• Liberalizing Trade in Tourism Services Under the CARIFORUM EU Economic Partnership Agreement in the OECS: Examining its Effect on Tourism Demand and Tourism Related Foreign Direct Investment

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Mykhayliv, Dariya; Alleyne, Alistair (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, School of Management, 2019)
      This thesis is a study on the liberalization of trade in tourism services that has taken place between the European Union and Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) under the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) -European Union (EU) Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). It focuses on Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. They are all members of the OECS, the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) and CARIFORUM and they are EPA signatories. Using Panel Auto Regressive Distributed Lag modelling, the study is the first to empirically test the effect of liberalizing trade in tourism services (proxied by the EPA) on inflows of tourism related foreign direct investment and European tourism demand regarding the aforementioned countries. It focuses on the period 1997 – 2013. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (GDPPC) is a statistically significant determinant of tourism related foreign direct investment. This supports the established hypothesis that market size measured by GDP per capita is a key determinant of FDI. Inflation rate (IR) and trade openness (OPEN) are also significant determinants of tourism related foreign direct investment whilst the EPA is not. Regarding European tourism demand income, prices, prices in a substitute destination and room supply are statistically significant determinants in the long run. Barbados is viewed as a complementary destination to the OECS EPA signatories. However, in the short run the EPA is not a statistically significant determinant of European tourism demand which it negatively affects.
    • Life story narratives of Ethiopian women activists: the journey to feminist activism

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Macaulay, Fiona; Abye, Tigest (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies and International Development, 2016)
      Through the life story narratives of Ethiopian women activists, this research explores the journey of Ethiopian women activists during three political and historical periods (1955–1974; 1974–1991; 1991–2015). Thus, the study proposes a new perspective on the forms of Ethiopian women’s activism and subsequently the different types of feminism emerging from their narratives. Through examination of how the activists reflect on, reconstruct and give meaning to their life stories, this research unravels that their activism is informed by feminist principles. It also exposes that it is shaped by a long history of resistance to patriarchy, which enabled women in traditional Ethiopia to negotiate a certain level of “autonomy and liberty”. Contrary to the general expectation, the research demonstrates that the process of modernization (read: westernization) came with its own structure based on western patriarchy, and reinforced local patriarchy. In this new, formalized patriarchy, the rights that women had negotiated through their resistance in earlier times were diminished. This study on women activists, categorized for the purpose of this research as pioneers, revolutionaries and negotiators, suggests that Ethiopian women activists have since adopted different forms of engagement that tend to improve the social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Ethiopian women. Consequently, I argue that, while Ethiopian women’s activism and feminism is firmly embedded in the history of resistance of previous generations of Ethiopian women, the form of activism varies according to the political and historical context in which the activists negotiate and adapt the way they act.
    • Lightweight friction brakes for a road vehicle with regenerative braking. Design analysis and experimental investigation of the potential for mass reduction of friction brakes on a passenger car with regenerative braking.

      Day, Andrew J.; Olley, Peter; Qi, Hong Sheng; Sarip, S. Bin (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-11-02)
      One of the benefits of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles (HVs) is their potential to recuperate braking energy. Regenerative braking (RB) will minimize duty levels on the brakes, giving advantages including extended brake rotor and friction material life and, more significantly, reduced brake mass and minimised brake pad wear. In this thesis, a mathematical analysis (MATLAB) has been used to analyse the accessibility of regenerative braking energy during a single-stop braking event. The results have indicated that a friction brake could be downsized while maintaining the same functional requirements of the vehicle braking in the standard brakes, including thermomechanical performance (heat transfer coefficient estimation, temperature distribution, cooling and stress deformation). This would allow lighter brakes to be designed and fitted with confidence in a normal passenger car alongside a hybrid electric drive. An approach has been established and a lightweight brake disc design analysed FEA and experimentally verified is presented in this research. Thermal performance was a key factor which was studied using the 3D model in FEA simulations. Ultimately, a design approach for lightweight brake discs suitable for use in any car-sized hybrid vehicle has been developed and tested. The results from experiments on a prototype lightweight brake disc were shown to illustrate the effects of RBS/friction combination in terms of weight reduction. The design requirement, including reducing the thickness, would affect the temperature distribution and increase stress at the critical area. Based on the relationship obtained between rotor weight, thickness and each performance requirement, criteria have been established for designing lightweight brake discs in a vehicle with regenerative braking.
    • Lines Across the Land: A Biography of the Linear Earthwork Landscapes of the Later Prehistoric Yorkshire Wolds

      Armit, Ian; Gaffney, Christopher F.; Croucher, Karina T.; Fioccoprile, Emily A. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2015)
      During the first millennium BC, the people of the chalk landscapes of the Yorkshire Wolds began carving up their world with monumental linear earthworks. This project explores the meanings of the later prehistoric boundary systems of the Yorkshire Wolds. It writes a biography of the linear earthwork landscapes of the north-central Wolds, using geographic information systems (GIS), original fieldwork and theories of agency and memory. Tracing the construction, use and modification of particular linear earthworks, it examines how these monuments would have related to other features in the landscape, and how they could have exercised agency within networks of interconnected people, animals, objects and other places. Finally, the project attempts to situate these boundary systems within the larger context of Late Bronze Age and Iron Age society in order to understand how the later prehistoric people of East Yorkshire would have experienced their world. Taking a biographical approach to landscape and allowing linear earthworks to become the protagonists of this narrative, the project charts the life histories of the earthworks at Wetwang-Garton Slack and Huggate Dykes and investigates the collective authorship of the wider landscape. To understand the rural, monumental landscapes of the Wolds, we must consider the agency of not only people, but also of animals and of monuments themselves. By focussing on the relationships which bound together linear earthworks and other agents, we can begin to understand the ways in which monumentalised landscapes both reflected and generated the cosmologies of prehistoric communities.
    • Lipid profilling of polyunsaturated fatty acid - treated mouse brain and plasma. Investigation into polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-induced neuroprotection

      Obrenovitch, Tihomir P.; Nicolaou, Anna; Williams, Anest (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2010-08-19)
      Pre-treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids or bioactive lipid mediators has been shown to reduce neuronal injury in rodent models of focal ischaemia, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection are unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether systemic administration of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) leads to changes in the profile of mouse brain phospholipid and bioactive lipid mediators in both mouse brain and plasma within the previously determined neuroprotection time window. Mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed us to detect and identify 47 phospholipids in mouse cerebral cortex, including several phospholipid species not previously reported in brain lipidomic studies. These included a phosphatidylethanolamine species with m/z 720 that has been associated with retinal stem cells. No widespread changes in cerebral cortex phospholipid composition were observed following intravenous ALA. Several significant changes in lipid mediators (P<0.05 with two-way ANOVA and post hoc Dunnett¿s t test) were detected in ALA-treated animals compared to untreated and vehicle-injected animals. Many of the affected lipid mediators are ligands for prostanoid receptors which have been demonstrated to play a role in the development of brain injury following cerebral ischaemia, implying that changes in bioactive lipid mediators or modulation of prostanoid receptors may occur following ALA pre-treatment in mice. This study illustrates the potential of advanced lipidomic analysis as a novel tool for neurochemists.
    • Literature of utopia and dystopia. Technological influences shaping the form and content of utopian visions.

      Stonier, Tom; Smith, Kenneth; Garvey, Brian T. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Science and Society, 2011-08-26)
      We live in an age of rapid change. The advance of science and technology, throughout history, has culminated in periods of transition when social values have had to adapt to a changed environment. Such times have proved fertile ground for the expansion of the imagination. Utopian literature offers a vast archive of information concerning the relationship between scientific and technological progress and social change. Alterations in the most basic machinery of society inspired utopian authors to write of distant and future worlds which had achieved a state of harmony and plenty. The dilemmas which writers faced were particular to their era, but there also emerged certain universal themes and questions: What is the best organisation of society? What tools would be adequate to the task? What does it mean to be human? The dividing line on these issues revolves around two opposed beliefs. Some perceived the power inherent in technology to effect the greatest improvement in the human condition. Others were convinced that the organisation of the social order must come first so as to create an environment sympathetic to perceived human needs. There are, necessarily, contradictions in such a division. They can be seen plainly in More's Utopia itself. More wanted to see new science and technique developed. But he also condemned the social consequences which inevitably flowed from the process of discovery. These consequences led More to create a utopia based on social reorganisation. In the main, the utopias of Francis Bacon, Edward Bellamy and the later H. G. Wells accepted science, while the work of William Morris, Aldous Huxley and Kurt Vonnegut rejected science in preference for a different social order. More's Utopia and Bacon's New Atlantis were written at a time when feudal, agricultural society was being transformed by new discoveries and techniques. In a later age, Bellamy's Looking Backward and Morris's News From Nowhere offer contrary responses to society at the height of the Industrial evolution. These four authors serve as a prelude to the main area of the thesis which centres on the twentieth century. Wells, though his first novel appeared in 1895, produced the vast bulk of his work in the current century. Huxley acts as an appropriate balance to Wells and also exemplifies the shift from utopia to dystopia. The last section of the thesis deals with the work of Kurt Vonnegut and includes an interview with that author. The twentieth century has seen the proliferation of dystopias, portraits of the disastrous consequences of the headlong pursuit of science and technology, unallied to human values. Huxley and Vonnegut crystallised the fears of a modern generation: that we create a soulless, mechanised, urban nightmare. The contemporary fascination with science in literature is merely an extension of a process with a long tradition and underlying theme. The advance of science and technology created the physical and intellectual environment for utopian authors which determined the form and content of their visions.
    • The lived experiences of designing modules at one UK university: a qualitative account of academic practice

      Hughes, Peter; Comerford Boyes, Louise; Walton, Sean; Hartley, Peter; Lindsey, Nigel J.; Binns, Carole L. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2015)
    • Living with chronic illness. A biographical analysis of a family's account.

      Beckett-Wrighton, Clare; Horrocks, Christine; Arnfield, Susan M. (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2012-10-18)
      It has been estimated that by the year 2014 there will be a 12 per cent increase in the number of adults with at least one chronic illness condition (Carrier, 2009). The turn to caring for those with a chronic illness at home has resulted in carers having an increased risk of developing health problems (Ohman & Soderberg, 2004). As such there is a need to understand how families manage and cope with illness at home. This study has examined the effect chronic illness had on not only the woman with illness, but also the immediate family closely involved with her care. Additionally the study has sought to address the effect chronic illness had on the ¿self¿ and ¿identity¿ of these three women and to determine what extent and impact the illness process had on the relationships within this family. The study used open-ended biographic narrative interviews to elicit data. The research revealed that each woman experienced change and loss to both ¿self¿ and ¿identity¿ albeit in different ways. Interestingly and of significance is the way these women in their narrative accounts revisited their past lives in implicating and accounting for the present and the future (Freeman 2010). It was discovered that the past history and past relationships of these women affected how they each responded to illness and each other in their present circumstances.
    • Living with schizophrenia: A phenomenological study of people with schizophrenia living in the community.

      Small, Neil A.; Newell, Robert J.; Harrison, Joanne (School of Health Studies, 2009-09-17)
      Research question: How do you people with schizophrenia and their carers live with a diagnosis of schizophrenia? Research aim: To gain a greater understanding of the meaning and experience of schizophrenia. The objective of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experience of schizophrenia. Sample: Self-selected sample of 35 participants (22 people with schizophrenia and 13 carers) recruited from the local community. . Data collection: 33 unstructured audiotaped interviews conducted in participants¿ own homes. In addition some participants completed diaries. Interviews were conducted in two stages: in stage one 10 participants were interviewed, transcripts were analysed and probes were fine tuned and in stage two these probes were used in the remaining interviews. Data analysis: Verbatim transcripts were analysed using the coding paradigm proposed by Strauss (1987), in conjunction with Burnard¿s (1991) 14 stage model of analysis. Inductive coding was used and respondent validation was completed. Findings: Stress was described as a major cause of schizophrenia. Some participants with schizophrenia described moving on in their lives, a factor associated with having a positive self-concept. Other participants with schizophrenia reported feeling stopped in their lives, which was associated with acceptance of the diagnosis, and having a negative self-concept. The most severe problems they reported were social and psychological. Male and female participants with schizophrenia were treated differently. Some participants with schizophrenia sought support while others chose isolation. Mental health nursing care was reported as coercive and disempowering. Carers described conflict within families, carer burden, and stress. Those who had been caregiving for longer appeared to have adapted and now experienced less stress and burden than others. Younger carers and carers who have been caregiving for a shorter time and were less willing to accept the caregiving role, reported more burden and stress. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a positive self-concept may be necessary to move on after the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The inability to move on may be a result of a negative self-concept or disempowering care. There was no partnership and no shared understanding of schizophrenia, or of care, between these participants with schizophrenia and nurses, or between these participants with schizophrenia and their carers, or between carers and nurses. Many of the participants¿ self-identified needs were not met. A new attitude displaying reluctance about a caregiving role may be emerging.
    • Load balancing in heterogeneous wireless communications networks. Optimized load aware vertical handovers in satellite-terrestrial hybrid networks incorporating IEEE 802.21 media independent handover and cognitive algorithms.

      Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun; Ali, Muhammad (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2014-05-02)
      Heterogeneous wireless networking technologies such as satellite, UMTS, WiMax and WLAN are being used to provide network access for both voice and data services. In big cities, the densely populated areas like town centres, shopping centres and train stations may have coverage of multiple wireless networks. Traditional Radio Access Technology (RAT) selection algorithms are mainly based on the ¿Always Best Connected¿ paradigm whereby the mobile nodes are always directed towards the available network which has the strongest and fastest link. Hence a large number of mobile users may be connected to the more common UMTS while the other networks like WiMax and WLAN would be underutilised, thereby creating an unbalanced load across these different wireless networks. This high variation among the load across different co-located networks may cause congestion on overloaded network leading to high call blocking and call dropping probabilities. This can be alleviated by moving mobile users from heavily loaded networks to least loaded networks. This thesis presents a novel framework for load balancing in heterogeneous wireless networks incorporating the IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover (MIH). The framework comprises of novel load-aware RAT selection techniques and novel network load balancing mechanism. Three new different load balancing algorithms i.e. baseline, fuzzy and neural-fuzzy algorithms have also been presented in this thesis that are used by the framework for efficient load balancing across the different co-located wireless networks. A simulation model developed in NS2 validates the performance of the proposed load balancing framework. Different attributes like load distribution in all wireless networks, handover latencies, packet drops, throughput at mobile nodes and network utilization have been observed to evaluate the effects of load balancing using different scenarios. The simulation results indicate that with load balancing the performance efficiency improves as the overloaded situation is avoided by load balancing.
    • Localised Routing Algorithms in Communication Networks with Quality of Service Constraints. Performance Evaluation and Enhancement of New Localised Routing Approaches to Provide Quality of Service for Computer and Communication Networks.

      Woodward, Mike E.; Awan, Irfan U.; Mohammad, Abdulbaset H. T. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2011-10-28)
      The Quality of Service (QoS) is a profound concept which is gaining increasing attention in the Internet industry. Best-effort applications are now no longer acceptable in certain situations needing high bandwidth provisioning, low loss and streaming of multimedia applications. New emerging multimedia applications are requiring new levels of quality of services beyond those supported by best-effort networks. Quality of service routing is an essential part in any QoS architecture in communication networks. QoS routing aims to select a path among the many possible choices that has sufficient resources to accommodate the QoS requirements. QoS routing can significantly improve the network performance due to its awareness of the network QoS state. Most QoS routing algorithms require maintenance of the global network¿s state information to make routing decisions. Global state information needs to be periodically exchanged among routers since the efficiency of a routing algorithm depends on link-state information accuracy. However, most QoS routing algorithms suffer from scalability due to the high communication overhead and the high computation effort associated with maintaining accurate link state information and distributing global state information to each node in the network. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to contribute towards enhancing the scalability of QoS routing algorithms. Towards this goal, the thesis is focused on Localised QoS routing algorithms proposed to overcome the problems of using global network state information. Using such an approach, the source node makes routing decisions based on the local state information for each node in the path. Localised QoS routing algorithms avoid the problems associated in the global network state, like high communication and processing overheads. In Localised QoS routing algorithms each source node maintains a predetermined set of candidate paths for each destination and avoids the problems associated with the maintenance of a global network state by using locally collected flow statistics and flow blocking probabilities.
    • Localised Routing Algorithms with Quality of Service Constraints. Development and performance evaluation by simulation of new localised Quality of Service routing algorithms for communication networks using residual bandwidth and mean end-to-end delay as metrics.

      Woodward, Mike E.; Li, Ding (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2011-06-22)
      Localised QoS routing is a relatively new, alternative and viable approach to solve the problems of traditional QoS routing algorithms which use global state information resulting in the imposition of a large communication overhead and route flapping. They make use of a localised view of the network QoS state in source nodes to select paths and route flows to destination nodes. Proportional Sticky Routing (PSR) and Credit Based Routing (CBR) have been proposed as localised QoS routing schemes and these can offer comparable performances. However, since network state information for a specific path is only updated when the path is used, PSR and CBR operate with decision criteria that are often stale for paths that are used infrequently. The aim of this thesis is to focus on localised QoS routing and contribute to enhancing the scalability of QoS routing algorithms. In this thesis we have developed three new localised QoS routing schemes which are called Score Based QoS Routing (SBR), Bandwidth Based QoS Routing (BBR) and Delay Based Routing (DBR). In some of these schemes, the path setup procedure is distributed and uses the current network state to make decisions thus avoiding problems of staleness. The methods also avoid any complicated calculations. Both SBR and BBR use bandwidth as the QoS metric and mean delay is used as the QoS metric in DBR. Extensive simulations are applied to compare the performance of our proposed algorithms with CBR and the global Dijkstra¿s algorithm for different update intervals of link state, different network topologies and using different flow arrival distributions under a wide range of traffic loads. It is demonstrated by simulation that the three proposed algorithms offer a superior performance under comparable conditions to the other localised and global algorithms.
    • Localising Peacebuilding in South Sudan? A Case of Transitional Justice and Reconciliation

      Harris, David; Francis, David J.; Agwella, Martin O.L. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, Division of Peace Studies, 2018)
      Despite the signing of the 2005 Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended the two decades of South-North Sudan war; and the 2015 Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, to end the current civil war, armed conflicts persist in South Sudan. Two key inadequacies of the liberal peacebuilding model, applied to address modern conflicts in Africa and across the globe are its insistence on international justice instruments such as the International Criminal Court, and the failure to recognize the role of local approaches and to incorporate them into peacebuilding intervention policies. This has resulted in failures to address the grievances and bitterness of war affected people and to reconcile divided communities. This study examines the potential and limits of applying local approaches to post-conflict peacebuilding in South Sudan. Based on empirical data obtained through qualitative case study conducted in South Sudan over five months in 2016, the findings reveal that despite the wide use of local institutions and justice mechanisms, many challenges exist, that pose serious difficulties in solely applying these strategies to transitional justice. However, for the liberal peacebuilding model to address the root causes of internal conflicts and build sustainable peace, local strategies could provide a significant complementary contribution, since dealing with the past entails more than retribution and truth seeking. The study has wider implications in practical and theoretical considerations for ongoing armed conflicts in Africa and other parts of the world.
    • Localized Quality of Service Routing Algorithms for Communication Networks. The Development and Performance Evaluation of Some New Localized Approaches to Providing Quality of Service Routing in Flat and Hierarchical Topologies for Computer Networks.

      Woodward, Mike E.; Alzahrani, Ahmed S. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-03-10)
      Quality of Service (QoS) routing considered as one of the major components of the QoS framework in communication networks. The concept of QoS routing has emerged from the fact that routers direct traffic from source to destination, depending on data types, network constraints and requirements to achieve network performance efficiency. It has been introduced to administer, monitor and improve the performance of computer networks. Many QoS routing algorithms are used to maximize network performance by balancing traffic distributed over multiple paths. Its major components include bandwidth, delay, jitter, cost, and loss probability in order to measure the end users¿ requirements, optimize network resource usage and balance traffic load. The majority of existing QoS algorithms require the maintenance of the global network state information and use it to make routing decisions. The global QoS network state needs to be exchanged periodically among routers since the efficiency of a routing algorithm depends on the accuracy of link-state information. However, most of QoS routing algorithms suffer from scalability problems, because of the high communication overhead and the high computation effort associated with marinating and distributing the global state information to each node in the network.The goal of this thesis is to contribute to enhancing the scalability of QoS routing algorithms. Motivated by this, the thesis is focused on localized QoS routing that is proposed to achieve QoS guarantees and overcome the problems of using global network state information such as high communication overhead caused by frequent state information updates, inaccuracy of link-state information for large QoS state update intervals and the route oscillating due to the view of state information. Using such an approach, the source node makes its own routing decisions based on the information that is local to each node in the path. Localized QoS routing does not need the global network state to be exchanged among network nodes because it infers the network state and avoids all the problems associated with it, like high communication and processing overheads and oscillating behaviour. In localized QoS routing each source node is required to first determine a set of candidate paths to each possible destination. In this thesis we have developed localized QoS routing algorithms that select a path based on its quality to satisfy the connection requirements. In the first part of the thesis a localized routing algorithm has been developed that relies on the average residual bandwidth that each path can support to make routing decisions. In the second part of the thesis, we have developed a localized delay-based QoS routing (DBR) algorithm which relies on a delay constraint that each path satisfies to make routing decisions. We also modify credit-based routing (CBR) so that this uses delay instead of bandwidth. Finally, we have developed a localized QoS routing algorithm for routing in two levels of a hierarchal network and this relies on residual bandwidth to make routing decisions in a hierarchical network like the internet. We have compared the performance of the proposed localized routing algorithms with other localized and global QoS routing algorithms under different ranges of workloads, system parameters and network topologies. Simulation results have indicated that the proposed algorithms indeed outperform algorithms that use the basics of schemes that currently operate on the internet, even for a small update interval of link state. The proposed algorithms have also reduced the routing overhead significantly and utilize network resources efficiently.
    • Location based authenticated multi-services group key management for cyber security in high speed broadband wireless multicast communications. Multi-service group key management scheme with location based handover authentication for multi-handoffs participating in multi-group service subscriptions, its performance evaluation and security correctness in high speed broadband wireless multicast communications

      Shepherd, Simon J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Mapoka, Trust Tshepo (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering & Informatics, 2015)
      Secure information exchanges over cyberspace is on the increase due to the convergence of wireless and mobile access technologies in all businesses. Accordingly, with the proliferation of diverse multicast group service subscriptions that are possible to co-exist within a single broadband network, there is also huge demand by the mobile subscribers to ubiquitously access these services over high speed broadband using their portable devices. Likewise, the Network Providers (NPs) invest hugely in infrastructure deployment to disseminate these services efficiently and concomitantly. Therefore, cyber security in any business is obligatory to restrict access of disseminated services to only authorised personnel. This becomes a vital requirement for a successful commercialisation of exchanged group services. The standard way to achieve cyber security in a wireless mobile multicast communication environment is through confidentiality using Group Key Management (GKM).The existing GKM schemes for secure wireless multicast from literature only target single group service confidentiality; however, the adoption of multiple group service confidentiality in them involve inefficient management of keys that induce huge performance overheads unbearable for real time computing. Therefore, a novel authenticated GKM scheme for multiple multicast group subscriptions known as slot based multiple group key management (SMGKM) is proposed. In the SMGKM, the handovers move across diverse decentralised clusters of homogeneous or heterogeneous wireless access network technologies while participating in multiple group service subscriptions. Unlike the conventional art, the SMGKM advances its security by integrating location based authentication and GKM functions. Both functions are securely offloaded from the Domain Key Distributor (DKD) to the intermediate cluster controllers, Area Key Distributors (AKDs), in a distributed fashion, using the proposed location based authenticated membership list (SKDL). A significant upgrade of fast handoff performance with reduced performance overheads of the SMGKM scheme is achieved. The developed numerical analysis and the simulation results display significant resource economy in terms of reduced rekeying transmission, communication bandwidth and storage overheads while providing enhanced security. The performance of the SMGKM in a high speed environment is also evaluated and has demonstrated that SMGKM outperforms the previous work. Finally, the SMGKM correctness against various attacks is verified using BAN logic, the eminent tool for analysing the widely deployed security protocols. The security analysis demonstrates that SMGKM can counteract the security flaws and redundancies identified in the chosen related art.
    • A longitudinal exploration of the experience of fronto-temporal dementia in intergenerational families

      Oyebode, Jan R.; Larkin, M.; La Fontaine Papadopoulos, Jenny H. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2016)
      Background: Dementia presents challenges for whole families requiring on-going adaptation. Family relationships provide important benefits, thus understanding the impact of dementia for families is critical to facilitating their wellbeing. Behavioural variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) brings specific challenges for relationships, however little is understood about how these are experienced or how families adjust. Aims: This research sought to develop an in-depth understanding of the inter-generational family experience of bvFTD over time. Method: Using a qualitative design, nineteen people were interviewed from seven families, including people living with bvFTD. Interviews occurred over three time points. Narrative analysis and grounded theory were used to understand how relationships are affected and the psycho-social coping processes involved in adjustment over time. Results: Four themes emerged; - Cohesive and connected --- distant and disconnected - Challenges to we/ I - Assimilating, adjusting and reconstructing --- resisting, denying, being stuck - A changing we / I --- an entrenched we / I Results illustrate the influence of pre-existing relationships on family experiences of bvFTD. Challenges to family relationships occurred, including changes in mutuality and increased responsibility. Levels of awareness and understanding, influenced by factors such as proximity impacted upon individual and family adjustment. Assimilating these changes was critical to developing strategies for managing the impact on the relationship and adapting to ‘a changing we’. For closest family members including partners, grief and loss were experienced resulting in the need for a parallel adaptation to a changing ‘I’. Acceptance and adaptation was critical to supporting the wellbeing of the person with bvFTD.
    • A macroeconometric model for Algeria. A medium term macroeconometric model for Algeria 1963-1984, a policy simulation approach to Algerian development problems.

      Wilson, P.R.D.; Bowers, D.; Laabas, Belkacem (University of BradfordDepartment of Social and Economic Studies, 2011-08-26)
      This thesis is concerned with the development and use of a macroeconometric model for the Algerian economy between 1963 and 1984. The model was built because of a systematic lack of applied econometric studies pertaining to Algeria at both the macroeconomic and microeconomic level. It is hoped that the model will fill a gap in this area and will contribute to the much neglected field of applied econometric research with regard to Algeria. This lack of applied econometric studies for Algeria meant that the modelling exercise described here has had to rely on an extensive specification search based on evidence relating to Algeria's economic structure and policy, economic theory, and the experience of Less Developed Countries in the area of macroeconomic model-building. The lack of data was a major constraint in this area and part of this study consisted of collecting and compiling a large database. After the country's independence in 1962, Algerian macroeconomic policy aimed to create a strong industrial system and to satisfy the population's basic needs. It relied on heavy industrialisation to modernise the economy, oil revenues to finance development, and central planning as the major tool of macroeconomic regulation. The accumulation rate was high and the growth record was generally good. However high unemployment and inflation, considerable disequilibrium, low productivity, a vulnerable balance of payments and unsustainable external debt are the major macroeconomic problems that policy-makers have had to face. The model's equations were first estimated using the OLS method and were subjected to stringent statistical tests. The degree of test significance and parameter correspondence to a priori views on the economy was good. when the model was constructed, it was estimated using a 2SLS principal component method. The OLD results were found to be reasonably feasible. The equations were collected into a system of 63 equations and solved using dynamic simulation technique. The model was solved successfully and its tracking of historical data was reasonably good. Further tests were carried out to study its dynamic features. Having constructed the model, it was then used extensively to perform simulation analysis. The experiments ranged from those concerning the goverment's current expenditure to its monetary policy. In all, nine simulation exercises were carried out. These were revealing on the workings of the Algerian economy. The model was further used in scenario analysis. First the model was used to develop an ex ante forecast employing a linear trend model for the exogenous variables. The forecast database was used to generate multipliers. The policy analysis was constructed to coincide with the implementation of the Second Five Year Plan (1985-1989). The feasibility of the plan was examined by varying the price of oil according to three hypotheses. The aim of this test was to develop a realistic framework for applied macroeconomic analysis.
    • Madness and narrative understanding: A comparison of two female firsthand narratives of madness in the pre and post enlightenment periods.

      Burkitt, Ian; Thomas, Phil; Torn, Alison (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2009-08-24)
      This study uses a narrative analytic approach to explore the similarities and differences between pre-Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment firsthand accounts of madness in order to answer the question; what is the relationship between madness, narrative, understanding, identity and recovery? Drawing on the work of Foucault, the research traces the historical and cultural development of conceptualisations of reason and unreason, the rise of psychiatry and the marginalisation of the voice of madness. I argue that this marginalisation is continued in narrative research where the focus is on the stories of the physically ill, rather than madness. The narrative method provides a means of giving space to these marginalised voices and it is Bakhtin¿s constructs of dialogicism, polyphony, unfinalizability and the chronotope that provide the tools for the narrative analysis of two female English writers; Margery Kempe and Mary Barnes. The analysis highlights three critical issues in relation to firsthand narratives of madness. First, the blurred boundaries between madness and mysticism and the role of metaphor in understanding distressing experiences. Second, the complex, multi-dimensional nature of subjective timespace that challenges the linear assumptions underlying both narrative and recovery, which, I argue, demands a radical reconceptualisation of both constructs. Third, the liminal social positioning within the analysed accounts is closely related to Bakhtin¿s notion of unfinalizability, a form of being that enables the search for meaning and the transformation of the self. Insights can be gained from this research that may place stories and understanding central in contemporary healthcare.
    • Making a Difference? European Union’s Response to Conflict and Mass Atrocities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (1994-2009)

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Bizimana Kayinamura, Ladislas (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2013)
      This dissertation scrutinises two related claims that were particularly heightened in 2009 as the European Union (EU) was celebrating the first tenth anniversary of its European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), the implementing arm of its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). First, the two policy frameworks allegedly embodied sufficient added value for bettering EU intervention for human protection purposes in third places. Second, the ESDP supposedly enabled the EU to make a difference in its response to two bloody wars that broke out in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) successively in 1996 and 1998. This thesis argues that the alleged added value and difference have been overstated at best. While various studies have taken a similar position, they have important shortcomings for at least four reasons: lack of a comprehensive account of the CFSP motives, capacities, and response; exclusive focus on civil and military operations; focus on the post-Second Congo War period; and a lack of conceptual clarity regarding two key terms – ‘conflict resolution’ and ‘peacebuilding’. This thesis goes beyond generalisation and undertakes a forensic examination of the CFSP statements, decisions, and actions precisely through the lens of Conflict Resolution (CR): a specific subject area of study with its own normative, theoretical, and practical advantages and shortcomings; and with a more comprehensive and indeed seminal conceptualisation of peacebuilding. The outcome is a far more nuanced assessment of failure and success of the EU’s peace endeavours in this context than can be obtained through a broad-brush approach to analysis
    • Management capacity development to support business growth. A Grounded Theory Study in German SMEs

      Niemann, Eva; Harding, Nancy H.; Stiles, P.; Treutler, Alexandra (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2014)