimensions of organizational learning and pharmacy patient safety culture is explored. The results highlighted the adequacy of the Arabic translation of the LOS-27 and PSOPSC questionnaires as they depicted the reliability and validity consistent with the original surveys results. It was also found that in the context of Kuwaiti pharmacies, organizational learning was positively related to performance of the staff in creating a positive patient safety culture. Several dimensions of the organizational learning showed association with various elements of patient safety culture in pharmacy settings, specifically: training, management that reinforces learning, and a supportive learning environment had the strongest effects on the pharmacy patient safety culture dimensions. The contribution of this thesis is in three areas. First, it is the first research that links organizational learning with patient safety culture in a hospital pharmacy setting (theoretical contribution). Second, the research is useful for research scholars as it combines the two questionnaires, LOS-27 and PSOPSC, on the same participants using a single form to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in a hospital pharmacy setting and their dimensions (method contribution). Third, this research contributed to the currently limited literature that examines patient safety culture and organizational learning by considering the context of Kuwait (Contextual Contribution).