Now showing items 1-20 of 1131

    • Why Peace Processes Fail: A Conceptual Analysis of the Peace Talks between Turkey and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), 2009-2015

      Kelly, Rhys H.S.; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Savran, Arin Y. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law, and Social Sciences, Division of Peace Studies and International Development, 2018)
    • Here, there is nobody. An ethnography of older people's end-of-life care in hospital

      Oyebode, Jan R.; Capstick, Andrea; Green, Laura I. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2017)
      The alleviation of suffering lies at the core of compassionate end-of-life care, yet little is known about the lived experience of suffering. Motivated by a series of reports on poor care of older people in hospital, this study addresses suffering in older people at the end of life in an acute hospital ward in the United Kingdom. Methods were developed from a synthesis of ethnographic fieldwork and phenomenological interpretation. Data were collected using participant observation on an acute care ward for older people in a hospital in Northern England, over 186 hours between June and August 2015. Data included field notes, documents, photographs and informal interviewing. Staff and patient participants were identified using theoretical sampling. Data were analysed using a hermeneutic approach involving a continuous process of analysis, further data collection, posing of problems and questions, and interpretation. This cyclical approach to the data enabled the development of interpretive perspectives which could then be further explored in the field. Findings suggested that care for older people was shaped by competing ideologies of care and organisational regulatory processes. Particularly when there was ambiguity regarding prognosis, there was a tendency for care to default to a ‘rescuing’ acute care model. Through exploring the experiences of individual patients and placing these in the context of cultures of care, I suggest that iatrogenic suffering was a significant concern that often went unrecognised. Patient-centred goals must be more focused upon avoidance of iatrogenic suffering. Recommendations include innovations in clinical education and multiprofessional working.
    • An empirical investigation of the effect of Intellectual Property Rights systems on Foreign Direct Investment Flows and Spillovers

      Wang, Chengang; Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos; Magkonis, Georgios; Christopoulou, Danai (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2018)
      The major themes of this thesis are the impact of Intellectual Property (IP) systems on foreign direct investment spillovers and bilateral FDI flows. This thesis consists of three empirical studies. The first study integrates in the existing theoretical frameworks the distinct effect of the public IP enforcement element of IP systems on FDI horizontal spillovers. By employing a meta-analysis approach and the ordered probit model estimation technique, it finds that the strength of public IP enforcement in a host country has a positive effect on FDI horizontal spillovers but it dampens the positive effect of IP law protection on FDI horizontal spillovers when it becomes too strong. The second empirical study examines the impact of IP systems on FDI vertical spillovers. This study employs a similar conceptual and empirical approach and finds that the strength of public IP enforcement has a positive effect on FDI vertical spilloversbut a negative moderating effect on the relationship between the strength of IP law protection and FDI vertical spillovers. In the third empirical study, a gravity model is applied to test the effect of IP systems on bilateral FDI flows in OECD countries. Using the Poisson pseudo-maximum-likelihood, it finds both the strength of IP law protection and the strength of public IP enforcement to have a positive effect on bilateral FDI flows. The broad implication of these findings is that countries should strengthen both their IP law protection and enforcement but apply appropriate measures to mitigate the negative effect resulted from excessive IP protection.
    • Understanding Gender in an Australian Trade Union. An Analysis Using Joan Ackers Theory of Gendered Organizations

      German, Hayley; Bates, Judy (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law & Social Sciences, 2018)
    • The Discursive Construction of Terrorism: The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and other Kurdish political movements in Turkish official discourse, and the approach of the Turkish authorities regarding the Kurdish question

      Bluth, Christoph; Green, Tim; Deewanee, Azad A.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Science and Humanities, Division of Peace Studies and International Development, 2018)
    • The political economy of policing in Zimbabwe: Changing roles, practice and identities in relationship to peace, security and development

      Macaulay, Fiona; Chirambwi, Kudakwashe (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2019)
    • Animals, Identity and Cosmology: Mortuary Practice in Early Medieval Eastern England

      Bond, Julie M.; Buckberry, Jo; Rainsford, Clare E. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
    • Bioinformatics analysis of epigenetic variants associated with melanoma

      Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Murat, Katarzyna (University of BradfordDepartment of Chemistry and Biosciences, 2018)
      The field of cancer genomics is currently being enhanced by the power of Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). Over the last couple of years comprehensive sequence data sets have been generated, allowing analysis of genome-wide activity in cohorts of different individuals to be increasingly available. Finding associations between epigenetic variation and phenotype is one of the biggest challenges in biomedical research. Laboratories lacking dedicated resources and programming experience require bioinformatics expertise which can be prohibitively costly and time-consuming. To address this, we have developed a collection of freely available Galaxy tools (Poterlowicz, 2018a), combining analytical methods into a range of convenient analysis pipelines with graphical user-friendly interface.The tool suite includes methods for data preprocessing, quality assessment and differentially methylated region and position discovery. The aim of this project was to make EWAS analysis flexible and accessible to everyone and compatible with routine clinical and biological use. This is exemplified by my work undertaken by integrating DNA methylation profiles of melanoma patients (at baseline and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor MAPKi treatment) to identify novel epigenetic switches responsible for tumour resistance to therapy (Hugo et al., 2015). Configuration files are publicly published on our GitHub repository (Poterlowicz, 2018b) with scripts and dependency settings also available to download and install via Galaxy test toolshed (Poterlowicz, 2018a). Results and experiences using this framework demonstrate the potential for Galaxy to be a bioinformatics solution for multi-omics cancer biomarker discovery tool.
    • Propagation channel models for 5G mobile networks. Simulation and measurements of 5G propagation channel models for indoor and outdoor environments covering both LOS and NLOS Scenarios

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Manan, Waqas (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      At present, the current 4G systems provide a universal platform for broadband mobile services; however, mobile traffic is still growing at an unprecedented rate and the need for more sophisticated broadband services is pushing the limits on current standards to provide even tighter integration between wireless technologies and higher speeds. This has led to the need for a new generation of mobile communications: the so-called 5G. Although 5G systems are not expected to penetrate the market until 2020, the evolution towards 5G is widely accepted to be the logical convergence of internet services with existing mobile networking standards leading to the commonly used term “mobile internet” over heterogeneous networks, with several Gbits/s data rate and very high connectivity speeds. Therefore, to support highly increasing traffic capacity and high data rates, the next generation mobile network (5G) should extend the range of frequency spectrum for mobile communication that is yet to be identified by the ITU-R. The mm-wave spectrum is the key enabling feature of the next-generation cellular system, for which the propagation channel models need to be predicted to enhance the design guidance and the practicality of the whole design transceiver system. The present work addresses the main concepts of the propagation channel behaviour using ray tracing software package for simulation and then results were tested and compared against practical analysis in a real-time environment. The characteristics of Indoor-Indoor (LOS and NLOS), and indoor-outdoor (NLOS) propagations channels are intensively investigated at four different frequencies; 5.8 GHz, 26GHz, 28GHz and 60GHz for vertical polarized directional, omnidirectional and isotropic antennas patterns. The computed data achieved from the 3-D Shooting and Bouncing Ray (SBR) Wireless Insite based on the effect of frequency dependent electrical properties of building materials. Ray tracing technique has been utilized to predict multipath propagation characteristics in mm-wave bands at different propagation environments. Finally, the received signal power and delay spread were computed for outdoor-outdoor complex propagation channel model at 26 GHz, 28 GHz and 60GHz frequencies and results were compared to the theoretical models.
    • Impact of state fragility on capital flows and economic growth in Nigeria

      Jalilian, Hossein; Potts, David J.; Laniran, Temitope J. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2018)
      This thesis aims to investigate the impact of state fragility on capital inflows and economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1980-2015. In line with existing studies, it adopts an augmented neoclassical growth model where capital is divided into domestic and foreign capital inflows (FDI, ODA and Remittances). Using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration, significant long-run relationship was confirmed between state fragility, capital flows and economic growth. The results reveal domestic capital to be very significant and contribute positively to economic growth. Similarly it was observed that remittances remain a very crucial form of capital flow to Nigeria and that the presence of state fragility makes it more significant. For ODA a positive contribution to economic growth was observed, however, the presence of state fragility renders it insignificant. In the case of FDI, the study found a negative relationship between FDI and economic growth albeit insignificant. However, the presence of state fragility makes it significant but still negative. A negative relationship was also observed between state fragility and economic growth. These findings, implies that while the issue of state fragility needs to be addressed and concerted efforts put into building state resilience, not just for the direct impact of state fragility on the economy, but also its impact on the economy through other channels such as capital flows.
    • Antenna design using optimization techniques over various computaional electromagnetics. Antenna design structures using genetic algorithm, Particle Swarm and Firefly algorithms optimization methods applied on several electromagnetics numerical solutions and applications including antenna measurements and comparisons

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Abdussalam, Fathi M.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      Dealing with the electromagnetic issue might bring a sort of discontinuous and nondifferentiable regions. Thus, it is of great interest to implement an appropriate optimisation approach, which can preserve the computational resources and come up with a global optimum. While not being trapped in local optima, as well as the feasibility to overcome some other matters such as nonlinear and phenomena of discontinuous with a large number of variables. Problems such as lengthy computation time, constraints put forward for antenna requirements and demand for large computer memory, are very common in the analysis due to the increased interests in tackling high-scale, more complex and higher-dimensional problems. On the other side, demands for even more accurate results always expand constantly. In the context of this statement, it is very important to find out how the recently developed optimization roles can contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. Thereafter, the key goals of this work are to model, study and design low profile antennas for wireless and mobile communications applications using optimization process over a computational electromagnetics numerical solution. The numerical solution method could be performed over one or hybrid methods subjective to the design antenna requirements and its environment. Firstly, the thesis presents the design and modelling concept of small uni-planer Ultra- Wideband antenna. The fitness functions and the geometrical antenna elements required for such design are considered. Two antennas are designed, implemented and measured. The computed and measured outcomes are found in reasonable agreement. Secondly, the work is also addressed on how the resonance modes of microstrip patches could be performed using the method of Moments. Results have been shown on how the modes could be adjusted using MoM. Finally, the design implications of balanced structure for mobile handsets covering LTE standards 698-748 MHz and 2500-2690 MHz are explored through using firefly algorithm method. The optimised balanced antenna exhibits reasonable matching performance including near-omnidirectional radiations over the dual desirable operating bands with reduced EMF, which leads to a great immunity improvement towards the hand-held.
    • The Impact of Visual Representations of Leadership in Tribal Dominated Societies: A critical qualitative study of aesthetic leadership in the United Arab Emirates

      Kelly, Simon; Harding, Nancy H.; Bitar, Amer (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2017)
      This thesis explores the role and impact of leadership as a socially constructed and aesthetic phenomenon in tribal-dominated Bedouin Arabia. The concept of leadership is investigated in terms of its discursive and aesthetic dimensions across different geographical, historical, and intellectual settings by adopting and applying a Foucauldian perspective of interconnected concepts of power/knowledge, discourse, subjectivity, body symbolism and the power of gaze. The thesis draws on three related types of data: First, images to understand the leaders’ perspective. Second, interviews with artists to gain insights into the visual message and the creative process. Third, through semi-structured interviews with the audience to garner an understanding of how it perceives the message leaders send. This thesis contributes theoretically to ongoing research into the visual representation of leadership and to critical debates concerning Foucauldian perspectives on discourse, power, discipline and the body. This thesis concludes by recommending practical implications for rethinking leadership as something both aesthetic and mythical to consider the role of followership in the consumption of leadership-themed visual artworks and communication, and the growing global role and influence of social media in shaping leader-follower relations.
    • A case for peace photojournalism in Northern Ireland: A media content analysis.

      Not named; Shebib, Lisa A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2017)
      Contemporary studies of Peace Journalism have yet to examine how photographs, as visual content captured by print media, fit within the model of Peace Journalism. In this research, a content analysis of press images was conducted using predefined methodology on newspaper coverage of the annual July 12th Drumcree Parades (Marching) in Portadown, Northern Ireland, during the pre-, intra-, and post-peace process that occurred between 1996 and 2000. In most newspapers, the proportions of both violent/aggressive and nonviolent/non-peaceful content were higher in the relatively peaceful period of 2000, as compared to their proportions in at least one of the other ‘violent’ years of 1996 and 1998. No overall trend in content was observed in relation to the level of violence across 1996 to 2000. During this period, media practice in Portadown, Northern Ireland did not support the publication of newspaper commensurate with actual level of violence in the Northern Ireland or the depictions of peace building and the peaceful resolution of conflict. The implications of these findings for the development of ‘Peace Photojournalism’ are explored.
    • Biomechanical adaptations involved in ramp descent: Impact of microprocessor-controlled ankle-foot prothesis. Kinetic and kinematic responses to using microprocessor-controlled ankle-foot prosthesis in unilateral trans-tibial amputees during ramp descent

      Buckley, John G.; Beggs, Clive B.; Struckovs, Vasilijs (University of BradfordDivision of Medical Engineering, School of Engineering and Informatics, 2017)
      Ramp descent is a demanding task for trans-tibial amputees, due to the difficulty in controlling body weight progression over the prosthetic foot. A deeper understanding of the impact of foot function on ramp descent biomechanics is required to make recommendations for rehabilitation programs and prosthetic developments for lower-limb amputees. The thesis aim was to determine the biomechanical adaptations made by active unilateral trans-tibial amputees (TT) using a microprocessor-controlled ankle-foot prosthesis in active (MC-AF) compared to non-active mode (nonMC-AF) or elastically articulated ankle-foot device. A secondary aim was to determine the biomechanical adaptation made by able-bodied individuals when ankle motion was restricted using a custom made ankle-foot-orthosis and provide further insight into the importance of ankle dynamics when walking on ramps. Kinetic and kinematic data were recorded from nine TT’s and twenty able-bodied individuals. Able-bodied participants, ankle restriction, led to an increase in involved limb loading response knee flexion that is accompanied by the increased knee power generation during the single-limb-support phase that correlates to TTs results. TT’s use of an MC-AF reduced the ‘plantar-flexion’ resistance following foot contact allowing foot-flat to be attained more quickly. Followed by the increased ‘dorsi-flexion’ resistance which reduced the shank/pylon rotation velocity over the support foot, leading to an increase in negative work done by the prosthesis. These findings highlight the importance of having controlled ankle motion in ramp descent. Use of an MC-AF can provide TTs controlled motion for descending ramps and hence provide biomechanical benefits over using more conventional types of ankle-foot devices.
    • Examining the gap between employees’ expectations and their experience of HR practices in luxury five-star hotels in Thailand. A cross-sector comparison of local hotels, national and international chains hotels

      Glaister, Alison J.; Suengkamolpisut, Wallapa (University of BradfordFaculty of Management & Law, 2017)
      Tourism and hospitality play a crucial role in the growth of the Thai economy and hoteliers need to consider how to retain their talented employees. The major output of tourism and hospitality is service and this is most critically driven by the human capital of the organisation and supported by human resource practices. This study examined workforce expectations and experiences of work relationships, job security, WLB, pay and remuneration, PM systems, career promotion, training and development and challenging job roles in luxury five-star hotels in Thailand. It employs a multi-method research design using a pragmatic lens, mixed methods and sequential explanatory design through a survey of 578 respondents, followed by 62 semi-structured interviews, the study shows that national chain hotels are more willing and better able to adapt their HR practices initiatives to local conditions when compared to local and international chain hotels. Thai hotel employees emphasise harmonious social relations and a physical closeness to be taken care of by their supervisors and management team like family members. They are increasingly aware of the need for bundles of HR practices and managers therefore need to understand their workforce and the need to incorporate more flexibility in their working practices as part of a brandconsistent system. Finally, managers need to consider the relational psychological contract of the workforce and understand workforce commitment and how this relates to the broader strategy of the organisation.
    • Psoriasis activation of cells important in cardiovascular disease

      Graham, Anne M.; Wittmann, Miriam; Bridgewood, Charlie (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      Psoriasis is an immune mediated inflammatory disease which affects 2-3% of the world’s population. Over the last decade, psoriasis has been acknowledged as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The precise mechanism or mechanisms of the heightened risk is widely speculated. Endothelial cells and macrophages are central players in the immunopathological development of both diseases. Interleukin-36 cytokines (IL-36) have been heavily implicated in psoriasis immunopathology. Significant upregulation of epidermal IL-36 is a recognised characteristic of psoriatic skin inflammation. IL-36 induces inflammatory responses in dendritic cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells. While vascular alterations are a hallmark of psoriatic lesions and dermal endothelial cells are well known to play a critical role in dermal inflammation, the effects of IL-36 on endothelial cells have not been defined. We report that endothelial cells including dermal microvascular cells express a functionally active IL-36 receptor. Adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are upregulated following IL-36γ stimulation, and this is reversed in the presence of the endogenous IL-36 receptor antagonist. IL-36γ-stimulated endothelial cells secrete the proinflammatory chemokines IL-8, CCL2 and CCL20. Chemotaxis assays showed increased migration of T-cells following IL-36γ stimulation of endothelial cells. Both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells contribute to the immunopathology of psoriasis by promoting the IL-23/IL-17 axis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23, TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. Furthermore, IL-36γ stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells as illustrated by ICAM-1(CD54) upregulation, and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, monocytes isolated from psoriasis patients showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared to monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings add to the growing evidence for IL-36γ having roles in psoriatic responses, by enhancing endothelium directed leukocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthening the IL-23/IL-17 pathway. Our findings also point to a cellular response which could potentially support cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis.
    • The Development of Theory of Mind and Social Competence in Young Pakistani Children

      Waters, Gillian M.; Johnson, Sally E.; Sireer, Nafeesa (University of BradfordDivision of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
      Theory of mind (ToM) refers to a cognitive ability that enables one to attribute mental states (such as desires, emotions, beliefs) to self and others. In recent years researchers have identified cultural variations in the onset of ToM understanding in collectivist and individualist cultures. However, the findings of cross-cultural studies regarding these variations are inconsistent. The major aim of this innovative research was to investigate differences in the acquisition of ToM in children from a collectivist culture (Pakistan) and an individualist culture (UK). The second aim of the study was to assess the specific association between ToM and social competence in a culturally diverse sample. An additional aim of the study was to investigate the universality of various correlates of ToM such as executive functioning (EF), parenting styles, and maternal mental state talk. The findings of the studies demonstrated a significant delay in the acquisition of ToM in Pakistani children, when compared with Western children from individualist societies. These findings were corroborated by the results of novel cross-cultural study that compared the performance of White British, British Pakistani, and Pakistani children on a ToM scale. White British children outperformed both Pakistani and British Pakistani children on measures of ToM, EF, and social competence. The current findings also provide support for the association of mental state understanding with EF, social competence, parenting styles, and maternal mental state talk. These findings have important implications for the role of general (collectivist vs. individualist cultures) as well as specific cultural practices (such as parenting and education) in the acquisition of mental state understanding.
    • Occupational Pension Schemes and their Relevance for the Employment Relationship in Germany. A Case Study Approach in the German Financial Services Sector

      Prowse, Peter J.; Smith, Andrew J.; Lütke Kleimann, Mechthild (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2018)
      Due to employees’ reduced entitlements to the German statutory state pension on the one hand, and the challenge to employers of a skilled worker shortage on the other, employers’ contributions towards occupational pension schemes (OPS) might be an effective human-resources management tool. Thus, the overarching research question is: What is the relevance of OPS for the employment relationship in Germany? Five sub-research questions address the role of OPS in recruitment and retention management, organisational commitment, the potential differences between women and men and between young and old employees and the employees’ psychological contract. The empirical study is a single case study in the financial-services sector. Key findings: OPS are of more relevance for retaining employees than for recruiting them. Their role differs significantly between employees with different generations of the OPS and, therefore, different pension entitlements. Only minor differences can be found between women and men and between younger and older employees. Satisfaction with the occupational pension scheme has no significant impact on organisational commitment. The majority of employees perceived psychological contract fulfilment with respect to the OPS. The contribution to theory is the closure of five research gaps. As far as is known, this is the first study in Germany that analyses the role of OPS in a specified context and from multifaceted viewpoints (recruitment/retention, quantitative/qualitative, men/women, age groups). The contribution to practice comprises the provision of a transferable analysis blueprint of the role of OPS in the employment relationship and the provision of recommendations that relate, among others, to communication and information aspects, cost-benefit calculations and the usage of additional employer contributions as a possible selective reward element.
    • Therapeutic Targeting of BMP and TGF-β Signalling Pathways for the Resolution of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

      Nasim, Md. Talat; Graham, Anne M.; Sharmin, Nahid (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, 2018)
      Vascular remodelling due to excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) has been attributed to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is an incurable cardiovascular disorder, which leads to right heart failure and death, if left untreated. Heterozygous germline mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) have been linked with the majority (~75%) of the familial form of the disease (HPAH). Mutations in the BMPR2 gene impinge upon the BMP signalling which perturbs the balance between BMP and TGF-β pathways leading to the clinical course of the disease. Current therapies were discovered prior to the knowledge that PAH has substantial genetic components. Hence, this study aims to identify novel therapeutic intervention and provide novel insights into how the dysfunctional BMPRII signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of PAH. This work demonstrates that cryptolepines and FDA approved drugs (doxorubicin, taxol, digitoxin and podophyllotoxin) inhibit the excessive proliferation and induce apoptosis in BMPR2 mutant PASMCs by modulating the BMP and TGF-β pathways. Moreover, established drug PTC124 has also been tested but has failed to promote translational readthrough. I have also shown that dysregulated apoptosis of PASMCs and HPAECs is mediated through the BMPRII-ALK1-BclxL axis. Finally, the siRNA screen targeting approximately 1000 genes has identified novel proteins including PPP1CA, IGF-1R, MPP1, MCM5 and SRC each capable of modulating the BMPRII signalling. Taken together, this study for the very first time has identified novel compounds with pro-BMP and anti-TGFβ activities which may provide therapeutic intervention prior to or after the onset of PAH.