• Bi-fractional transforms in phase space

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Agyo, Sanfo D. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2016)
      The displacement operator is related to the displaced parity operator through a two dimensional Fourier transform. Both operators are important operators in phase space and the trace of both with respect to the density operator gives the Wigner functions (displaced parity operator) and Weyl functions (displacement operator). The generalisation of the parity-displacement operator relationship considered here is called the bi-fractional displacement operator, O(α, β; θα, θβ). Additionally, the bi-fractional displacement operators lead to the novel concept of bi-fractional coherent states. The generalisation from Fourier transform to fractional Fourier transform can be applied to other phase space functions. The case of the Wigner-Weyl function is considered and a generalisation is given, which is called the bi-fractional Wigner functions, H(α, β; θα, θβ). Furthermore, the Q−function and P−function are also generalised to give the bi-fractional Q−functions and bi-fractional P−functions respectively. The generalisation is likewise applied to the Moyal star product and Berezin formalism for products of non-commutating operators. These are called the bi-fractional Moyal star product and bi-fractional Berezin formalism. Finally, analysis, applications and implications of these bi-fractional transforms to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, photon statistics and future applications are discussed.
    • Binary gas adsorption on molecular sieves. Experimental data for the adsorption of oxygen, nitrogen and oxygen-nitrogen mixtures on five molecular sieve adsorbents at various temperatures and pressures and a comparison with theoretical models.

      Granville, W.H.; Sorial, George Ayad (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering., 2010-01-21)
      A study of adsorption equilibria of oxygen, nitrogen and oxygen-nitrogen mixtures on types 4A, 5A, 13X and Na-Mordenite molecular sieve pellets has been made. Pure component isotherms, using a volumetric apparatus, have been measured for each gas on each adsorbent at pressures up to 9 bar and for temperatures of 278.15,293.15 and 303.15 K. Curve fitting of the pure canponent isotherms has been attempted using the kinetic model of Gonzalez and Holland, the vacancy solution model, the statistical thermodynamic model and a mathematical equation similar to the Hill-de Boer model. With the exception of the kinetic model, good curve fitting was obtained. Binary equilibria data have been measured, using a constant volume method, for mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen at pressures of 1.7 and 4.4 bar and at temperatures of 278.15,293.15 and 303.15 K for each of the adsorbents. These results have been presented graphically as equilibrium phase compositions and corresponding total adsorption loadings. The binary experimental equilibria data have been examined against values predicted by mixture models (kinetic model, the extended vacancy solution model, the statistical thermodynamic model, the Cook and Basmadjian model, and the ideal adsorbed solution theory) using regression parameters obtained from the pure component isotherms. The statistical thermodynamic model and the ideal adsorbed solution theory gave the best representation of the experimental data. The activity coefficients of the adsorbed phase for the binary experimental data have been calculated and the results showed no appreciable deviation of the adsorbed phase from ideality.
    • Bioinformatics analysis of epigenetic variants associated with melanoma

      Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Murat, Katarzyna (University of BradfordDepartment of Chemistry and Biosciences, 2018)
      The field of cancer genomics is currently being enhanced by the power of Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). Over the last couple of years comprehensive sequence data sets have been generated, allowing analysis of genome-wide activity in cohorts of different individuals to be increasingly available. Finding associations between epigenetic variation and phenotype is one of the biggest challenges in biomedical research. Laboratories lacking dedicated resources and programming experience require bioinformatics expertise which can be prohibitively costly and time-consuming. To address this, we have developed a collection of freely available Galaxy tools (Poterlowicz, 2018a), combining analytical methods into a range of convenient analysis pipelines with graphical user-friendly interface.The tool suite includes methods for data preprocessing, quality assessment and differentially methylated region and position discovery. The aim of this project was to make EWAS analysis flexible and accessible to everyone and compatible with routine clinical and biological use. This is exemplified by my work undertaken by integrating DNA methylation profiles of melanoma patients (at baseline and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor MAPKi treatment) to identify novel epigenetic switches responsible for tumour resistance to therapy (Hugo et al., 2015). Configuration files are publicly published on our GitHub repository (Poterlowicz, 2018b) with scripts and dependency settings also available to download and install via Galaxy test toolshed (Poterlowicz, 2018a). Results and experiences using this framework demonstrate the potential for Galaxy to be a bioinformatics solution for multi-omics cancer biomarker discovery tool.
    • The biological and therapeutic significance of tumour necrosis. Identification and characterisation of viable cells from the necrotic core of multicellular tumour spheroids provides evidence of a new micro-environmental niche that has biological and therapeutic significance

      Phillips, Roger M.; Sutton, Chris W.; Evans, Charlotte L. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, 2014)
      Tumour necrosis has long been associated with poor prognosis and reduced survival in cancer. Hypotheses to explain this include the idea that as aggressive tumours tend to grow rapidly, they outgrow their blood supply leading to areas of hypoxia and subsequently necrosis. However whilst this and similar hypotheses have been put forward to explain the association, the biological significance of the cells which make up necrotic tissue has been largely ignored. This stems from the belief that because a tumour is more aggressive and fast growing it develops areas of necrosis, rather than, the tumour is more aggressive because it contains areas of necrosis. Which came first like the egg and chicken is yet to be determined, however to date most research has only considered the possibility of the former. Viable cells were found in the necrotic core of Multicellular Tumour Spheroids. When examined these cells were found to be different to the original cell line in terms of proliferation, migration, and chemosensitivity. A proteomic analysis showed that these phenotypical changes were accompanied by changes in a large number of proteins within the cells, some of which could be potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore this has led to a new hypothesis for tumour necrosis and its association with poor prognosis. Necrotic tissue provides a microenvironemental niche for cells with increased survival capabilities. Protected from many chemotherapeutics by their non-proliferative status once conditions improve these cells can return to proliferation and repopulate the tumour with an increasingly aggressive population of cells.
    • The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention 2001-2006. An Assessment of the Intersessional Process.

      Dando, Malcolm R.; Revill, James (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2011-05-20)
      This thesis conducts an analysis of the Intersessional Process (ISP) of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) between 2001 and 2006. Specifically, it aims to assess the extent to which the ISP has resulted in progress towards strengthening the BTWC. The fulfilment of the research aim is derived from three discrete approaches: firstly, an assessment of problems and weaknesses faced by the Convention; secondly, an assessment of common or converging understandings around measures to respond to such problems and weaknesses; and thirdly, an assessment of what effective action has been achieved between 2001 and 2006. To achieve this, this thesis uses a framework that structures the assessment around four dimensions of the BTWC and their evolution within a changing geostrategic and scientific context. The four dimensions identified are compliance, development, institutional and research. The conclusions drawn from this thesis suggest that although the compliance dimension has made some considerable progress in the area of national legislation and biosafety and biosecurity, it remains clear that other areas of the compliance dimension remain underdeveloped and deeply divisive. The development dimension has also made progress over the course of the ISP and, significantly, achieved much greater convergence in its focus around disease surveillance and detection. However, changing dynamics in security and science have negatively affected other areas of the development dimension. In terms of the institutional dimension, there has been a modest progress with regard to the BTWC¿s institutional and procedural evolution; however, legitimate concerns remain in relation to quantity and quality of membership of the BTWC relative to other agreements. Finally, there has been some motion towards the emergence of a more coherent dimension of research; although certain advances in science research remain neglected in the BTWC forum, and the issue of biodefence has been conspicuously absent from discussion during the ISP. Based on the analysis conducted, this thesis argues that the BTWC has made cautious progress over the course of the ISP, and there is evidence of a convergence in responses and effective action in some areas. However, there is insufficient evidence to suggest there has been ¿major progress towards strengthening the Convention¿ and many issues require much greater attention.
    • Biomechanical adaptations involved in ramp descent: Impact of microprocessor-controlled ankle-foot prothesis. Kinetic and kinematic responses to using microprocessor-controlled ankle-foot prosthesis in unilateral trans-tibial amputees during ramp descent

      Buckley, John G.; Beggs, Clive B.; Struckovs, Vasilijs (University of BradfordDivision of Medical Engineering, School of Engineering and Informatics, 2017)
      Ramp descent is a demanding task for trans-tibial amputees, due to the difficulty in controlling body weight progression over the prosthetic foot. A deeper understanding of the impact of foot function on ramp descent biomechanics is required to make recommendations for rehabilitation programs and prosthetic developments for lower-limb amputees. The thesis aim was to determine the biomechanical adaptations made by active unilateral trans-tibial amputees (TT) using a microprocessor-controlled ankle-foot prosthesis in active (MC-AF) compared to non-active mode (nonMC-AF) or elastically articulated ankle-foot device. A secondary aim was to determine the biomechanical adaptation made by able-bodied individuals when ankle motion was restricted using a custom made ankle-foot-orthosis and provide further insight into the importance of ankle dynamics when walking on ramps. Kinetic and kinematic data were recorded from nine TT’s and twenty able-bodied individuals. Able-bodied participants, ankle restriction, led to an increase in involved limb loading response knee flexion that is accompanied by the increased knee power generation during the single-limb-support phase that correlates to TTs results. TT’s use of an MC-AF reduced the ‘plantar-flexion’ resistance following foot contact allowing foot-flat to be attained more quickly. Followed by the increased ‘dorsi-flexion’ resistance which reduced the shank/pylon rotation velocity over the support foot, leading to an increase in negative work done by the prosthesis. These findings highlight the importance of having controlled ankle motion in ramp descent. Use of an MC-AF can provide TTs controlled motion for descending ramps and hence provide biomechanical benefits over using more conventional types of ankle-foot devices.
    • Biomechanical adaptations of lower-limb amputee-gait: Effects of the echelon hydraulically damped foot. Segmental kinetic and kinematic responses to hydraulically damped prosthetic ankle-foot components in unilateral, trans-tibial amputees.

      Elliott, David B.; Johnson, Louise; Buckley, John G.; De Asha, Alan R. (University of BradfordDivision of Medical Engineering, School of Engineering, 2015-06-18)
      The aim of this thesis was to determine the biomechanical adaptations made by active unilateral trans-tibial amputees when they used a prosthesis incorporating a hydraulically-damped, articulating ankle-foot device compared to non-hydraulically attached devices. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded while participants ambulated over a flat and level surface at their customary walking speeds and at speeds they perceived to be faster and slower using the hydraulic device and their habitual foot. Use of the hydraulic device resulted in increases in self-selected walking speeds with a simultaneous reduction in intact-limb work per meter travelled. Use of the device also attenuated inappropriate fluctuations in the centre-of-pressure trajectory beneath the prosthetic foot and facilitated increased residual-knee loading-response flexion and prosthetic-limb load bearing during stance. These changes occurred despite the hydraulic device absorbing more, and returning less, energy than the participants’ habitual ankle-foot devices. The changes were present across all walking speeds but were greatest at customary walking speeds. The findings suggest that a hydraulic ankle-foot device has mechanical benefits, during overground gait, for active unilateral trans-tibial amputees compared to other attachment methods. The findings also highlight that prosthetic ankle-foot device ‘performance’ can be evaluated using surrogate measures and without modelling an ‘ankle joint’ on the prosthetic limb.
    • Biometric authentication systems for secured e-transactions in Saudi Arabia. An empirical investigation of the factors affecting users' acceptance of fingerprint authentication systems to improve online security for e-commerce and e-government websites in Saudi Arabia.

      Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Al-Harby, Fahad M. (University of BradfordInformatics Research Institute, 2010-08-19)
      Security is becoming an increasingly important issue for business, and with it comes the need for appropriate authentication; consequently, it is becoming gradually more important to develop secure e-commerce systems. Fraud via the web, identity theft, and phishing are raising concerns for users and financial organisations. In addition, current authentication methods, like passwords, have many problems (e.g. some users write them down, they forget them, or they make them easy to hack). We can overcome these drawbacks by using biometric authentication systems. Biometric systems are being used for personal authentication in response to the rising issue of authentication and security. Biometrics provide much promise, in terms of preserving our identities without the inconvenience of carrying ID cards and/or remembering passwords. This research is important because the securing of e-commerce transactions is becoming increasingly important. Identity theft, hacking and viruses are growing threats to Internet users. As more people use the Internet, more identity theft cases are being reported. This could harm not only the users, but also the reputation of the organisations whose names are used in these illegal acts. For example, in the UK, online banking fraud doubled in 2008 compared to 2007. More users took to e-shopping and online banking, but failed to take necessary protection. For non-western cultures, the figures for web security, in 2008, illustrated that Saudi Arabia was ranked ninth worldwide for users who had been attacked over the web. The above statistics reflect the significance of information security with e-commerce systems. As with any new technology, user acceptance of the new technology is often hard to measure. In this thesis, a study of user acceptance of biometric authentication systems in e-transactions, such as online banking, within Saudi society was conducted. It examined whether Saudis are practically willing to accept this technology. This thesis focuses upon Saudi Arabia, which has developing economy. It has achieved a rapid rate of growth, and therefore makes an interesting and unique case study. From an economist¿s point of view, Saudi Arabia is the powerhouse of the Middle East. It has the leading regional economy, and, even though it is still relatively young. It has a young and rapid growing population; therefore, this makes Saudi Arabia an attractive potential market for all kinds of e-commerce applications. Having said that, with more than half of population under the age of 30 are more to be expected to take the risk of accepting new technology. For this work, 306 Saudi participants were involved in the experiments. A laboratory experiment was created that actively tested a biometric authentication system in combination with a survey. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was adopted in the first experimental phase as the theoretical basis on which to develop the iv research framework, the model has proven its efficiency as a good predictor for the biometric authentication system. Furthermore, in a second experimental phase, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) with moderating variables such as age, gender and education level was examined as a proposed conceptual framework to overcome the limitations of TAM. The aim of the study was to explore factors affecting users¿ acceptance of biometric authentication systems. The findings from Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis indicate that education level is a significant moderating factor, while gender and age do not record as significant. This thesis added new knowledge to this field and highlighted the importance of the perceptions of users regarding biometric security technologies. It helps determine the factors affecting the acceptance of biometric technology. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study of this issue carried out by academic and non-biased researchers in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the thesis presents security technology companies and developers of information security products with information to help in the determination of what is significant to their user base when taking into account the introduction of new secure systems and products.
    • Body image perceptions, stress and associated psychopathologies in a non-clinical sample.

      Smythe, James W.; Fraser, Josie; Noutch, Samantha L. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2014-05-02)
      The aims of the studies were to assess body image perceptions, the role of stress and other possible associated psychopathologies within a non-clinical sample. The prevalence of body image concern is increasing and is widely considered as secondary to evolving socio-cultural trends. Negative self-perceptions about body image can be manifest as measurable indicators of physiological stress, or even psychopathology. This thesis describes two quantitative studies into the role and relevance of various causative factors in the development of negative body image in cohorts of volunteers drawn from the general population of the University of Bradford in West Yorkshire, UK. In Study One, subjects (n=360) completed a self-directed questionnaire that psychometrically measured satisfaction/dissatisfaction with personal appearance, queried which external sources influenced those opinions, and correlated these with demographic information. In particular, we sought to examine how a subject¿s opinion about their personal appearance varied with age, gender, ethnicity, mental health, relationship status, sexual orientation and Body Mass Index (BMI). Subjective views regarding personal appearance were determined by answers given to specific body image questions that revealed a subject¿s day-to-day appearance concerns, all preoccupations, and the extent to which these concerns resulted in distress, all social impairment. Overall, the results demonstrated that BMI values were positively correlated with personal appearance concerns. High BMI values correlated with greater dissatisfaction with personal appearance. Self ratings of appearance values were negatively correlated with BMI scores. Subjects who gave themselves high appearance ratings were relatively unaffected by media influence with regard to their image, compared to subjects rating themselves less attractive. These latter subjects also showed higher peer pressure scores in terms of both the amount of time they compared themselves to peers, and the degree to which peer comparisons affected their self-appearance ratings. Based on responses to the body image questions specifically, the entire cohort of subjects were categorised into principal clusters: those largely unaffected by any body image concerns; and those profoundly distressed by their self assessed body image. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of these findings is that the scores for this latter (n=17) group of subjects on the body image questions revealed a degree of personal distress this is almost identical to the scores expected from those people diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Collectively, these results suggest that high BMI values in subjects negatively impact on self-appearance ratings, render subjects more prone to media messages that portray body image ideals, and elicit frequent comparisons with peers to validate self-image concerns. Furthermore, severely affected subjects with high BMI scores may show similar psychopathology to that of BDD sufferers. In Study Two, a small cohort of subjects (n=60) were given questionnaires and were interviewed to further investigate self-appearance ratings and mood/depressive traits. The body image questions used in Study One to assess image concerns and the magnitude of distress were repeated in Study Two. Mood and depressive state were measured using the validated Beck¿s Depression Inventory (BDI). In parallel, subjects completed the Derriford Appearance Scale 59 (DAS 59), which is a valid psychometric indication of an individual's perception of their appearance as ¿normal¿ or ¿disfigured¿, and used as a tool by plastic surgeons to inform decisions regarding the necessity for surgery to correct an individual's appearance. Physiological markers were recorded before and after exposure of subjects to a physical and a psychological stressor: these were saliva concentrations of cortisol and sIgA (an immune marker), blood glucose and blood pressure. The results of Study Two revealed no changes in scores for any of the physiological measures following stressors. BDI scores for most subjects fell within normal ranges, although females scored higher than males, but not at a pathological level. Those subjects with a history of mental illness or those who reported feeling a high degree of stress on a daily basis, or those who expressed greater self-appearance concerns, all had significantly elevated BDI values. Perhaps the most intriguing finding from Study Two, as in Study One, was that subjects again tended to fall within specific categories for body image concerns: those unaffected or minimally affected by body image concerns, and those (n=6) greatly and deleteriously affected by body image concerns. This subsection of subjects also scored very high on the DAS 59 for disfigurement. On the basis of these findings it would seem that body image concerns may be severe enough for some individuals for them to perceive themselves as actually being disfigured, or that the DAS 59 (a widely used assessment tool in plastic surgery), may not be entirely appropriate for assessment of an individual's need for surgery because it cannot distinguish between those genuinely disfigured and those merely expressing severe body image concerns.
    • Bond of glass fibre reinforced polymer bars in high strength concrete

      Ashour, Ashraf F.; Lam, Dennis; Sheehan, Therese; Saleh, Najia M.
      Very limited research studies have been conducted to examine bond of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars with high concrete strength. The current research project aims to compare between bond measured from a pull-out test and a hinged beam test for GFRP bars embedded in high strength concrete. Different parameters influencing bond such as GFRP bar diameter, embedment length and surface configuration were investigated in both test methods, while the bar position, i.e. top or bottom, was only studied in hinged beams. Seventy-two pull-out cubes, eight pull-out prisms and twenty-four hinged beams reinforced with GFRP bars were constructed and tested to failure. Twelve pull-out cubes and four hinged beams reinforced with steel bars were also tested for comparison purposes. The results showed that bond stress – slip curves obtained from various testing methods were similar, consisting of high initial stiffness, followed by nonlinear ascending and softening branches. In addition, it was found that the experimental bond strength obtained from hinged beams was higher than both bond strengths measured by the pull-out cube and pull-out prism. However, when a finite element analysis was conducted for hinged beams, it was shown that the tensile force in the reinforcing bar estimated by equilibrium conditions is overestimated as the large deformation of hinged beams at failure was not considered. Therefore, if the tensile force obtained from the finite element analysis is used to calculate the bond strength, it would be similar to that obtained from pull-out cube and prism. Moreover, it was found that the distribution of tensile and bond stresses was nonlinear along the GFRP embedment length and bond stress at the vicinity of the free end increased with increasing the load due to redistribution of bond stresses along the embedment length. Bond strengths were compared against the prediction methods provided in ACI-440.1R, CSA-S806, CSA-S6 and JSCE 1997. In general, all design codes showed conservative results for all specimens tested and ACI predictions gave a good agreement with experimental data compared to other codes. Artificial neural network models were developed to predict bond strength of GFRP bars in concrete. These models used bar diameter, embedment length, concrete compressive strength and concrete cover as input variables. The developed ANN models showed to be able to predict bond strength of GFRP bars in concrete and, therefore, were used to conduct a parametric study.
    • Bradford Mills at Marki, Warsaw: A Case Study of British Entrepreneurship in Russian Poland 1883 – 1914

      Gregory, James R.T.E.; Batonyi, Gabor; Dietz, Sarah (University of BradfordDepartment of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2013)
      This thesis explores the late-nineteenth century partnership between Bradford worsted manufacturers the Briggs brothers and the German merchant Ernst Posselt, and their subsequent foreign direct investment in a modern factory and workers’ community at Marki, near Warsaw, in Russian Poland. Protectionism and increasing foreign competition are discussed, among many complex economic pressures on British industry, as likely catalysts for this enterprise and the general historiography of the Polish lands is explored to reveal a climate of extraordinary opportunity for well-capitalised foreign industrialists in this period. This thesis provides fresh perspective on the role of the consular service in facilitating British foreign enterprise and, in context of the Bradford partners’ strategy for local integration through social networking and religious affiliation, presents unique findings regarding the character and operations of Warsaw’s elite commercial community in the late-nineteenth century. Through the development and domination of market and raw materials sources, this venture is shown to have monopolised worsted manufacture in the Russian Empire, using state of the art technology to create, and modern marketing techniques to promote, its product range and evolving image. Aspects of British and Polish social history are compared to assess the efficacy of introducing the model-community concept, in combination with a radical employment policy, to less industrially-developed Russian Poland. The instrumentality of an expatriate community of skilled Yorkshire foremen in diffusing British industrial technology throughout the Russian Empire is described, against a backdrop of political instability and social upheaval which dramatically impacted on business behaviour after 1905.
    • Branding CEOs : How relationship between cheif executive officers, corporate brands and stakeholders image can influence perceived brand value

      Trueman, Myfanwy; Larsen, Gretchen; Bendisch, Franziska (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-05-26)
      Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) have become recognised as brands in the academic and popular domain, but little is known about the relationship between these senior manager ¿brands¿ and the corporate brand of the organisation they represent. Since stakeholders associate the CEO¿s reputation with that of the company, they may negatively or positively affect each other, and there is little research into this dynamic. Indeed there is only a limited understanding about the field of people branding in general and much less into CEO brands in particular. Consequently this doctoral thesis investigates the people and CEO brands phenomena, the relationships between CEO, corporate brand and stakeholder¿s self-image and how these can be effectively managed in order to enhance brand equity for the company. Based on a critical realist perspective, this research examines traditional product brand elements from the literature and develops a new conceptual framework for people brands, which is subsequently applied to CEOs. Furthermore a survey is performed with business school students. The findings are analysed by using content analysis, descriptive statistics and by developing and testing a Structural Equation Model. The contribution to knowledge is threefold. Firstly a conceptual framework of people brands is constructed. Second this model is applied to CEO brands. Third five propositions about stakeholder perceptions of CEO brand differentiation and equity are empirically tested. The main findings are that visual presentation is not the main factor to differentiate CEO brands from each other, nor is their association with the company. Positive perceptions of corporate brands can influence the reputation of the CEO brand and lead to an enhancement of their brand equity. Importantly this indicates that stakeholders do not distinguish between CEO and company. Brand equity is also created if there is a relationship between stakeholder self-image and company brand, which in turn can improve the reputation of the CEO brand. Finally brand equity is enhanced through stakeholder perceptions of an ideal self-image. Overall this research has important implications for academia and managerial practice as it extends the knowledge about people and CEO brands and provides an insight into ways in which the relationships between CEO, company and stakeholders can be managed to enhance brand equity for the company
    • Britain and the atomic bomb: MAUD to Nagasaki.

      Batonyi, Gabor; Price, Munro; Gorman, Claire L. (University of BradfordDepartment of Languages and European Studies, School of Social and International Studies., 2010-06-14)
      There is a brief introduction explaining the themes in the literature available to date and how this thesis aims to add to available material. In chapter one I give an account of early British research into nuclear science, including collaboration between British universities and the effect the MAUD Report had on accelerating the United States atomic programme. I introduce the main British scientists here . In chapter two I focus on diplomacy between Britain and the United States in the period up to the Quebec Agreement. The two countries had their own atomic programmes at this stage and I discuss the lead up to the amalgamation of both programmes in August 1943. Chapter three examines the British raids on German heavy water facilities and the efforts to stop Germany acquiring the means to make an atomic bomb before the Allies. Co-operation between the British and U.S teams at Los Alamos is discussed, along with the crucial role played by Britain in assisting the American scientists. The British nuclear spies are featured in chapter four, focusing on Alan Nunn May and Klaus Fuchs. Their actions are discussed along with their arrests and trials. Effects of their cases on British atomic diplomacy with the Americans are highlighted. The final section sums up the legacies of Britain¿s nuclear programme and its effect on British Cold War politics with America and the U.S.S.R. The fusion, or hydrogen, bomb is mentioned briefly and an overall assessment of the achievements of the British scientists is included.
    • The Bronze Age Funerary Cups of Northern England

      Gibson, Alex M.; Hallam, Deborah L. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological Sciences, 2015)
      Around the late third millennium BC small cup-shaped vessels began to appear in burial contexts across the North of England where they were found to be associated with Early Bronze Age funerary practices. Known by the name of incense cups, accessory vessels or miniature cups, their true purpose has been elusive. This study comprises an investigation of cups from Northern England and finds the tradition to be heavily influenced by Beaker culture practices resulting in the earliest cups emulating some attributes of Beaker ceramics. The Northern English Cup assemblage defies the current perception that all Cups are perforated as 63% are not; fabrics are found to be locally sourced and not imported and a review of the typology finds a strong regional adherence to the Food Vessel and Collared Urn tradition. Association in the grave with larger Urns is not as common as once believed and Cups have been found as the solitary ceramic indicating that they were important in their own right. Firing damage such as spalling has been interpreted as use of the funeral pyre for firing vessels prior to deposition with cremated remains and it is suggested that this is a recognisable signature of the cup tradition and therefore the name ‘funerary Cup’ is more appropriate. An active cross country trade network can be inferred from distributions of metalwork, precious materials and an affinity in some cases to Irish cups.
    • Buddhist Philosophy and the Epistemological Foundations of Conflict Resolution.

      Whitman, Jim R.; Tanabe, Juichiro (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2011-06-22)
      The aim of this research is to expand the framework of contemporary conflict resolution by constructing a complementary relationship between Western epistemologies and a Buddhist epistemology. Despite its evolution and development through self-reflexivity and self-critique, contemporary conflict resolution established upon Western epistemologies has confined the understanding of human mind to social/cultural orientations and left a comprehensive and qualitative analysis of the potential of individual human mind underdeveloped. Buddhist epistemology, the central theme of which is to address human suffering that is mainly psychological and subjective, makes a critical analysis of human subjectivity in terms of how it can be become a root cause of suffering including conflict and how it can be addressed by gaining an insight into the social/cultural construction of human subjectivity. The argument of the thesis is that when a socially/culturally-oriented view of human mind and a deeper and more profound view of human mind are combined together, we can engage in a qualitatively richer and deeper analysis of the psychological and subjective dynamics of conflict resolution.
    • Budget Institutions in the Euro Area Quality of budget institutions, legislative budgetary power and implications for fiscal discipline

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Litsios, Ioannis; Espindola, Roberto; Catania, Moira (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2019)
      This study assesses the quality of national budget institutions and legislative budgetary power in the Euro Area (EA) and examines their implications on fiscal discipline. Following the sovereign debt crises, common EA requirements have been introduced for national budget institutions, most notably for fiscal rules and independent fiscal councils. Meanwhile, the legislature has a key role to ensure that budgetary decisions are democratically legitimate, but strong legislative budgetary power is generally associated with less fiscal restraint. Two comprehensive composite indices are produced, based on recent data which captures reforms implemented after the Crisis. The findings show that overall, budget institutions in the EA are of medium quality, whilst legislative budgetary power is weak. Notwithstanding the thrust for a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach, the specific characteristics of budget institutions differ considerably among the EA countries. Furthermore, results from a two-way fixed effects panel model for 2006-2015 show a positive relationship between the quality of budget institutions and the budget balance, but, in contrast to previous studies, the effect is rather weak. Being supra-nationally mandated, recent reforms to budget institutions in EA member states may suffer from a lack of ownership, thus impinging on their effectiveness to instil fiscal discipline. A qualitative case study on Malta provides further insight into the limitations of centrally-mandated institutional reforms. Finally, the findings suggest that stronger legislative budgetary power does not necessarily jeopardise fiscal discipline, if this involves a broad role of the legislature in the budgetary process, beyond amendment powers.
    • Building responsive capability for disaster managemen. An empirical study of the Saudi Civil Defence Authority.

      Zairi, Mohamed; Magrabi, Ammar Mohammed (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering and Technology, 2012-06-21)
      Disasters are always local in their impact, and therefore approaches towards their alleviation need to be designed and implemented based on this certainty. Since the 1960s there has been a constant evolution in the common understanding of international disaster management. Various measures and structures were created to plan for emergency relief and the management of a disastrous event. Despite international efforts which aimed to reduce the impact of natural and anthropogenic hazards on humankind, very little progress was made. Loss of life, property, infrastructure and economic livelihoods are on the increase without any indication of improvement. Developmental activities can in most instances be blamed for the high level of disaster risk present in communities. On the other hand, very little has been done in the international arena (through a multi-disciplinary approach) to ensure a developmental focus on disaster risk. This study investigates the current state of disaster management practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) by benchmarking its activities against established frameworks applied in the developed world for disaster management. The aim of this thesis was primarily to provide a comprehensive framework for disaster risk management in KSA. Such a framework will serve as a guideline for all spheres of government on a strategic level in order to implement disaster risk management. Conclusions to the research demonstrate the importance of linking government policy and practice on disaster risk management across different stakeholders involved in managing disaster risk. This study proposed an integrated model for disaster management by introducing the dual paradigm of disaster management (proactive mindset and reactive mindset). In a nutshell, this thesis aimed to develop a comprehensive multi-disciplinary disaster risk management framework that would be tailor-made for the strategic management arena in Saudi Arabia¿s Ministry of Interior (Directorate of Civil Defence). The research provides the reader with a background study on the international development of the concept of disaster risk management and its components. It focuses on disaster risk management within the Saudi Arabian context. Four international disaster risk management frameworks are analytically compared and aligned with international best practices. Subsequently, the proposed Framework for Disaster in Saudi Arabia is analysed.
    • Buried identities: An osteological and archaeological analysis of burial variation and identity in Anglo-Saxon Norfolk

      Buckberry, Jo; Bond, Julie M.; Williams-Ward, Michelle L. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      The thesis explores burial practices across all three phases (early, middle and late) of the Anglo-Saxon period (c.450–1066 AD) in Norfolk and the relationship with the identity of the deceased. It is argued that despite the plethora of research that there are few studies that address all three phases and despite acknowledgement that regional variation existed, fewer do so within the context of a single locality. By looking across the whole Anglo-Saxon period, in one locality, this research identified that subtler changes in burial practices were visible. Previous research has tended to separate the cremation and inhumation rites. This research has shown that in Norfolk the use of the two rites may have been related and used to convey aspects of identity and / or social position, from a similar or opposing perspective, possibly relating to a pre-Christian belief system. This thesis stresses the importance of establishing biological identity through osteological analysis and in comparing biological identity with the funerary evidence. Burial practices were related to the biological identity of the deceased across the three periods and within the different site types, but the less common burial practices had the greatest associations with the biological identity of the deceased, presumably to convey social role or status. Whilst the inclusion of grave-goods created the early Anglo-Saxon burial tableau, a later burial tableau was created using the grave and / or the position of the body and an increasing connection between the biological and the social identity of the deceased, noted throughout the Anglo-Saxon period in Norfolk, corresponds with the timeline of the religious transition.
    • Burnout among Dutch general practitioners: An empirical study of the determinants of physician burnout

      Breen, Liz; Spicer, David P.; Duchatteau, Duco C.
      This study aims to examine to what extent Dutch GPs are at risk for burnout, and to identify personal, professional and practice related characteristics that are associated with high burn out scores. In the extant literature, physicians are identified as professionals who are high risk for burnout. In the past decade, working conditions for general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands have changed for the worse. There are no recent data on GP burnout in the Netherlands. Although much is known in the literature about factors that are associated with burnout and the role job demands and resources play in getting burned out, the extent to which these findings apply in the context of Dutch GPs is unknown. This study is designed as a quantitative, survey based, empirical study. An invitation to complete an online survey was sent to 4,000 GPs in the Netherlands, of whom close to 1,300 participated in this study (33% response rate). The data were analysed using IBM SPSS 22.0. The data analysis consisted of a descriptive analysis of the data with an emphasis on the outcome of burnout measurements, as well as an inferential analysis of the data with an emphasis on the association between respondents’ characteristics and burnout measurements. The results from this study indicate, that one in seven practicing Dutch GPs could be classified as burned out with fulltime working GPs reporting an average working week of 62 hours. According to the findings, the amount of hours worked per week is the most important determinant of emotional exhaustion. Variation in emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and professional efficacy can to a large extent be explained by variation in demands (administrative burden, work-home conflict, psychological job demands) and resources (decision latitude, co-worker support and home support). Increased job demands are predominantly associated with emotional exhaustion, while a scarcity of resources predominantly leads to increased depersonalisation and reduced professional efficacy. The findings demonstrate, that a bigger job size, more hours worked and a more responsible position held, are associated with higher experienced demands, which is in turn associated with unfavourable burnout scores, particularly increased emotional exhaustion. Working in a group setting, being professionally active outside of one’s own practice and being in a relationship were found to be associated with increased resources, which is in turn associated with favourable burnout scores, particularly decreased depersonalisation and increased professional efficacy. Based on the findings of this study, three recommendations for government bodies, healthcare providers and other healthcare stakeholders were formulated: 1) Reduce the length of the working week, predominantly by reducing the number of allocated patients per GP. This recommendation implies an increase in the GP workforce; 2) Undertake a comprehensive analysis of the quantity, type and purpose of administrative duties currently performed by GPs and trim unnecessary paperwork and bureaucracy within the GP practice and 3) Increase co-worker support, either within the GP practice or by using the existing collegiate support infrastructure.
    • Business model transformation influenced by Germany's Energiewende. A comparative case study analysis of business model innovation in start-up and incumbent firms

      Tassabehji, Rana; Hoffmann, Sven Oliver (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2016)
      This thesis investigates the performance of business model innovation (BMI) by incumbent power utility and clean-tech start-up firms influenced by the German Energiewende. It emphasises the factors that impact BMI from a managers’ perspective, examines success factors for managers to overcome BMI challenges, and addresses contingencies to perform BMI in a more structured way. The research is driven by the German Energiewende. It has been chosen as Germany is considered one of the world’s leading markets for renewable energies and a transformation of the power sector is currently underway. Therefore, established power utility firms face severe changes, which have the characteristics of a potential disruption to their business model (BM). At the same time, new players are challenging these incumbents with new BMs. The research is underpinned by the extant literature on BMs and BMI. The research approach is based on two case studies; the incumbent power utility and the clean-tech start-up sector. The qualitative study comprises of 24 semi-structured interviews conducted with top tier managers, from 18 firms, responsible for BMI within these firms. Key findings: This study extends our knowledge of BMI in both a start-up and an incumbent environment that is influenced by various contingent events. It portrays barriers to BMI and depicts critical success factors for BMI that point out solutions on how to overcome these barriers. It provides a structured BMI framework for established firms and illustrates future BM archetypes in this sector. It clearly documents the German Energiewende is regarded as a disruptive threat from the perspective of incumbent power utility managers. The theoretical contribution of this thesis is a process framework including all identified drivers and challenges for BMI in both established and start-up firms. Contributions to practice include critical success factors for BMI, recommendations to overcome barriers to BMI and future BM archetypes within the newly evolving Energiewende industry based on sustainable technologies.