• Investigating the Impact of Target Firm Members’ Trust Antecedents on the Perofrmance of Cross-border Acquisition (CBA)

      Irani, Zahir; Ayios, Angela; Mazeel Al-Aboudi, Muhammed A.
      Cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), as organisational entities which are formed and controlled by foreign firms, are one of the most effective methods of expansion available to international firms. Cross-border acquisition is a highly complex and multi-faceted business model which presents several challenges for management. Over the past several years, CBA has become a more frequent target for research in business, and has received significant attention from academia and practitioners alike. The aim of this research is to investigate the factors that impact interorganizational trust and as an outcome, the performance of CBAs in Iraq and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). According Fadol and Sandhu, (2013), Abosag and Lee, (2012), there are few studies that focused on alliances in Middle Eastern countries and more studies on these areas are required. The empirical study is preceded by a review of the existing literature that led to the development of a conceptual framework for this research. The target population samples for this research were collected from four target firm’s employees in Iraq and the UAE, where those firms were identified as having acquired by firms from Western Europe and Asia. The research tool used to collect the necessary data was a survey questionnaire, and the data analysis was undertaken using SPSS and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The findings of this study identify that relationship history, inter-firm distance, and integration approach factors have a positive impact on the level of target firm members’ trust; while factors such as collaboration history, complementarity, and autonomy preservation were not found to have a positive and significantly related to the trust. Moreover, Country risk was found to have a negative and significant relationship with the trust. Religion was not found to be positive and significantly related to the trust. Furthermore, positive relationship between trust and performance and between commitment and performance were found. The results of this study offer a framework that identifies the key factors in the development of trust within CBAs and demonstrates that this trust and it’s antecedents have a significant impact on firm performance in Middle Eastern countries such as Iraq and UAE. The findings of this study offer us implications for meaningful managerial practice in selecting cross-border competitors as target firms.
    • Investigating the relationship between quality management and productivity: An analysis of quality and productivity in Pakistani manufacturing companies.

      Barber, Kevin D.; Breen, Liz; Iqbal, Tahir (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-12-05)
      The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which Quality Management Practices has been effectively adopted and implemented by Pakistani manufacturing companies and to identify best practices for adoption by the companies. The study employed primary and secondary data sources to determine the relationship between QM and Productivity. The study used quantitative methodology for data collection and analysis. The survey responses were categorised into foreign owned companies (FOC¿s) and local owned companies (LOC¿s). The outcome of the descriptive and statistical analysis of the survey responses and secondary data of the companies found that, although most of the companies were aware of the significance of the QM practices and Productivity, FOC¿s were found to have performed highly better in the adoption and implementation of QM practices in their companies compared to locally owned companies. The study also revealed that there is positive relationship between quality and productivity of the manufacturing companies. The evidence deduced from the study shows that foreign owned companies have performed better compared to local owned companies in terms of quality and productivity. Furthermore, the evidence from this study also points out that, automobile sector of Pakistan performed well in the adoption and implementation of QM practices. Strong positive link between quality and productivity was found in the case of automobile companies. This study therefore recommends for manufacturing companies in Pakistan to effectively adopt and implement Quality management practices that encapsulate the study¿s framework for adoption of QM practices (see figure 7.1).
    • Investigating the Transfer of Service Culture through Internal Service Quality: A Case of Subsidiary Hotels in an Emerging Market like Nigeria

      Liao, Mei-Na; Richardson, Sue; Maidugu, Joseph M.
      This study explores how foreign owned service firms with headquarters in developed markets transfer their service culture into a country with an emerging market like Nigeria. This study is motivated by the need to understand this process considering the unique features of these markets, and the expansion into countries with emerging markets by service firms located in countries with developed markets to take advantage of both natural and human resources. The research uses case studies of two hotels from different firms, both in Abuja, Nigeria, to explore activities that enhance the transfer of service culture from the Headquarters of these hotels based in the USA. Both hotels were investigated through semi-structured interviews, based on elements of internal service quality from the service profit chain model, in addition to documents and observation notes. The finding reveals the process of transferring service culture is difficult and complex because of unique contextual challenges. Some of these challenges were shown to be country specific, while some may be unique to countries with emerging markets. The country specific challenges include; strong religious allegiance and cultural affinity, and unique societal factors. Other factors could apply to any country with an emerging market these include; corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of skilled labour. Similarly this study identified new elements that enabled both firms to address these challenges as well as enhance the transfer of focal areas in their signature service culture. Some of these elements have also been identified to be country specific i.e. inclusiveness and provision of social support, while the remaining three are emerging market specific i.e. transfer of knowledge and skills, accommodating corruption, and improvisation. These new elements also add to the existing five elements of internal service quality, which are employee selection, job description, reward and recognition, tools to serve customers, and workplace design. The study demonstrates the important role that intermediaries can play in achieving accommodations to achieve at least partial transfer of the parent service culture. Overall, the research contributes to management practice by highlighting areas to focus on when attempting to transfer service culture in similar circumstances. This thesis adds to the academic literature on the transfer of service culture from headquarters in a developed country to a unit in a country with an emerging market. It does this by extending concepts from the service profit chain to show how internal elements can enhance or block the transfer of service culture.
    • Investigating the use of coca and other psychoactive plants in Pre-Columbian mummies from Chile and Peru. An analytical investigation into the feasibility of testing ancient hair for drug compounds.

      Wilson, Andrew S.; Stern, Ben; Janaway, Robert C.; Taylor, Timothy F.; Brown, Emma L. (University of BradfordArchaeological Sciences, 2014-01-22)
      Psychoactive plants have played a significant role in Andean cultures for millennia. Whilst there is evidence of the importance of psychoactive plants in the Andean archaeological record, none of these are direct proof that these culturally significant plants were used by ancient Andean populations. This project utilised liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the use of psychoactive plants in individuals from cemetery sites in Chile and Peru by analysing hair specimens for a variety of psychoactive compounds. Hair specimens from 46 individuals buried at cemetery sites in the Azapa Valley (northern Chile) belonging to the Cabuza culture (c AD 300 ¿ 1000) indicated around half of these people ingested coca, as evidenced by the detection of BZE in hair specimens. Two individuals from this population tested positive for bufotenine, the main alkaloid in Anadenanthera snuff. There is a specific material culture associated with snuffing. These findings confirm Anadenanthera was consumed in the Azapa Valley. The 11 individuals from Peru came from the necropolis at Puruchuco-Huaquerones in the Rímac valley near Lima. These individuals belonged to the Ichma culture, but would have been under Inca imperial control during the Late Horizon. Although only a small sample, two-thirds tested positive for BZE, suggestive that access to coca was widespread. This project presents a synthesis of the archaeological evidence for the use of various psychoactive plants in Andes. Also presented is the first report of the detection of bufotenine in ancient hair samples and additional data contributing to the understanding of the use of coca in the Andes.
    • Investigation into cognitive function in first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia patients. An investigation into cognitive deficits associated with first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia patients in South Asian and Caucasian populations as assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).

      Neill, Joanna C.; Saleem, Majid M. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2013-11-21)
      Rationale Cognitive deficits are now recognised as a major symptom of schizophrenia with a number of studies reporting profound deficits in cognitive function in both chronic and first episode patients. Recent advances in cognitive remediation therapy have provided the opportunity for patients to improve their cognitive function and therefore improve their functional outcome. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive deficits using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB®) in first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia patients. In the first episode population the effect of ethnicity on cognition was also examined. In the chronic schizophrenia study comparisons between severity of deficits with first episode psychosis patients were also made. The effects of cognitive remediation therapy were also examined in a sample of first episode patients. Methods A total of 35 patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited into the first episode study, 17 patients and 17 controls into the chronic schizophrenia study and 11 patients into the cognitive remediation study. The first episode psychosis patients were recruited from the Bradford and Airedale Early Intervention Service and the chronic patients from the Leeds Partnership NHS Foundation Trust. The control subjects were matched as closely as possible in terms of intelligence and demographics to the patient groups. The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used to estimate subjects pre-morbid IQ. The severity of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All subjects who took part in the study completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB®. Patients in the cognitive remediation study participated in group therapy sessions using X-cog®. Results There were no significant differences found between There were no significant differences found between patients and controls in relation to intelligence or demographics in all studies. The effect of ethnicity was shown to be not significant in the first episode study. Results show that patients performed significantly worse than controls across all iv cognitive domains tested in all studies. A correlation between negative symptoms and executive function was found in both first episode and chronic schizophrenia patients. Comparisons between first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia patients in cognition showed no significant differences, however significant differences were found in levels of negative symptoms and age between the two groups with chronic patients scoring higher on negative symptoms and being older. In the cognitive remediation study a significant improvement was observed in patients in the domain of executive function and a reduction in negative symptoms following completion of the intervention. Conclusion First episode and chronic schizophrenia patients display significant cognitive deficits across all domains when tested using the CANTAB®. Some of these deficits appear to be independent of the length of the illness but dependent on negative symptoms. This study demonstrates that cognitive deficits exist across all patient groups regardless of age, gender, pre-morbid IQ, years in education and ethnicity. Cognitive remediation therapy has also been shown to be effective in improving cognitive functioning in patients.
    • An Investigation into Improving the Repeatability of Steady- State Measurements from Nonlinear Systems. Methods for measuring repeatable data from steady-state engine tests were evaluated. A comprehensive and novel approach to acquiring high quality steady-state emissions data was developed

      Ebrahimi, Kambiz M.; Mason, Byron A.; Dwyer, Thomas P. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2014)
      The calibration of modern internal combustion engines requires ever improving measurement data quality such that they comply with increasingly stringent emissions legislation. This study establishes methodology and a software tool to improve the quality of steady-state emissions measurements from engine dynamometer tests. Literature shows state of the art instrumentation are necessary to monitor the cycle-by-cycle variations that significantly alter emissions measurements. Test methodologies that consider emissions formation mechanisms invariably focus on thermal transients and preconditioning of internal surfaces. This work sought data quality improvements using three principle approaches. An adapted steady-state identifier to more reliably indicate when the test conditions reached steady-state; engine preconditioning to reduce the influence of the prior day’s operating conditions on the measurements; and test point ordering to reduce measurement deviation. Selection of an improved steady-state indicator was identified using correlations in test data. It was shown by repeating forty steady-state test points that a more robust steady-state indicator has the potential to reduce the measurement deviation of particulate number by 6%, unburned hydrocarbons by 24%, carbon monoxide by 10% and oxides of nitrogen by 29%. The variation of emissions measurements from those normally observed at a repeat baseline test point were significantly influenced by varying the preconditioning power. Preconditioning at the baseline operating condition converged emissions measurements with the mean of those typically observed. Changing the sequence of steady-state test points caused significant differences in the measured engine performance. Examining the causes of measurement deviation allowed an optimised test point sequencing method to be developed. A 30% reduction in measurement deviation of a targeted engine response (particulate number emissions) was obtained using the developed test methodology. This was achieved by selecting an appropriate steady-state indicator and sequencing test points. The benefits of preconditioning were deemed short-lived and impractical to apply in every-day engine testing although the principles were considered when developing the sequencing methodology.
    • An investigation into the construction of an animatronic model.

      Not named; Peel, Christopher Thomas (University of BradfordSchool of Informatics, 2010-05-17)
      This thesis investigates the development of an animatronic robot with the objective of showing how modern animatronic models created as special effects have roots in models created during the scientific and mechanical revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries. It is noted that animatronic models that are available today have not been described in any great detail and most are covered by industrial secrecy. This project utilises technologies developed during the latter part of the 20th century and into the beginning of the 21st century to create the design of the animatronic robot. The objective of the project is to bring effective designs for animatronic robots into the public domain. The project will investigate a large variety of different mechanisms and apply them to various functioning parts of the model, with the design and method of each of these functions discussed. From this, one main part of the project, the jaw, will receive the focus of construction. Once the construction is complete this will be evaluated against what improvements and changes could be made for future iterations, with a revised design produced based on what has been learned.
    • An investigation into the influence of personality factors on cultural intelligence and the direct and moderating effects of international experience

      Mohr, Alexander T.; Martinus, Richard (University of BradfordThe School of Management, 2018)
      Globalization has created tremendous opportunities for organizations, but also created challenges due to cultural diversity, highlighting the importance of cross-cultural competencies in becoming successful nowadays. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) has emerged as an important concept describing the individual capabilities needed to effectively interact across cultures. Utilizing the theory of evolutionary personality psychology, several relationships are predicted between certain personality traits and factors of CQ. In addition, social learning theory is applied to explain the expected relationships between international experience and CQ. Thirdly, several hypotheses are developed to investigate if international experience strengthens the relationship between certain personality traits and elements of CQ. Based on a sample size of 197 employees from a financial services company, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses validate the theorized four-factor CQ model. The results, based on stepwise regression analyses, confirm the expected relationship between international experience and all factors of CQ, except BCQ. In addition, the results reveal several significant relationships between personality factors and CQ. Novel for the research on CQ is the confirmation of several significant correlations between “dark-side“ personality traits (which have been characterized as ineffective behaviours) and elements of CQ. This study also shows several moderating relationships, providing new insights and posing important questions for future research, contributing to the accumulating literature on CQ. In addition, the results of this study provide interesting suggestions for practice, emphasizing the importance of adapting Human Resources policies to recruit, enable and retain those employees who are likely to successfully grasp the opportunities that globalization offers. In order to achieve this, organizations should rely on a broad range of assessment and development tools, focussing on CQ, personality traits and previous international experience, when selecting and preparing individuals for cross-cultural careers.
    • An investigation into the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

      Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, A.; Sharma, Vyom (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2012-04-19)
      The wide scale use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in the world consumer market has resulted in likelihood of exposure to human beings. The present study was aimed to assess the in vitro and in vivo interactions of ZnO NPs in the mammalian system and to elucidate the possible mechanism of their toxicity. Our in vitro results using human epidermal cells (A431), primary human epidermal keratinocytes and human liver cells (HepG2) demonstrated that cells exposed to ZnO NPs exhibit a decrease in cell viability which was independent of NP dissolution. ZnO NPs also induced oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by an increase in the Fpg sensitive sites. The reactive oxygen species triggered a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 leading to apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. In addition, ZnO NPs induced phosphorylation of JNK, P38 and P53ser15. The results from our in vivo studies using a mouse model showed that ZnO NPs induce lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in liver which further confirmed our in vitro findings. The data from the present study provide valuable insights into the cellular interactions of ZnO NPs and the underlying molecular mechanism of their toxicity. The results also stress the need for a comprehensive environmental health and safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials to ensure safer nanotechnology based products.
    • An investigation into the metabolic activation of novel chloromethylindolines by isoforms of cytochrome P450. Targeting drug metabolising enzymes in cancer: analysis of the role and function of selected cytochrome P450 oxidising novel cancer prodrugs

      Loadman, Paul M.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Alandas, Mohammed N. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, School of Life Sciences, 2014-05-01)
      Introduction Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are the major family of enzymes responsible for detoxification and metabolism of a wide range of both endogenous and xenobiotics chemicals in living organisms. The use of CYPs to activate prodrugs to cytotoxins selectively in tumours has been explored including AQ4N, Phortress and Aminoflavone. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2W1, and CYP4F11 have been identified as expressed in tumour tissue and surrounding stroma at high frequency compared to most normal tissues. Aim is to investigate the differential metabolism of novel chloromethylindoline by high frequency expressed CYPs in tumours. This differential may be exploited to elicit a selective chemotherapeutic effect by metabolising inert small molecules to potent cytotoxins within the tumour environment. Materials and Methods Sensitive and specific LC/MS/MS techniques have been developed to investigate the metabolism of chloromethylindolines. Recombinant enzymes and transfected cell lines were used to investigate the metabolic profiles with a focus on production of the cytotoxic derivatives of chloromethylindolines. Results Detailed metabolic studies show that (1-(Chloromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyrrolo [3,2-e]indol-3(6H)-yl)(5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-yl) methanone (ICT2700) and other chloromethylindolines are converted by CYP1A1 mediated hydroxylation at the C-5 position leading to highly potent metabolites. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed differentials of up to 1000-fold was achieved between CYP1A1 activated compared to the non-metabolised parent molecules. The reactivity of metabolites of ICT2700 was also explored using glutathione as a nucleophile. The metabolites were identified by a combination of LC/MS and LC MS/MS techniques. Investigations using mouse and human liver microsomes show that a large number of metabolites are created though none were shown to be associated with a potential anticancer effect. Studies focused on CYP2W1 show that this isoform metabolised ICT2706 to a cytotoxic species and a pharmacokinetic study showed a good distribution of ICT2706 into mouse tissues including tumour. However metabolism of ICT2726 by CYP2W1 resulted only in a non-toxic metabolite profile and may have potential as a biomarker for functional CYP2W1 in tissues. Preliminary studies show that palmitic acid hydroxylation is a useful marker of functional CYP4F11. Summary and conclusion The in vitro results show that the chloromethylindolines are a novel class of agent with potential as prodrugs that following specific hydroxylation by CYP1A1 and CYP2W1 are converted to ultra-potent cytotoxins. Other metabolites are also evident which are not cytotoxic. Studies in vivo show that selected chloromethylindolines possess a good pharmacokinetic profile and show potential as prodrug anticancer agents that require activation by CYP1A1 or CYP2W1. The methods, results, progress and suggestions for future work are presented in this thesis.
    • An Investigation into the Relationship between Static and Dynamic Gait Features. A biometrics Perspective

      Ugail, Hassan; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Alawar, Hamad M.M.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering and Informatics, 2014)
      Biometrics is a unique physical or behavioral characteristic of a person. This unique attribute, such as fingerprints or gait, can be used for identification or verification purposes. Gait is an emerging biometrics with great potential. Gait recognition is based on recognizing a person by the manner in which they walk. Its potential lays in that it can be captured at a distance and does not require the cooperation of the subject. This advantage makes it a very attractive tool for forensic cases and applications, where it can assist in identifying a suspect when other evidence such as DNA, fingerprints, or a face were not attainable. Gait can be used for recognition in a direct manner when the two samples are shot from similar camera resolution, position, and conditions. Yet in some cases, the only sample available is of an incomplete gait cycle, low resolution, low frame rate, a partially visible subject, or a single static image. Most of these conditions have one thing in common: static measurements. A gait signature is usually formed from a number of dynamic and static features. Static features are physical measurements of height, length, or build; while dynamic features are representations of joint rotations or trajectories. The aim of this thesis is to study the potential of predicting dynamic features from static features. In this thesis, we have created a database that utilizes a 3D laser scanner for capturing accurate shape and volumes of a person, and a motion capture system to accurately record motion data. The first analysis focused on analyzing the correlation between twenty-one 2D static features and eight dynamic features. Eleven pairs of features were regarded as significant with the criterion of a P-value less than 0.05. Other features also showed a strong correlation that indicated the potential of their predictive power. The second analysis focused on 3D static and dynamic features. Through the correlation analysis, 1196 pairs of features were found to be significantly correlated. Based on these results, a linear regression analysis was used to predict a dynamic gait signature. The predictors chosen were based on two adaptive methods that were developed in this thesis: "the top-x" method and the "mixed method". The predictions were assessed for both for their accuracy and their classification potential that would be used for gait recognition. The top results produced a 59.21% mean matching percentile. This result will act as baseline for future research in predicting a dynamic gait signature from static features. The results of this thesis bare potential for applications in biomechanics, biometrics, forensics, and 3D animation.
    • Investigation of a solvent-free continuous process to produce pharmaceutical co-crystals. Understanding and developing solvent-free continuous cocrystallisation (SFCC) through study of co-crystal formation under the application of heat, model shear and twin screw extrusion, including development of a near infrared spectroscopy partial least squares quantification method

      Kelly, Adrian L.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Gough, Timothy D.; Wood, Clive John (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2016)
      This project utilised a novel solvent-free continuous cocrystallisation (SFCC) method to manufacture pharmaceutical co-crystals. The objectives were to optimize the process towards achieving high co-crystal yields and to understand the behaviour of co-crystals under different conditions. Particular attention was paid to the development of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT). Twin screw, hot melt extrusion was the base technique of the SFCC process. Changing parameters such as temperature, screw speed and screw geometry was important for improving the co-crystal yield. The level of mixing and shear was directly influenced by the screw geometry, whilst the screw speed was an important parameter for controlling the residence time of the material during hot melt extrusion. Ibuprofen – nicotinamide 1:1 cocrystals and carbamazepine – nicotinamide 1:1 co-crystals were successfully manufactured using the SFCC method. Characterisation techniques were important for this project, and NIR spectroscopy proved to be a convenient, accurate analytical technique for identifying the formation of co-crystals along the extruder barrel. Separate thermal and model shear deformation studies were also carried out to determine the effect of temperature and shear on co-crystal formation for several different pharmaceutical co-crystal pairs. Finally, NIR spectroscopy was used to create two partial least squares regression models, for predicting the 1:1 co-crystal yield of ibuprofen – nicotinamide and carbamazepine – nicotinamide, when in a powder mixture with the respective pure API. It is believed that the prediction models created in this project can be used to facilitate future in-line PAT studies of pharmaceutical co-crystals during different manufacturing processes.
    • An investigation of corporate responsibility practices amongst MNCs' subsidiaries in Sri Lanka. Implementation and influencing factors.

      Fairbrass, Jenny M.; Mohr, Alexander T.; Beddewela, Eshani S. (University of BradfordBradford University School of Management, 2013-11-20)
      This thesis examines the implementation of Community Corporate Responsibility (CCR) practices among ten subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Sri Lanka and the different factors which influence such implementation. Within this context, it specifically focuses on examining the internal factors residing within the MNC as an organisation and those factors which exist outside in the institutional environment of the host country. The study combines three broad theoretical domains: Corporate Responsibility implementation literature, International Business Strategy literature and Neo-Institutional theory. It uses a qualitative research methodology based upon the interview method. Qualitative interview data collected through sixty-two in-depth interviews with managers of the ten subsidiaries and key institutional actors in the host country were analysed using descriptive coding, interpretive coding and conceptualisation to arrive at the findings. The findings showed that non-specialist functional departments were mainly responsible for implementing CCR practices, indicating a lack of strategic and structural integration of CCR practices. The findings reinforces the dominant role of the MNC headquarters in implementing CCR practices within subsidiaries operating in a developing country, indicating that ¿power¿ relationships between subsidiary and parent is an important denominator in internal organisational practices implementation. Furthermore, dynamic and complex relationships were found between the subsidiaries and the Sri Lankan government and other institutional actors indicating the existence of a strategic approach towards legitimisation by iii subsidiaries, using CCR practices. Based upon these findings, this research proposes the need to conduct future studies across different MNCs and their subsidiaries located in multiple developing countries to further examine the implementation of CCR practices as it would enable public policy makers and business managers to better influence the global CSR of MNCs.
    • Investigation of drug ionic liquid salts for topical delivery systems

      Paradkar, Anant R.; Brown, Elaine C.; Karodia, Nazira; Bansiwal, Mukesh (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      Pharmaceutical companies and FDA (Federal Drug Administration) rules rely heavily on crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredients delivered as tablets and powders in the form of neutral compounds, salts and solvates of neutral compounds and salts. About half of all drugs sold in the market are in the form of salts which are held together by ionic bonds along with some other forces. Recently, Ionic liquids (ILs) an interesting class of chemical compounds have offered potential opportunity for exploration as novel drug ionic liquid salts, particularly in the field of transdermal/topical drug delivery. Due to the multifunctional nature of these salts they could allow generation of new pathway to manipulate the transport and deposition behaviour of the drug molecule. It is this modular approach of IL that forms the basis of the research presented here, in which pharmaceutically acceptable compounds are combined with selected drugs with known problems. IL salts were generated by combining at least one drug molecule with FDA approved compounds and were assessed for physicochemical properties, skin deposition and permeation studies. Skin deposition data suggested that these systems exhibit high skin retention, which was found to correlate with the molecular weight. On the other hand, permeation data displayed an inverse relationship between flux values and molecular weight of the permeant. Similar work was extended with ILs with mixed anions containing two drugs. The benzalkonium-sulfacetamide ILs were investigated for synergism and the biological studies data display no synergistic effect. It was also illustrated that in-situ IL based ibuprofen hydrogels systems could be manipulated via IL approach for topical application. These findings suggest the potential applicability of IL based formulations for topical delivery of drugs.
    • Investigation of Energy Demand Modeling and Management for Local Communities. Investigation of the electricity demand modeling and management including consumption behaviour, dynamic tariffs, and use of renewable energy.

      Rajamani, Haile S.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Ihbal, Abdel-Baset M.I. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-11-20)
      Various forecasting tools, based on historical data, exist for planners of national networks that are very effective in planning national interventions to ensure energy security, and meet carbon obligations over the long term. However, at a local community level, where energy demand patterns may significantly differ from the national picture, planners would be unable to justify local and more appropriate intervention due to the lack of appropriate planning tools. In this research, a new methodology is presented that initially creates a virtual community of households in a small community based on a survey of a similar community, and then predicts the energy behaviour of each household, and hence of the community. It is based on a combination of the statistical data, and a questionnaire survey. The methodology therefore enables realistic predictions and can help local planners decide on measures such as embedding renewable energy and demand management. Using the methodology developed, a study has been carried out in order to understand the patterns of electricity consumption within UK households. The methodology developed in this study has been used to investigate the incentives currently available to consumers to see if it would be possible to shift some of the load from peak hours. Furthermore, the possibility of using renewable energy (RE) at community level is also studied and the results presented. Real time pricing information was identified as a barrier to understanding the effectiveness of various incentives and interventions. A new pricing criteria has therefore been developed to help developers and planners of local communities to understand the cost of intervention. Conclusions have been drawn from the work. Finally, suggestions for future work have been presented.
    • An investigation of forecasting methods for a purchasing decision support system. A real-world case study of modelling, forecasting and decision support for purchasing decisions in the rental industry.

      Dahal, Keshav P.; Cowling, Peter I.; Yang, Ruohui (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2013-11-15)
      This research designs a purchasing decision support system (PDSS) to assist real-world decision makings on whether to purchase or to sub-hire for equipment shortfalls problem, and to avoid shortage loss for rental business. Research methodology includes an extensive literature review on decision support systems, rental industry, and forecasting methods. A case study was conducted in a rental company to learn the real world problem and to develop the research topics. A data converter is developed to recover the missing data and transform data sets to the accumulative usage data for the forecasting model. Simulations on a number of forecasting methods was carried out to select the best method for the research data based on the lowest forecasting errors. A hybrid forecasting approach is proposed by adding company revenue data as a parameter, in addition to the selected regression model to further reduce the forecasting error. Using the forecasted equipment usage, a two stage PDSS model was constructed and integrated to the forecasting model and data converter. This research fills the gap between decision support system and rental industry. The PDSS now assists the rental company on equipments buy or hire decisions. A hybrid forecasting method has been introduced to improve the forecasting accuracy significantly. A dada converter is designed to efficiently resolve data missing and data format problems, which is very common in real world.
    • Investigation of inhibitors of polysialyltransferase as novel therapeutics for neuroblastoma. Development of in vitro assays to assess the functionality and selectivity of novel small-molecule inhibitors of polysialyltransferases for use in neuroblastoma therapy

      Shnyder, Steven D.; Falconer, Robert A.; Saeed, Rida F. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2015)
      Polysialic acid is aunique carbohydrate that decorates the surface of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Polysialic acidis an onco-developmental antigen, expressed in tumours principally of neuroendocrine origin, notably neuroblastoma,strongly correlating with invasion and metastasis. Polysialylation is regulated by two polysialyltransferase enzymes, PST(ST8SiaIV)and STX(ST8SiaII),withSTX dominant in cancer. Post-development polysialic acid expression is only found at low levels in the brain, thus this could be a novel target for cancer therapy. It is hypothesized that inhibition of polysialyltransferasecould lead to control of tumour dissemination and metastasis.The aims of this thesis were to develop tools and in vitro assays to screen novel polysialyltransferaseinhibitors. A panel of tumour cell lines were characterised in terms of growth parameters (using the MTT assay) and polysialic acid expression. This includes a pair of isogenic C6 rat glioma cells (C6-STX and C6-WT) and naturally polysialic acid expressing neuroblastoma cells(SH-SY5Y). Following this, an in vitro assay was validated to screen modulation of polysialic acid expression by removing pre-existing polysialic acid expression using endoneuraminidase N and evaluated the amount of re-expression of polysialic acid using immunocytochemistry. Then, a functional assay was developed and validated for invasion, the matrigel invasion assay. Cytidine monophosphate (tool compound) significantly reduced polysialic acidsurface expression and invasion. A panel of six novel polysialyltransferase inhibitors was screened for cytotoxicity, polysialic acidsurface expression and invasion. Of the potential polysialyltransferase inhibitorsevaluated, ICT3176 and ICT3172 were identified from virtual screening of Maybridge library and were emerged as the most promising inhibitors, demonstrating significant (p<0.05)reduction in cell-surface polysialic acidre-expression and invasion in polysialic acid expressing cells.Furthermore, the specificity of compounds for polysialyltransferase (α-2,8-sialyltransferase) over othermembers of the wider sialyltransferase family (α-2,3-and α-2,6-sialyltransferases) was confirmed using differential lectin staining. These results demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors as STX is possible and provides suitable in vitrocell based assays to discovery more potent derivatives.
    • Investigation of injection moulding for novel drug delivery systems. An investigation into the use of injection moulding to produce pharmaceutical dosage forms and to understand the relationship between materials, processing conditions and performance, in particular drug release and stability

      Kelly, Adrian L.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Deshmukh, Shivprasad S. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2015)
      The feasibility of the injection moulding (IM) was explored for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Controlled release formulations were developed using a substituted cellulose derivative, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and a graft co-polymer (Soluplus®). BCS class II drugs ibuprofen and the felodipine were selected based on their physicochemical properties. In the present work, a homogenous dispersion of drugs in the polymer matrices was achieved using Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) and extruded pellets obtained were used for the development of the injection moulded systems. Four systems were developed using the IM consisting of ibuprofen-HPMCAS, ibuprofen-Soluplus®, felodipine-PEO-HPMCAS and felodipine-Soluplus®. The ibuprofen acts as a good plasticiser compared to felodipine therefore, felodipine containing IM systems required a plasticiser (PEO) when processed with HPMCAS. The analysis of extruded pellets and injection moulded systems using modulated DSC (MDSC) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of an amorphous molecular dispersion (i.e solid solution) in the case of all four systems. The phase separation behaviour and the amorphous stability of the systems was studied at various stress conditions. This revealed the “surface crystallisation” behaviour of the ibuprofen-HPMCAS systems. Temperature-composition phase diagram constructed based on the melting point depression and the Flory-Huggins lattice solution theory provided the explanation for the phase separation and crystallisation behaviour of ibuprofen-HPMCAS systems. The advanced characterisation techniques like DMA, 2D XRD and 3D laser microscopy provided the detailed understanding of crystal habits, phase seperation and surface crystallisation. The significant effect of the stress conditions on the rate of shrinkage was observed where, higher shrinkage tendency of a HPMCAS IM system was observed compared to Soluplus® IM systems. The extruded pellets provided the faster drug release compared to the moulded tablets suggests the effect of particle size as well as the densification during IM on the dissolution rate of the dosage form. The nature of the polymer and processing history were the contributing factors for the dissolution of the dosage forms.
    • An investigation of intellectual capital disclosure in annual reports of UK firms. Practices and determinants.

      Pike, Richard H.; Haniffa, Roszaini M.; Li, Jing (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-06-14)
      This study examines the intellectual capital (IC) disclosure practices in the annual reports of 100 listed UK firms selected from sectors considered to be IC-intensive. It also investigates the possible determinants of such disclosure practices from the three perspectives of corporate governance structure, company characteristics and market factors. IC disclosures were captured using content analysis, and were measured by a disclosure index, supported by word count and percentage of word count metrics to assess the variety, volume and focus of IC disclosure respectively, at both overall and subcategory levels. The presentational formats and locations of IC disclosures were also recorded. The results indicate that the UK firms sampled provide considerable IC information in their annual reports, mainly in text form, with popular use of numerical information, while the use of graphs and pictures for many IC elements remains low. The distribution of IC disclosures, captured in three categories, varies by the three measures of disclosure applied. IC information was found in virtually all sections of the annual report and was most concentrated in the Operating and Financial Review section. IC terms typically used in the academic literature do not feature in the sampled annual reports. The results of the statistical analyses based on the three measures of IC disclosure indicate significant associations with a number of corporate governance factors (i.e. board composition, share concentration, audit committee size and frequency of meeting, board directors¿ shareholding, audit committee directors¿ shareholding, and board directors with cross-directorships), company characteristics (i.e. firm size, profitability, and listing age), and market factors (i.e. `hidden value¿, share price volatility, share turnover, and multiple listing). These findings offer support for a number of theories, such as information asymmetry, agency and signalling theory. The influence of these explanatory factors on human, structural and relational capital disclosures, based on all three disclosure measure metrics, as well as on the format of IC disclosure, was also explored. The study also finds that its IC framework is more effective than a less detailed framework used in prior studies for the purpose of examining IC disclosure practice and its determinants. The study contributes to the further advancement of the state of knowledge in relation to IC disclosure both empirically and methodologically. It provides information users, preparers, regulatory bodies and academics with a state-of-the-art understanding of IC disclosure practices in the annual report. The transparent content analysis process enables future replication and comparison of results. The rigorous measurements of IC disclosure, the greater specificity of disclosure about the location and presentational format, and the more detailed IC research framework can be usefully applied by other studies. By examining the relationship between explanatory factors and IC disclosure, it helps shareholders and other groups of information users as well as the regulatory bodies to identify factors that may encourage IC disclosure in the annual report.
    • Investigation of mechanisms of drug resistance in colorectal cancer: a proteomic and pharmacological study using newly developed drug-resistant human cell line subclones

      Shnyder, Steven D.; Sutton, Chris W.; Duran, M. Ortega (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      Despite therapeutic advances, colorectal cancer still has a 45% mortality rate, and one of the most crucial problems is the development of acquired resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs. Thus the aims of this project are to develop drug-resistant colon cancer cell lines in order to identify mechanisms of resistance for the most commonly drugs used in colorectal cancer: 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. Following evaluation of drug sensitivity to these agents in an initial panel of eight colorectal cancer cell lines, 3 lines (DLD-1, KM-12 and HT-29) were selected for the development of 5-FU (3 lines), oxaliplatin (2) and irinotecan (1) resistant sublines by continuous drug exposure, with resistance confirmed using the MTT assay. Consistently resistant sublines were subject to a „stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture‟ (SILAC) approach and a MudPIT proteomics strategy, employing 2D LC and Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometric analysis, to identify novel predictive biomarkers for resistance. An average of 3622 proteins was quantified for each resistant and parent cell line pair, with on average 60-70 proteins up-regulated and 60-70 down-regulated in the drug resistant sublines. The validity of this approach was further confirmed using immunodetection techniques. These studies have provided candidate proteins which can be assessed for their value as predictive biomarkers, or as therapeutic targets for the modulation of acquired drug resistance in colorectal cancer.