• An investigation of oriented polymers for power transmission applications

      Caton-Rose, Philip D.; Day, Andrew J.; Vgenopoulos, Dimitrios (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering & Informatics, 2014-05-30)
      The feasibility of using oriented polymer technology in the design and manufacture of mechanical power transmission belts has been investigated. Working from an initial selection of polymers a die-drawing technique for orienting the polymers was devised, and the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the oriented polymers were investigated. These results indicated that PP, PBT, PPS and PEEK were suitable for further research. Of these 4 materials PBT was selected as the most appropriate material for belt manufacture based on cost, processability (drawing temperature, natural draw ratio) and limitations of laboratory equipment. A technique based on free-tensile drawing combined with simultaneous rotational motion was designed and used to manufacture oriented PBT flat belts from cylindrical injection moulded preforms. The technique used a tensile machine with two pulley-clamps, a fitted heated chamber and an electric motor to provide rotational motion to the belt during drawing. Two types of oriented PBT flat belts with different cross sections were produced successfully, termed 'thick' and 'thin'. These belts were tested on a purpose-built rig comprising two equal diameter pulleys, one driven by an electric motor and the other connected to a generator to provide load. The belt life and power transmission performance was investigated at various conditions of speed, transmitted torque and tension, and the results indicated that despite their smaller cross section 'thin' flat belts demonstrated up to 3 times longer life. However life was only 100 hours, which was very low compared with conventional flat belts that last for many thousands of hours at higher speeds and much greater power transmission capacity. Synchronous belts were then produced through the same manufacturing method used for flat belts. This aspect of the research concentrated on the initial pitch design and size, i. e. the timing. Initially a rectangular tooth profile was selected for its simplicity in terms of manufacture. The produced belts exhibited high pitch length variation as well as deformed teeth and were not usable for synchronous power transmission. An extra timing feature was included to control orientation; reducing the pitch length variation enabling consistent tooth production. It was observed that the areas between the extra timing feature and the tooth edges did not orient completely with some regions remaining undrawn. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used to predict the drawing behaviour of different shapes and dimensions of the timing features. The results suggested that a 4mm wide and 7mm long slot provided the highest possible extension and the minimum non-oriented regions on the groove. Whilst, the thickness and width of the drawn belt timing features showed differences to the FEA predictions, manufactured synchronous belts based on that design had much better controlled dimensions and the lowest achieved pitch length variation ( ±1%), compared to initial attempts. It is concluded that oriented polymers have the potential to be used in power transmission belts since they offer higher stiffness, tensile strength and creep resistance compared with isotropic polymers that are currently used in commercially available belts such as thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The main disadvantages were the lack of dimensional stability and number of cycle to failure.
    • Investigation of regulatory functions of micrornas in skin and hair follicle development and cycling. A role of microRNA-214 in skin and hair follicle homeostasis.

      Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Alam, Majid A. (University of BradfordMedical Biosciences, School of Life Sciences, 2014-10-20)
      miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression which play vital roles in the arrays of physiological processes, including skin and hair follicle (HF) development. In this study, the role for miR-214 in the skin and HF development and their postnatal physiological regeneration was investigated. miR-214 exhibits discrete expression patterns in the epidermis and HF in developing and postnatal skin, and is highly expressed in the epithelial stem cells and their lineage-committed progenies. The effects of miR-214 on HF morphogenesis and cycle progression were evaluated by using doxycyclineinducible miR-214 transgenic mice (K14-rtTA/TRE-miR-214). Keratinocyte specific miR-214 overexpression during skin embryogenesis resulted in the partial inhibition of HF induction and formation of the HF reduced in size producing thinner hair. Overexpression of miR-214 in telogen skin caused retardation of the anagen progression and HF growth. Inhibitory effects of miR- 214 on HF development and cycling were associated with supressed activity of stem cells, reduced proliferation in the hair matrix, and altered differentiation. miR-214 induced complex changes in gene expression programs in keratinocytes, including inhibition of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases and several essential components of Wnt, Edar, Shh and Bmp signalling pathways, whereas 􀁅-catenin acts as a novel conserved miR-214 target. Indeed, the inhibitory effects of miR-214 on HF development were rescued by intracutaneous delivery of pharmacological Wnt activator. Thus, this study demonstrated that by targeting 􀁅-catenin and, therefore, interfering with Wnt signalling activity miR-214 may act as one of the upstream effectors of the signalling cascades which govern HF morphogenesis and cycling.
    • Investigation of selected Nigerian medicinal plants as a source of new antimalarial agents. Isolation of phytochemicals from some Nigerian medicinal plants using chromatographic techniques and their evaluation for antiplasmodial activity.

      Wright, Colin W.; Okpako, Larry Commander (University of BradfordBradford School of Pharmacy, 2014-05-02)
      Malaria affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and equally claims hundreds of thousands of lives each year. With the current spread of drug resistance to standard antimalarial drugs like chloroquine and the emergence of artemisinin-resistant parasites, new antimalarial drugs and formulations are urgently needed. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in this study in search of novel compounds with promising antiplasmodial activity. Using the ethnobotanical approach, a total of 61 plant species from 59 genera distributed in 34 plant families were found to be used traditionally for the treatment of malaria in Nigeria. Biological evaluation of the plant¿s methanolic extracts was assessed using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. A total of five (5) plant species showed more potent antiplasmodial activities against the malaria parasites. These are Acanthospermum hispidum, Cassia occidentalis, Kaempferia aethiopica Prosopis africana and Physalis angulata with MIC values ranging between 7.815µg/ml to 31.25µg/ml (3D7 strain) and 15.63µg/ml to 62.50µg/ml (K1 strain) against the malaria parasites, respectively. Two plants, Prosopis africana (Leguminosae-mimosoideae) and Physalis angulata (Solanaceae) were selected for further study. The phytochemical investigation of the active chloroform extracts of P. africana and P. angulata yielded several compounds with three known alkaloids, namely, prosopinine (I), prosopine (II) and acetamide (III). Their structures were confirmed by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Compounds I, II and III have moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the malaria parasites. Both chloroquine and artemether were used as standard control.
    • Investigation of the application of UPFC controllers for weak bus systems subjected to fault conditions. An investigation of the behaviour of a UPFC controller: the voltage stability and power transfer capability of the network and the effect of the position of unsymmetrical fault conditions.

      Rajamani, Haile S.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jalboub, Mohamed K. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-11-21)
      In order to identify the weakest bus in a power system so that the Unified Power Flow Controller could be connected, an investigation of static and dynamic voltage stability is presented. Two stability indices, static and dynamic, have been proposed in the thesis. Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) analysis has been used for the dynamic stability analysis. Results based on the Western System Coordinate Council (WSCC) 3-machine, 9-bus test system and IEEE 14 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) shows that these indices detect with the degree of accuracy the weakest bus, the weakest line and the voltage stability margin in the test system before suffering from voltage collapse. Recently, Flexible Alternating Current Transmission systems (FACTs) have become significant due to the need to strengthen existing power systems. The UPFC has been identified in literature as the most comprehensive and complex FACTs equipment that has emerged for the control and optimization of power flow in AC transmission systems. Significant research has been done on the UPFC. However, the extent of UPFC capability, connected to the weakest bus in maintaining the power flows under fault conditions, not only in the line where it is installed, but also in adjacent parallel lines, remains to be studied. In the literature, it has normally been assumed the UPFC is disconnected during a fault period. In this investigation it has been shown that fault conditions can affect the UPFC significantly, even if it occurred on far buses of the power system. This forms the main contribution presented in this thesis. The impact of UPFC in minimizing the disturbances in voltages, currents and power flows under fault conditions are investigated. The WSCC 3-machine, 9-bus test system is used to investigate the effect of an unsymmetrical fault type and position on the operation of UPFC controller in accordance to the G59 protection, stability and regulation. Results show that it is necessary to disconnect the UPFC controller from the power system during unsymmetrical fault conditions.
    • An investigation of the influence of radiographic malpositioning and image processing algorithm selection on ICU/CCU chest radiographs

      Hardy, Maryann L.; Scally, Andy J.; Small, Neil A.; Elhain, Ahmed M.S.B. (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2015-07-15)
      Mobile chest radiography remains the most appropriate test for critical care patients with cardiorespiratory changes and with patients who have chest tubes and lines as a monitoring tool, and to detect complications related to their use. However, one of the most frequent issues recognized radiographically with patients in critical care is chest tubes and lines malposition. This can be related to technical quality reasons which can affect their appearance in the chest radiography. This research considers how the technical quality of the ICU/CCU chest radiography can impact upon the appearance of chest tubes/lines and how that appearance can impact on the decision making. Results show that the methods used in the chest phantom experiment to estimate the degree of angulation have a large effect upon the appearance of anatomical structures, but it does not have a particularly large effect upon the apparent changes of tube/line position central venous catheter and endotracheal tube (CVC, ETT). The study also shows that there was a little difference between the two image processing algorithms, apart from the visualisation of sharp reproduction of the trachea and proximal bronchi, which was significantly better using the standard algorithm compared to the inverted algorithm. The two methods used to estimate the degree of angulation and the apparent position of the CVC/ETT on 17 mobile chest radiographs provide limited useful information to the image interpreter in estimating the degree of angulation and degree of malpositioning of the tube and line.
    • Investigation of the prevalence of opportunistic gram negative pathogens in the water supply of a haematology unit, and the application of point-of-use filtration as an intervention.

      Snelling, Anna M.; Wright, Claire Louise (University of BradfordSchool of Medical Sciences, 2013-11-21)
      Gram-negative infection has been linked to hospital water although few studies have examined whether water systems are reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens. This study investigated longitudinal recovery of the opportunistic pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter baumannii from water outlets of a haematology unit and evaluated Point-Of-Use Filtration (POU-F) as a control measure. In a two-year double cross-over trial, water samples and swabs were taken weekly from 39 showers/taps on the unit. Four study phases alternated between non-filtered (Phases 1 & 3), and filtered outlets (Phases 2 & 4) using Pall AquasafeTM 14-day filters. In Phases 1 & 3; 99% of 1396 samples yielded bacterial growth, with colonies generally too numerous to count. Target species were isolated from 22% of water samples (P. aeruginosa 14%; S. maltophilia 10%) and 10% of swabs. P. aeruginosa was particularly associated with handwash stations and S. maltophilia with showers. A. baumannii was not isolated. With POU-F; 22% of 1242 samples yielded bacterial growth (mean CFU/100ml ,4.6). S. maltophilia was isolated only once from water but never from outlet swabs. PCR typing identified clusters of isolates colonizing different outlets over time but no clear association between water and patient isolates was identified. The incidence of Gram negative infections remained low throughout the study. Without POU-F, water from taps/showers represented a source of bacteria including the target species. POU-F substantially reduced the frequency and number of target species from every outlet, and merits further investigation as an intervention to protect immunocompromised patients from opportunistic pathogens.
    • An investigation of the relationship between the structure and function of the myopic eye. Correlating the optical, functional and structural aspects of ametropia in young adult humans.

      Mallen, Edward A.H.; Chisholm, Catharine M.; Pacey, Ian E.; Ehsaei, Asieh (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision Science, 2013-04-09)
      The increasing prevalence of myopia over the past few decades and its association with potential ocular complications make myopia an important research topic. The present work is concerned with the structural and functional characteristics of a group of myopic and emmetropic individuals. The technical experiments in this work investigated firstly the effect of instrument alignment on peripheral refraction measurements and revealed that the corneal vertex was an acceptable alignment position of the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 autorefractor, allowing consistent alignment with other instruments used in this research. Secondly, spectacles could be used to provide comparable vision to contact lenses in the visual performance studies. In the main experimental parts of this work, visual performance and multiple aspects of ocular structure were assessed across a wide range of eccentricities along the horizontal and vertical meridians within the same eyes. The structural properties of the myopic eye were measured through central and peripheral autorefraction, and through cornea to retina dimensions using non-contact biometry. In addition, the central and peripheral resolution acuities of myopic and emmetropic eyes for high and low contrast levels were investigated. Our structural and functional measurements revealed relatively prolate myopic eyes with reduced high contrast resolution acuity, compared to emmetropic eyes. Moreover, multiple regression analyses were performed at the fovea and outermost retinal eccentricities common to all core experiments but revealed no strong relationship between the structure and function of the myopic eye. Finally, regarding asymmetry, the nasal and superior retinae were found to be longer and to perform better in comparison to the temporal and superior retinae respectively.
    • Investigation, design and implementation of circular-polarised antennas for satellite mobile handset and wireless communications. Simulation and measurement of microstrip patch and wire antennas for handheld satellite mobile handsets and investigations of polarization polarity, specific absorption rate, and antenna design optimization using genetic algorithms.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S.; Khalil, Khaled (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010-06-01)
      The objectives of this research work are to investigate, design and implement circularly-polarized antennas to be used for handheld satellite mobile communication and wireless sensor networks. Several antennas such as Quadrifilar Spiral Antennas (QSAs), two arm Square Spiral and stripline or coaxially-fed microstrip patch antennas are developed and tested. These antennas are investigated and discussed to operate at L band (1.61-1.6214GHz) and ISM band (2.4835-2.5GHz) A substantial size reduction was achieved compared to conventional designs by introducing special modifications to the antenna geometries. Most of the antennas are designed to produce circularly-polarized broadside-beam except for wireless sensor network application a circularly-polarized conical-beam is considered. The polarization purity and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of two dual-band antennas for satellite-mobile handsets next to the human head are investigated and discussed, using a hybrid computational method. A small distance between the head and the handset is chosen to highlight the effects of the relatively high-radiated power proposed from this particular antenna. A Genetic Algorithm in cooperation with an electromagnetic simulator has been introduced to provide fast, accurate and reliable solutions for antenna design structures. Circularly-polarized quadrifilar helical antenna handset and two air-dielectric microstrip antennas were studied. The capabilities of GA are shown as an efficient optimisation tool for selecting globally optimal parameters to be used in simulations with an electromagnetic antenna design code, seeking convergence to designated specifications. The results in terms of the antenna size and radiation performance are addressed, and compared to measurements and previously published data.
    • Investigation, Design and Implementation of MIMO Antennas for Mobile Phones. Simulation and Measurement of MIMO Antennas for Mobile Handsets and Investigations of Channel Capacity of the Radiating Elements Using Spatial and Polarisation Diversity Strategies.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S.; Usman, Muhammad (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010-04-01)
      The objectives of this work were to investigate, design and implement Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna arrays for mobile phones. Several MIMO antennas were developed and tested over various wireless-communication frequency bands. The radiation performance and channel capacity of these antennas were computed and measured: the results are discussed in the context of the frequency bands of interest. A comprehensive study of MIMO antenna configurations such as 2 × 1, 3 × 1, 2 × 2 and 3 × 3, using polarisation diversity as proposed for future mobile handsets, is presented. The channel capacity is investigated and discussed, as applying to Rayleigh fading channels with different power spectrum distributions with respect to azimuth and zenith angles. The channel capacity of 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 MIMO systems using spatial polarisation diversity is presented for different antenna designs. The presented results show that the maximum channel capacity for an antenna contained within a small volume can be reached with careful selection of the orthogonal spatial fields. The results are also compared against planar array MIMO antenna systems, in which the antenna size considered was much larger. A 50% antenna size reduction method is explored by applying magnetic wall concept on the symmetry reference of the antenna structure. Using this method, a triple dual-band inverted-F antenna system is presented and considered for MIMO application. Means of achieving minimum coupling between the three antennas are investigated over the 2.45 GHz and 5.2 GHz bands. A new 2 2 MIMO dual-band balanced antenna handset, intended to minimise the coupling with the handset and human body was proposed, developed and tested. The antenna coupling with the handset and human hand is reported in terms the radiation performance and the available channel capacity. In addition, a dual-polarisation dipole antenna is proposed, intended for use as one of three collocated orthogonal antennas in a polarisation-diversity MIMO communication system. The antenna actually consists of two overlaid electric and magnetic dipoles, such that their radiation patterns are nominally identical but they are cross-polarised and hence only interact minimally.
    • Investigations into the roles of potassium channels in hair growth. Studies confirming the presence of several ATP-­sensitive potassium (K+ATP) channels in hair follicles and exploring their mechanism of action using molecular biological, cell culture, organ culture and proteomic approaches.

      Randall, Valerie A.; Thornton, M. Julie; Zemaryalai, Khatera (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, 2010-11-05)
      Hair disorders cause significant distress. The main, but limited, treatment for hair loss is minoxidil, an ATP-­sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener whose mechanism of stimulation is unclear. The regulatory component of KATP channels has three forms: SUR1, SUR2A and SUR2B which all respond to different molecules. Minoxidil only opens SUR2B channels, though SUR1 and SUR2B are present in human hair follicles. To expand our understanding, the red deer hair follicle model was used initially. Deer follicles expressed the same KATP channel genes as human follicles when growing (anagen), but no channels were detected in resting follicles. This reinforces the importance of KATP channels in active hair growth and the usefulness of the deer model. To assess whether SUR1 KATP channels are actually involved in human hair growth, the effects of a selective SUR1 channel opener, NNC55-­9216, on scalp follicle growth in organ culture was examined. NNC55-­9216 stimulated anagen; its effect was augmented by minoxidil. This creates the potential for more effective pharmaceuticals to treat hair loss via SUR1 channels, either alone or in combination with minoxidil. The dermal papilla plays a crucial regulatory role in hair follicle activity determining the type of hair produced. Minoxidil had no effect on dermal papilla cell proliferation, but altered the profile of proteins produced when assessed by proteomics. Further research into the roles of KATP channels and greater understanding of the significance of these protein changes should enhance our knowledge of hair biology and help the development of new, improved therapies for hair pathologies.
    • Investigations to identify the influence of the inhalation manoeuvre on the ex-vivo dose emission and the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics of dry powder inhalers: Studies to identify the influence of inhalation flow, inhalation volume and the number of inhalations per dose on the ex-vivo dose emission and the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics of dry powder inhalers.

      Chrystyn, Henry; Assi, Khaled H.; Ibn Yakubu, Sani (University of BradfordInstitute of Pharmaceutical Innovation, 2011-04-04)
      Currently available dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for drug delivery to the lungs require turbulent energy to generate and disperse aerosol particles in the respirable range ¿5¿m during inhalation. The patient's inspiratory effort together with the resistance inside the device creates this energy. Different inhalers provide varying degrees of resistance to inhalation flow and require different inhalation techniques for the generation and delivery of drug fine particles in respirable size range to the lungs. The aim of this research programme was to identify the influence of inhalation flow, inhalation volume and the number of inhalations per dose on the ex-vivo dose emission and the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics of the salbutamol Accuhaler®, Easyhaler®, and Clickhaler® and the terbutaline Turbuhaler® DPIs. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the assay of salbutamol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate in aqueous samples was modified and accordingly validated. In-vitro dose emission of the four different DPIs was measured using the pharmacopoeia method with modifications to simulate varying inhalation flows within patient and between patients. The ranges of the total emitted dose (% nominal dose) at the inhalation flow range of 10 - 60 Lmin-1, following one and two inhalations per metered dose for 2L and 4L inhaled volumes were as follows: the Accuhaler (52.64- 85.11; 61.88-85.11 and 59.23-85.11; 62.81-85.11); the Easyhaler (68.35-91.99; 79.94-91.99 and 73.83-92.51; 80.40-92.51); the Clickhaler (46.55-96.49; 51.12-96.49 and 51.18-101.39; 59.71-101.39) as well as the Turbuhaler (46.08-88.13; 51.95-88.13 and 48.05-89.22; 48.64-89.22). The results highlight that the four inhalers have flow-dependent dose emission property to a varying degree using 2L and 4 L inhaled volumes. There was no significant difference in the total emitted dose between a 2L inhaled volume and a 4L inhaled volume at each inhalation flow. Furthermore, the total emitted dose from the Easyhaler®, Clickhaler®, and Turbuhaler® was significantly (p¿0.001) greater with two inhalations than one inhalation per metered dose across the range of inhalation flow (10 ¿ 60) Lmin-1. This effect was only observed at inhalation flow less than 30 Lmin-1 with the Accuhaler®. Overall there is a significant difference in the total emitted dose. The ex-vivo dose emission of the four different DPIs has been determined using the In- Check Dial device to train twelve non-smoking healthy adult volunteers to inhale at slow (30 Lmin-1) and fast (60 L min-1) inhalation flows through the device with its dial set corresponding to each inhaler. Subsequently each volunteer inhaled at the trained inhalation flows through each active inhaler. The local ethics committee approval was obtained prior to the study and all volunteers gave signed informed consent. The results obtained demonstrate that the studied inhalers have flow-dependent dose emission, thereby enhancing confidence in the use of the In-Check Dial® to identify a patient¿s inhalation flows through a variety of DPIs. Also the total emitted dose determined by ex-vivo methodology was significantly (p¿0.05) greater with two inhalations than one inhalation per metered dose. The results of the in-vitro aerodynamic dose emission characteristics highlight that the fine particle dose (FPD) from the four studied inhalers is flow dependent. Also the minimum inhalation flow to generate the (FPD) with the appropriate characteristics for lung deposition has been identified to be 20 L min-1 for the Accuhaler®, Easyhaler® and Clickhaler®, while that for the Turbuhaler® is about 30 L min-1. Also the inhalation volume above 2L and the number of inhalations for each dose have respectively no significant (p¿0.05) influence on the FPD emitted from the four studied inhalers. The results support the present instructions to patients using these inhalers to inhale once for each dose as fast as they can.
    • IP Mobile Multicast over Next Generation Satellite Networks. Design and Evaluation of a Seamless Mobility Framework for IP Multicast Communications over a Multi-beam Geostationary Satellite Network

      Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun; Jaff, Esua K. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      The inherent broadcast nature of satellites, their global coverage and direct access to a large number of subscribers give satellites unrivalled advantages in supporting IP multicast applications. A new generation of satellite systems that support regenerative on-board processors and multiple spot beam technology have opened new possibilities of implementing IP multicast communication over satellites. These new features enable satellites to make efficient use of their allocated bandwidth resources and provide cost effective network services but equally, create new challenges for mobile satellite terminals. IP mobility support in general and IP mobile multicast support in particular on mobile satellite terminals like the ones mounted on continental flights, maritime vessels, etc., still remain big challenges that have received very little attention from the research community. Up till now, there are no proposed mechanisms to support IP multicast for mobile receivers/sources in multi-beam satellite networks in open literature. This study explores the suitability of IP multicast mobility support schemes defined for terrestrial networks in a satellite environment and proposes novel schemes based on the concepts of Home and Remote subscription-based approaches, multiple interface and PMIPv6 protocol. Detailed analysis and comparison of results obtained from the proposed schemes, Mobile IP (MIP) Home and Remote subscription-based approaches (for terrestrial networks) when implemented on a reference multi-beam satellite network are presented. From these results, the proposed schemes outperform the MIP Home and Remote subscription-based approaches in terms of gateway handover latency, number of multicast packets lost and signalling cost over the satellite air interface.
    • Is melanoma associated leucoderma (MAL) a distinct entity compared to classial vitiligo?

      Schallreuter, Karin U.; Elsayed, Marwa A.T.A. (University of BradfordCentre of Skin Science (CSS), Department of Medical Biosciences, 2015)
      Patients with classical vitiligo lose partially their protecting inherited pigment. The cause of the disease is still unknown. Despite massive epidermal oxidative / nitrative stress and signs for DNA-damage in the skin and in the plasma, these patients have no higher prevalence for sun induced non-melanoma skin cancer and increased photo-damage. Protection and DNA-repair have been attributed to a functioning up-regulated wild type p53 / p21 cascade in association with up-regulated p76 MDM2. As some patients with cutaneous melanoma develop depigmentations away from their primary tumour site post surgical excision, it became of our interest, whether this melanoma associated leucoderma (MAL) is the same as classical vitiligo. The purpose of this thesis was two-fold. In part I, we wanted to further substantiate the reasons behind the constantly up-regulated wild-type functioning p53 / p21 cascade in classical vitiligo utilising a panel of proteins with direct and / or indirect action on p53 regulation, including p21, p76MDM2, MDM4/MDM4phospho, SPARC, VEGF-A and TGF-β1. In part II, we wanted to characterize MAL and compare this peculiar leucoderma with classical vitiligo using the same protein panel and methodologies. To achieve our goals, we used in vivo FT-Raman spectroscopy, in vitro cell cultures, in vitro and in situ immuno-fluorescence labelling, Western blot, dot blot and computer modelling techniques. Our data showed distinct differences between classical vitiligo and MAL. Our results in MAL exhibited a concentration dependent protein expression gradient between the basal / suprabasl layers and the upper layers of the epidermal compartment using catalase, ONOO-, p53, p21, MDM4, p76MDM2, TGF-β1 and VEGF-A expression gradient. Moreover, we document for the first time the presence of a nitrated non-fuctional SPARC protein in classical vitiligo which is absent in MAL. Although we show in vivo considerable ROS / RNS- mediated stress in MAL and classical vitiligo documented by FT-Raman spectroscopy, Western blot and in situ immuno-fluorescence, our results prove that MAL and classical vitiligo are two distinct entities.
    • IS-implementation: a tri-motors theory of organizational change. Case study of how an IT-enabled process of organizational change because of the presence of a teleological, life-cycle, and dialectical motor unfolds within a Dutch government organization.

      Smallman, Clive; Spicer, David P.; Winkel, Geellis (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-11-14)
      The reason for the study is that IT-enabled organizational change processes such as information system implementations have high costs and disappointing results. Studies to identify causes of the mentioned failures are mainly based on a variance approach. This study applies another approach which is not yet performed in this field of research and affects several themes. Based on a process approach data is compared with ideal-process theories to identify the generative mechanisms causing the unfolding of the process. Thus, the study identifies a recipe and not the ingredients.
    • The Isolation of Human Rod and Cone Photoreceptor Activity combining Electroretinography and Silent Substitution Techniques

      McKeefry, Declan J.; Gilchrist, James M.; Maguire, John C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Optometry and Vision Science, 2017)
      Aims: The electroretinogram (ERG) can be used to independently assess the function of rod and cone photoreceptors within the human retina. The work in this thesis sought to investigate an alternative method of recording the ERG, using the silent substitution paradigm (Estevez and Spekreijse 1982). The aims are separated into two parts, firstly, the isolation and characterisation of the non-dark adapted rod photoreceptor response, and secondly, characterising the ERG response from L-, M- and S-cones. Methods: Rod, L-, M- and S-cone isolating as well as non-isolating sinusoidal flicker and transient square-wave stimuli were generated on a 4 primary LED ganzfeld stimulator to elicit ERGs from non-dark adapted participants with normal and compromised rod or cone function. Results: The results from the rod experiments showed that ERGs elicited by rod isolating silent substitution stimuli exhibit low-pass temporal frequency response characteristics with an upper response limit of 30Hz and saturate beyond 1000ph Td. Responses are optimal between 5 – 8 Hz and between 10-100 photopic Td. There is a significant correlation between the response amplitudes obtained with the silent substitution method and current standard clinical protocols. The results from the cone experiments showed that the L-, M- and S-cone stimulation produced ERGs with very different morphologies. L- and M-cone stimulation is of limited use as an objective measure of colour vision deficiency. Conclusion: Silent substitution provides an effective method for the isolation of human rod and cone photoreceptor function in subjects when stimuli are used within appropriate parameter ranges.
    • An isotopic and historical study of diet and migration during the great Irish Potato famine (1845-1852). High-resolution carbon and nitrogen isotope profiling of teeth to investigate migration and short-term dietary change at the Union workhouse, Kilkenny and Lukin street, London.

      Montgomery, Janet; Wilson, Andrew S.; Beaumont, Julia (University of BradfordArchaeological Sciences, 2014-05-07)
      Historical evidence from contemporary documents established that Irish migrants to London during the Great Irish Famine (1845-1852) were likely to come from low socio-economic groups in south-west Ireland, and has characterised mid-19th-century health status and living conditions in both locations. Using samples from 119 individuals from the Catholic cemetery at Lukin Street, London (1843-1854) and 20 from the Union Workhouse Famine cemetery, Kilkenny, Ireland (1847-51), mean bone collagen isotope values were established for the well-documented Irish pre-Famine potato-based diet (¿15N 10.6¿, ¿13C -19.1¿), and the diet of contemporaneous Londoners (¿15N 12.6¿, ¿13C -19.1¿). The introduction of maize as a short-term Famine relief food was identified in three Kilkenny juveniles with bone collagen ¿13C above -17¿, and incremental dentine collagen demonstrating temporal changes in ¿13C consistent with dietary change from C3 to C4 plants. Bone collagen values for two Lukin Street individuals were consistent with high marine protein consumption. Techniques developed in this study to sample increments of dentine representing nine months or less of life have improved temporal resolution not only for migration events but also short-term dietary changes and physiological status during childhood. Combining epigraphic, osteological and archaeological evidence, individual ¿lifeways¿ have been constructed using isotope data and provide insights into the connection between health, diet and skeletal manifestations of deprivation during childhood and adolescence. New models are investigated for examining maternal and infant health using dentine collagen increments formed in utero and combining dentine and bone collagen values to explore the effects of nutritional stress on bone turnover.
    • An isotopic investigation into calving seasonality, diet and dairying in British Prehistoric cattle. Reconstructing animal husbandry at a sub-annual resolution using multi-isotope analysis and intra-tooth sampling.

      Bond, Julie M.; Heron, Carl P.; Montgomery, Janet; Mainland, Ingrid L.; Towers, Jacqueline R. (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological Sciences, 2015-07-15)
      The detection of dairying is essential to understand prehistoric economies, particularly in northwest Europe, where a high degree of lactose tolerance implies that fresh milk has long been a significant dietary component. Domestic cattle (Bos taurus) are biologically able to breed year-round, potentially enabling farmers to select a calving strategy to suit their economic focus. Published literature and interviews with farmers suggests that spring calving would have been favoured by economies focussed on meat or storable dairy products, whereas the year-round provision of fresh milk would have required two calving seasons, in spring and autumn, or an extended period through spring, summer and autumn. This thesis uses intra-tooth isotope ratio analysis of cattle tooth enamel to predict birth seasonality as an indicator of dairying. Analysis was performed on first, second and third cattle molars from the archaeological sites of Mine Howe, Pool and Earl’s Bu (Iron Age and Viking period Orkney), Old Scatness (Iron Age Shetland) and Grimes Graves (Bronze Age Norfolk). Modern molars from Chillingham Wild White cattle were also analysed. A new method to determine cattle birth seasonality has been proposed utilising the isotopic patterning (δ13C, δ18O) recorded within first and second molar enamel. Results suggest that birth seasonality estimates are of sufficient accuracy to discriminate between single-and multiple-season calving. Although Pool and Grimes Graves have been interpreted as dairying sites from their age-at-death slaughter patterns, birth seasonality predictions imply an economy focussed on year-round fresh milk at Pool but an emphasis on storable dairy products at Grimes Graves. In addition, it has been demonstrated that intra-tooth enamel data can provide information regarding sub-annual variation in diet and environment. A new method to investigate weaning strategy has also been proposed.
    • The Journey from Intergroup Emnity to Peaceful Conflict Handling. Peacebuilding Experiences of local NGOs in the former Yugoslavia: Multiple Approaches for Undermining Intergroup Animosities and Dealing With Differences.

      Not named; Schaefer, Christoph Daniel (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2013-03-26)
      Classical approaches to conflict resolution assume that inducing conflict parties to analyse conflict constellations precipitates that the disputants recognise mutually shared needs or interests. Partially in critical reaction towards this assumption, a more recently emerging approach envisages setting up a communicative framework within which the conflict parties are supposed to harmonise their conceptualisations of the conflict. This dissertation, in contrast, argues that work within the frameworks of these classes of approaches is impolitic as long as war-related hostilities stay intact, since conflict parties which see the existence of the adversary as the core of the problem are unlikely to engage in a process of open communication or open analysis, so that trustbuilding is a sine qua non. Practice experiences of local NGOs in the former Yugoslavia suggest that the following activities can be conducive to trustbuilding: 1) supporting exchanges on personalising information, so that the internal heterogeneity of the opponent¿s group is rendered visible; 2) bringing intergroup iii commonalities to the foreground, either through cooperation on shared aspirations, or by unearthing interpersonal overlaps e.g. common feelings, values, and war-related experiences; 3) undermining the imagination of the own side¿s moral superiority by fostering the recognition of crimes and suffering inflicted by the own side. For those cultural and religious differences which persist after basic trustbuilding, a contingency approach is proposed: 1) Fostering the exploration of commonalities and differences; 2) If disagreements remain despite a better basic understanding, tolerance of these difference can be based on a better understanding of the values¿ background, and on an acceptance of differing beliefs as equal in valence; 3) Supporting the discovery of joint values to raise awareness for options of cohabitation with differences; disagreements which cannot be solved might be continued within an accepted communicative framework based on these shared values.
    • Juvenile mortality ratios in Anglo-Saxon and Medieval England. A contextual discussion of osteoarchaeological evidence for infanticide and child neglect.

      Schutkowski, Holger; Buckberry, Jo; Dapling, Amy C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2012-02-13)
      This thesis presents an osteoarchaeological analysis of juvenile mortality profiles questioning the speculations made by some archaeologists that the under-representation of infants from Anglo-Saxon and medieval burial populations could be due to the practice of infanticide in England during these periods. Morphological and metrical age estimation and sex assessment methods are used to determine the age-at-death and sex of 1275 children from fifty-three Anglo-Saxon and medieval sites located in southern England. The age and sex distribution of the Anglo-Saxon and medieval children under six-years-old are then compared with age-specific United Nations demographic statistics see to whether or not a normative mortality profile is presented by the archaeological populations. This study identified an abnormal age-at-death distribution for the early Anglo-Saxon perinatal individuals. Excess female mortality was observed for the perinatal individuals from all three periods; early Anglo-Saxon, late Anglo-Saxon and medieval, and for the neonatal and infant individuals from the early Anglo-Saxon and medieval periods. The results of this osteoarchaeological analysis are discussed in conjunction with a review of the Anglo-Saxon and medieval documentary evidence which examines the possible social and economic motives for infanticide. Whilst this analysis of the historical sources revealed laws and penitentiary warnings against the neglect and deliberate murder of infants, the late Anglo-Saxon and medieval documents provided little evidence to suggest the social devaluation of women that would support a hypothesis of preferential female infanticide. There are few surviving early Anglo-Saxon documents however, so the significance of the abnormal mortality profiles from this period is considered.