• Implementing strategic decisions. The implementation of capital investment projects in the U. K. manufacturing industry.

      Sanderson, Stuart; Sharp, John; Falshaw, James R. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Management and Administration, 2010-07-29)
      This thesis reports an exploratory, quantitative study into the implementation of strategic. decisions. Implementation was viewed as a discontinuous organisational activity involving strategic change. The organisational vehicle of change is seen as "the project" and the specific unit of analysis adopted is the capital investment project. Manufacturing organisations were studied because these were shown to most frequently undertake such projects. ' Adopting a theoretical perspective derived from systems theory and cybernetics a model of implementation was developed which recognises two dimensions of implementation success (modes of organisational change) to be contingent upon a dimension of project uncertainty and two dimensions of information. From this model ten hypotheses were developed. Data on 45 projects was collected from a diversity of manufacturing companies. This was obtained using a structured questionnaire instrument administered to a single informant during a retrospective personal interview. Initially the data was analysed using principal components factor analysis to determine the factorial compositions and reliabilities of scales measuring theoretical constructs. Subsequently, causal modelling and stepwise regression techniques were employed to test the hypotheses. Analysis demonstrated that the essentially structural approach to implementation taken in the study adequately explained many of the observed associations between constructs. Hypothesised associations between organisational structure and implementation success could not, generally, be supported. Finally, the theoretical model adopted was not able to account for a number of empirically observed associations. These associations were explicable in terms of a behavioural or social dimension. The wider implications of the study are also discussed.
    • Implementing time based manufacturing practices in pharmaceutical preparation manufacturers. Improving time-based manufacturing practices and enhancing manufacturing performance through action research.

      Brown, S.; Vondracek, Paul T.J.W. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-11-10)
      A double case study applying action research methodology was conducted in two pharmaceutical preparation manufacturers in the Netherlands to improve their manufacturing systems by implementing time-based manufacturing (TBM) practices. Following the diagnosis phase, the situation of each Company was analysed and suitable improvement interventions were selected for implementation in the Case Companies. At the end of the action research project, semi-structured interviews were taken in each Company a year later, and the achieved results of the improvement programmes were collected and analysed. This research extends the existing theory of time-based competition and demonstrates that TBM practices apply also in the pharmaceutical preparation manufacturing industry. Furthermore, this study shows how to improve TBM practices and reduce the throughput time by providing the route for improvement and implementation. Although the first Case Company did not improve the core TBM practices and manufacturing performance, its infrastructure improved through the implementation of an ERP system and further enhancement of its quality management system, illustrating that the design of the infrastructure is a key factor to become a time-based competitor. The second Case Company succeeded to improve the 2 TBM practices and throughput processes resulting in the reduction of the order cycle time and increase of the delivery dependability. Based on the data of the two Case Companies, this study demonstrated the relationship between these two manufacturing performance parameters, which indicates that manufacturers may strive for both delivery speed and delivery reliability using the same improvement plan. Adopting TBM is a long journey of many years and needs a continuous improvement infrastructure.
    • The implications of introducing shift work and flexible working hours into the clothing industry. An investigation into the implications of introducing shift work and flexible working hours into the U. K. clothing industry with special reference to their effect on personnel, plant utilisation and garment costs.

      Ellis, P.; Ayatollahi, Abbas (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Textiles, 2010-07-20)
      The implications of introducing shift work and flexible working hours into the UK clothing industry were examined, with special reference to the effects on personnel, plant utilisation and garment costs. A total of 37 garment manufacturing establishments, within 17 companies, were visited; 91 managers (for production and economic data)and 1018 supervisors and operatives, 87% female and 13% male, (for social data) were consulted. The main points arising from the survey are:- 1 . Social (i) The average age and length of service of respondents were respectively 30.4 and 7.1 for women and 40 and 13.9 for men. Nearly three fifths were married and over half of the women had children, most of them at school or pre-school stage. (ii) Over four fifths were committed to some kind of housework; 3 to 5 hours between 17.00 and 24.00 hours were usually spent on this task but about 9% spent more than 5 hours on it. (iii) Over half would be very much bothered by the inability to carry on their individual and/or group social activities. About two thirds would also be concerned by a change in the period of and time for sleep and meal times. Nearly two fifths used public transport for the journey to work. (iv) Only 15% had worked on multiple shifts previous to their present employment and 16% left their previous job because of being on shifts or unsuitable hours. About one fifth worked currently part-time and only 13% wanted to change their existing working system so that they might gain extra convenience and leisure in their working life. (v) The unsolicited personal choice of working systems were mainly shifts (13%), flexible working hours (14%) and part-time day work (30%); working only in school hours appeared to attract the choice of about 40% of the women. (vi) From the points above, it seemed that a high proportion of married female workers, mostly with dependent children and committed to housework, would probably react against shift work. The availability of part-time work together with the normal day work habit acquired would also affect the employees' attitudes towards the acceptance of even flexible working hours. 2. Production (i) The main problems involved with introducing shift work were considered to be sharing of equipment, bonus and piece rate payment and responsibility for quality failures. Dislike of sharing machines by operatives was considered to be a severe problem in sewing section and the extent of this dislike seemed higher in traditional rather than non traditional clothing areas; the operatives' age and length of service appeared to affect their attitudes. The smaller the period of time for each job then the less the problem of sharing payment and responsibility could become. (ii) Introduction of flexible working hours could create the difficulties of shortage and/or excess of supply of work within the production flow with interdependent operations; the extent of the problem could vary with the amount of work in progress and the period of time spent by each operative on the garment and/or its parts. Economic (i) Garment cost elements are material, labour, variable and fixed overheads (survey averages 50.6%, 24.9%, 8% and 16.5%), of which labour and variable overheads would be affected by introducing multiple shifts and only fixed overheads by flexible working hours. There should be a decrease in variable overheads per garment because of sharing a fixed amount of cost between shifts, an increase in labour cost due to shift premium and an increase in fixed overheads because of longer opening hours of the plant on flexible working hours. (ii) The capital employed on plant and machinery, C, could often be divided by the number of shifts so that this could help to increase profitability by a factor of 2 or 3. (iii) General formulae were established, using the most relevant variables, for calculating the profitability and profitability ratios of different working schemes. Generally, if the number of shifts are increased then the profitability of the plant could be very greatly increased. This was well illustrated from the calculated profitability ratios of about 2 and 3 respectively, when industrial survey values were used, for 2 and 3 shift systems replacing a single shift system. Profitability of flexible working hours would, theoretically, be less than that of single shift, but there might be some economic gains, such as reduced rates of labour turnover and absenteeism (which are currently high in the garment industry), arising from the introduction of flexible working hours.
    • The implications of organizational context for Information Systems and Technology strategy formulation. A study of socio-political factors in global corporations.

      Smallman, Clive; Hussain, Zahid I.; Vaidya, Anil Vishnu (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-11-09)
      Information systems and technology strategy has been discussed by many researchers and authors over last three decades. The concepts of business alignment, competitive advantage, value generation etc. have been elaborated and still similar discussions continue. While the advances in IS/IT strategy formulation were being made, the businesses were changing their operating models. More specifically they became global businesses active in multiple geographies at the same time. This research aims to provide deeper understanding of IT developments in global organizations as manifested in the changing social and political environment of the organization and the reciprocal effect of social and political changes on IT strategies. Further it aims to investigate whether the relevant theories and concepts can be integrated to develop a new model that can incorporate the socio-political aspects into IS/IT strategy formulation. To achieve this objective the literature survey was conducted to explore available published papers in the sphere of IS/IT strategy formulation. Considering that the applicability of information systems and technology falls into the sphere of social sciences, the research design focused on the qualitative approach. The primary method of data collection was through semi-structured interviews with IT managers. This was complemented by interviews with business managers and consultants. Further the experiences of the researcher in the earlier role of practitioner were taken into account. Using grounded theory approach the information collected through interviews, own experiences and the data gathered from literature survey were used to develop a new model of IT strategy formulation. The model addresses the context part of IT strategy formulation process. This model development is aimed to counter and account for the political and social aspects of strategy development and deployment in global corporations characterised by diversity of cultures, attitudes and behaviours.
    • The importance of aligning managerial characteristics to functional strategy in public sector organisations: An empirical study of Dubai government.

      Wallace, James; Cornelius, Nelarine; Sebaa, Ali A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-05-19)
      Managerial characteristics have an important influence on strategy implementation. Previous studies have looked at the alignment of managerial characteristics with strategic type and aspects of performance. In all cases, the focus has been on corporate strategy and, predominantly, in private sector organisations. This study combines these objectives and investigates alignment between managerial characteristics, strategy and perceived performance. It focuses on management at the functional level in a public sector setting and demonstrates that classical upper-echelon theory is also relevant when applied at the functional level of management. The Miles and Snow (1978) typology is applied to the functional strategy for Dubai government organisations, to investigate whether functional units pursuing strategies are led by functional managers with dissimilar attributes, and whether the alignment between managerial characteristics and strategy is related to performance of the functional unit. Based on the extant literature, a research model has been developed, which yields two types of hypothesis. Data was collected by means of interviews and surveys to obtain knowledge of strategy types, and demographic and psychological characteristics for the functional managers. Regression techniques have been used for data analysis rendering support for two types of hypothesis. Consequently, this study supports the view that Upper Echelon theory can also apply at the functional level, emphasising the role of the functional managers, at the lower management levels of the organisations, in strategy implementation.
    • The importance of contextual factors on the accuracy of estimates in project management. An emergence of a framework for more realistic estimation process

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Lazarski, Adam (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2014)
      Successful projects are characterized by the quality of their planning. Good planning that better takes into account contextual factors allows more accurate estimates to be achieved. As an outcome of this research, a new framework composed of best practices has been discovered. This comprises an open platform that project experts and practitioners can work with efficiently, and that researchers can develop further as required. The research investigation commenced in the autumn of 2008 with a pilot study and then proceeded through an inductive research process, involving a series of eleven interviews. These consisted of interviews with four well-recognized experts in the field, four interviews with different practitioners and three group interviews. In addition, a long-running observation of forty-five days was conceptualized, together with other data sources, before culminating in the proposal of a new framework for improving the accuracy of estimates. Furthermore, an emerging framework – and a description of its know-how in terms of application – have been systematically reviewed through the course of four hundred twenty-five days of meetings, dedicated for the most part to improving the use of a wide range of specific project management tools and techniques and to an improvement in understanding of planning and the estimation process associated with it. This approach constituted an ongoing verification of the research’s findings against project management practice and also served as an invaluable resource for the researcher’s professional and practice-oriented development. The results obtained offered fresh insights into the importance of knowledge management in the estimation process, including the “value of not knowing”, the oft-overlooked phenomenon of underestimation and its potential to co-exist with overestimation, and the use of negative buffer management in the critical chain concept to secure project deadlines. The project also highlighted areas of improvement for future research practice that wishes to make use of an inductive approach in order to achieve a socially agreed framework, rather than a theory alone. In addition, improvements were suggested to the various qualitative tools employed in the customized data analysis process.
    • Improved performance high speed network intrusion detection systems (NIDS). A high speed NIDS architectures to address limitations of Packet Loss and Low Detection Rate by adoption of Dynamic Cluster Architecture and Traffic Anomaly Filtration (IADF).

      Mellor, John E.; Awan, Irfan U.; Akhlaq, Monis (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-02-10)
      Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are considered as a vital component in network security architecture. The system allows the administrator to detect unauthorized use of, or attack upon a computer, network or telecommunication infrastructure. There is no second thought on the necessity of these systems however; their performance remains a critical question. This research has focussed on designing a high performance Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) model. The work begins with the evaluation of Snort, an open source NIDS considered as a de-facto IDS standard. The motive behind the evaluation strategy is to analyze the performance of Snort and ascertain the causes of limited performance. Design and implementation of high performance techniques are considered as the final objective of this research. Snort has been evaluated on highly sophisticated test bench by employing evasive and avoidance strategies to simulate real-life normal and attack-like traffic. The test-methodology is based on the concept of stressing the system and degrading its performance in terms of its packet handling capacity. This has been achieved by normal traffic generation; fussing; traffic saturation; parallel dissimilar attacks; manipulation of background traffic, e.g. fragmentation, packet sequence disturbance and illegal packet insertion. The evaluation phase has lead us to two high performance designs, first distributed hardware architecture using cluster-based adoption and second cascaded phenomena of anomaly-based filtration and signature-based detection. The first high performance mechanism is based on Dynamic Cluster adoption using refined policy routing and Comparator Logic. The design is a two tier mechanism where front end of the cluster is the load-balancer which distributes traffic on pre-defined policy routing ensuring maximum utilization of cluster resources. The traffic load sharing mechanism reduces the packet drop by exchanging state information between load-balancer and cluster nodes and implementing switchovers between nodes in case the traffic exceeds pre-defined threshold limit. Finally, the recovery evaluation concept using Comparator Logic also enhance the overall efficiency by recovering lost data in switchovers, the retrieved data is than analyzed by the recovery NIDS to identify any leftover threats. Intelligent Anomaly Detection Filtration (IADF) using cascaded architecture of anomaly-based filtration and signature-based detection process is the second high performance design. The IADF design is used to preserve resources of NIDS by eliminating large portion of the traffic on well defined logics. In addition, the filtration concept augment the detection process by eliminating the part of malicious traffic which otherwise can go undetected by most of signature-based mechanisms. We have evaluated the mechanism to detect Denial of Service (DoS) and Probe attempts based by analyzing its performance on Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) dataset. The concept has also been supported by time-based normalized sampling mechanisms to incorporate normal traffic variations to reduce false alarms. Finally, we have observed that the IADF has augmented the overall detection process by reducing false alarms, increasing detection rate and incurring lesser data loss.
    • Improvement of global access to life-saving medicines. Facing the future.

      Huisingh, Donald; Wang, Chengang; Versteynen, Leo (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012-01-11)
      This research, with the main focus on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, was based on data from the literature, and on questionnaire and interview surveys with the main stakeholders: authorities, drug-developers and NGOs/foundations. It revealed the following determinants, which contributed to the occurrence of drug pricing conflicts in Brazil, Thailand and South Africa: governmental constitutional commitments to supply medicines to poor people, the existence of a local pharmaceutical industry capable of producing generic versions of patented medicines and long histories of disease treatment programmes. The research documented the preferred approaches to increase global access to life-saving medicines for the next decade, which were found to be: public-private-partnerships, prevention measures, dedication of >0.5% of GNP to poor countries, and improvement of national healthcare/insurance systems. Those approaches were integrated into a conceptual framework, which could enable country-level organizations to move beyond the conflict mentality via a ¿Public-Private-Partnership for gradual Self-Sufficiency and Sustainability Model,¿ (P3S3). Within this framework, rich countries should invest >0.5% of their GNP to help to alleviate poverty in poor countries. With these funds, national governments should implement programmes to expand implementation of disease prevention measures and improve national - 4 - healthcare/insurance systems and the quality of the medicines involved. Public-private-partnerships should act as ¿steering-and-controlling¿ organizations to guide the process and to minimise corruption. As a positive message to all who currently lack access to these medicines, the thesis author¿s conclusion is that the use of this model could help to turn the current unsustainable development policies into sustainable ones, and as a consequence, it would contribute to improvements in the quality of life of millions of people in poor countries.
    • Improvements to the modelling of radiowave propagation at millimetre wavelengths. In-depth studies are reported on resonance phenomena in the scattering of spherical ice particles, extinction and backscattering properties of clouds and on the absorption and dispersion spectra of atmospheric gases.

      Watson, P.A.; Papatsoris, Anastassios Dimitriou (University of BradfordDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2010-02-08)
      Various physical mechanisms that affect radiowave propagation at millimetre wavelengths are considered. Current modelling weaknesses are highlighted and new improved models or more appropriate modelling approaches are suggested. Interference and resonance phenomena in the scattering of spherical ice and water particles are reviewed. The long standing problem of the numerous resonances observed in the scattering diagrams of dielectric spheres is answered. The spatial structure and the physical characteristics of non-precipitable ice and water clouds are reviewed. Extinction and back scattering calculations for a wide variety of cloud models over the entire millimetre frequency spectrum are given. Multiple scattering and the effects of super-large drops in clouds are also dealt with. The potential of a spaceborne instrument in deducing information about the vertical structure of various cloud types is examined. Attenuation and reflectivity profiles resulting from various cloud types are calculated for a nadir pointing fixed beam millimetre wave radar operating at 94 GHz. The physics and application of the equation of radiative transfer to millimetre wave propagation in the earth's atmosphere are given and also is the solution of this equation for a typical millimetre wave remote sensing application. The theory of gaseous absorption at millimetre wavelengths is presented and an improved modelling approach is proposed for the calculation of the absorption and dispersion spectra of atmospheric gases. The effects of trace gases on communication systems operating at high altitudes are for the first time reported. Finally the use of the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band for top-side air traffic control/navigation and broadband transmission purposes is studied.
    • Improving Community Pharmacy Consultations for People with Depression

      Silcock, Jonathan; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Alshammari, Adel H.N.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2015)
      Aims The aims of this study were to increase community pharmacists’ willingness and confidence to provide consultations for people with depression, and to enhance patients’ awareness of the pharmacists’ developing role. Research Design To observe pharmacist-patient consultations, the researcher developed a patient scenario. Pharmacist knowledge and attitude questionnaires were adapted, and a skills observation checklist was developed. Assessments of patient satisfaction levels took place before and after pharmacist training, which included a simulated consultation and action planning. The consultations were both video recorded and observed. Participants undertook a short interview with the researcher and each pharmacist developed his/her own plan for continuing professional development (CPD). An exploration of the interview transcripts was undertaken qualitatively. A University Ethics Panel approved the project. Results There were twenty-two pharmacists who took part in the study, comprising eighteen males and four females. MPharm students comprised one female and two males, and community pharmacists made up three females and sixteen males. The quantitative results: It was found that pharmacists possessed appropriate knowledge (the mean score was 75%, which showed that the pharmacists were aware of the safety and action of anti-depressants). The mean score for attitude was 54%, which tends towards the positive. When observing the simulated consultations, the mean score for initiating a consultation session was recorded at 28%. This indicates that the pharmacists were not very interested in initiating rapport with patients. However, the highest mean score calculated was 61%, which corresponded with closing a consultation. For data collection and action, the mean scores were 42% and 35%, respectively, and this indicates the need for improvement in these areas. The qualitative findings: The pharmacists demonstrated good knowledge about anti-depressants and held positive attitudes towards people with depression. However, the pharmacists were not very willing to exercise the responsibilities of their extended role or provide additional services for patients. The pharmacists lacked certain skills and opportunities to be able to enhance the patients’ satisfaction. The pharmacists in this study needed to improve their soft skills in some areas and engage in mutual discussion with patients in order to enhance patients’ expectations with the service provided. Conclusion/discussion The knowledge and attitude of pharmacists were good, but their consultation skills could be improved. Although simulated consultation allowed pharmacists to review their skills and practice the apparent impact on patient care was limited. This study has enable greater understanding of pharmacist strategies when consulting people with depression, and the findings could be used by those developing training programmes for enhancing pharmacists skills.
    • Improving TCP performance over heterogeneous networks : The investigation and design of End to End techniques for improving TCP performance for transmission errors over heterogeneous data networks.

      Mellor, John E.; Fretwell, Rod J.; Alnuem, M.A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2009-08-21)
      Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is considered one of the most important protocols in the Internet. An important mechanism in TCP is the congestion control mechanism which controls TCP sending rate and makes TCP react to congestion signals. Nowadays in heterogeneous networks, TCP may work in networks with some links that have lossy nature (wireless networks for example). TCP treats all packet loss as if they were due to congestion. Consequently, when used in networks that have lossy links, TCP reduces sending rate aggressively when there are transmission (non-congestion) errors in an uncongested network. One solution to the problem is to discriminate between errors; to deal with congestion errors by reducing TCP sending rate and use other actions for transmission errors. In this work we investigate the problem and propose a solution using an end-to-end error discriminator. The error discriminator will improve the current congestion window mechanism in TCP and decide when to cut and how much to cut the congestion window. We have identified three areas where TCP interacts with drops: congestion window update mechanism, retransmission mechanism and timeout mechanism. All of these mechanisms are part of the TCP congestion control mechanism. We propose changes to each of these mechanisms in order to allow TCP to cope with transmission errors. We propose a new TCP congestion window action (CWA) for transmission errors by delaying the window cut decision until TCP receives all duplicate acknowledgments for a given window of data (packets in flight). This will give TCP a clear image about the number of drops from this window. The congestion window size is then reduced only by number of dropped packets. Also, we propose a safety mechanism to prevent this algorithm from causing congestion to the network by using an extra congestion window threshold (tthresh) in order to save the safe area where there are no drops of any kind. The second algorithm is a new retransmission action to deal with multiple drops from the same window. This multiple drops action (MDA) will prevent TCP from falling into consecutive timeout events by resending all dropped packets from the same window. A third algorithm is used to calculate a new back-off policy for TCP retransmission timeout based on the network¿s available bandwidth. This new retransmission timeout action (RTA) helps relating the length of the timeout event with current network conditions, especially with heavy transmission error rates. The three algorithms have been combined and incorporated into a delay based error discriminator. The improvement of the new algorithm is measured along with the impact on the network in terms of congestion drop rate, end-to-end delay, average queue size and fairness of sharing the bottleneck bandwidth. The results show that the proposed error discriminator along with the new actions toward transmission errors has increased the performance of TCP. At the same time it has reduced the load on the network compared to existing error discriminators. Also, the proposed error discriminator has managed to deliver excellent fairness values for sharing the bottleneck bandwidth. Finally improvements to the basic error discriminator have been proposed by using the multiple drops action (MDA) for both transmission and congestion errors. The results showed improvements in the performance as well as decreases in the congestion loss rates when compared to a similar error discriminator.
    • In vitro chemically-induced DNA damage in cancer patients and healthy individuals. The effect of genotoxic compounds in cells from polyposis coli, colon cancer patients and healthy individuals.

      Anderson, Diana; Kurzawa-Zegota, Malgorzata (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology Group., 2011-11-09)
      In the present study DNA damage was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes from polyposis coli and colorectal cancer patients, treated with different dietary and environmental compounds and compared with lymphocytes from healthy individuals. In addition, confounding factors such as age, gender, alcohol intake and smoking habits were taken into consideration. The assays used in this study included the Comet assay, the Micronucleus assay, the Micronucleus ¿ FISH assay and the sister chromatid exchange assay. The food mutagens, PhIP and IQ, as well as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) induced a dose dependent increase in the DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities in all tested groups regardless of confounding factors. Prior to experiments physicochemical characterisation of nanoparticles was conducted. In the presence of the flavonoids, quercetin and rutin that were acting in an antioxidant manner, the DNA damage resulting from the highest doses of food mutagens was significantly reduced. Thus, dietary supplementation with flavonoid-rich vegetables and fruits may prove very effective in protection against oxidative stress. The polyposis coli and colon cancer patients were more susceptible to food mutagens, PhIP and IQ, as well as TiO2 NPs, and in the majority of cases had a higher level of DNA damage in the Comet assay and higher cytogenetic damage in the Micronucleus assay. In the final project, twelve frequently encountered (NewGeneris) chemical compounds were evaluated to establish their damaging potential in lymphocytes and spermatozoa from healthy donors. The highest damage was produced by DNA reactive aldehydes, food mutagens and benzo[a]pyrene when assessed with the neutral and alkaline Comet assay with and without metabolic activation.
    • In vitro studies on genotoxicity and gene expression in spermatogenic cells: mechanisms and assay development

      Brinkworth, Martin H.; Anderson, Diana; Habas, Khaled S.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2015)
      Spermatogenesis is a complex process of male germ cell development from diploid spermatogonia to haploid fertile spermatozoa. Apoptosis plays a vital role in limiting cell numbers and eliminating defective germ cells. This requires novel gene products, and precise and well-coordinated programmes of gene expression. It is therefore possible that a disruption of transcription factor function would significantly impact germ cell development. The present work was undertaken to use Staput separation followed by culture of purified germ cells of rodent testis since mammalian spermatogenesis cannot yet be recreated in vitro. Specificity of separation was assessed using immunocytochemistry to identify spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids. The genotoxins H2O2, doxorubicin, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, 6-mercaptopurine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, methyl methanesulphonate and ethyl methanesulphonate were investigated. Cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations for each agent. DNA damage and apoptosis were measured by Comet and TUNEL assay respectively. Up-regulation of expression of the transcription factors Tbpl1, FHL5 and Gtf2a1l that are important post-meiotically, were examined using RT- PCR and qPCR. Protein production was evaluated using Western blotting. Tbpl1, FHL5 and Gtf2a1l were cloned in-frame into the inducible expression vector pET/100-TOPO. The recombinant clones were induced and successful expression of the proteins in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The recombinant clones obtained were used to demonstrate genotoxin induced impairment of gene expression. Thus, Staput-isolated rodent testicular germ cells seem to be a suitable model to study genotoxicity in vitro yielding result comparable to those reported in vivo. Furthermore, the work shows that genotoxins can impair gene expression.
    • In-vitro inhalation performance for formoterol dry powder and metred dose inhalers. In-vitro characteristics of the emitted dose from the formoterol dry powder and metred dose inhalers to identify the influence of inhalation flow, inhalation volume and the number of inhalation per dose.

      Assi, Khaled H.; Chrystyn, Henry; Alaboud, S. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2013-11-20)
      The present work aimed at assessing the dose emission and aerodynamic particle size characteristics of formoterol fumarate from Atimos Modullite, a metered dose inhaler (MDI) and Foradil Aeroliser, Easyhaler, and Oxis Turbuhaler dry powder inhalers (DPI) at different inhalation flow rates and volumes using in vitro methodology. Recognised methods have been adopted and validated to generate the results. The in vitro characteristics of formoterol were measured according to standard pharmacopeial methodology with adaptation to simulate routine patient use. The dose emission from the Atimos Modulite was determined using inhalation volumes of 4 and 2 L and inhalation flows of 10, 28.3, 60, and 90 L/min. The %nominal dose emitted was consistent between the various flow rates and inhalation volumes of 4 and 2L. The particle size distribution was measured using an Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI) combined with a mixing inlet valve to measure particle size distribution at inhalation flow rates below 30 L/min. The particle size distribution of formoterol from Atimos Modulite was measured using inhalation flows of 15, 28.3, 50, and 60 L/min with and without different spacers, Aerochamber and Volumatic. The mean fine particle dose (%nominal dose) through an Atimos without spacer were 53.52% (2.51), 54.1% (0.79), 53.37% (0.81), 50.43% (1.92) compared to Aerochamber 63.62% (0.44), 63.86% (0.72), 64.72% (0.47), 59.96% (1.97) and Volumatic 62.40% (0.28),63.41% (0.52), 64.71% (0.61), 58.43% (0.73), respectively. A small decrease in the fine particle dose was observed as the inhalation flow increased, but this was not significant. The respective mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) increased as the flow rate was increased from 15 of 60 L/min. Results also suggests that the use of spacers provides better lung deposition for patients with problems using MDI. The dose emission from the Foradil Aeroliser was determined using inhalation volumes of 4 and 2 L, at inhalation flows of 10, 15, 20, 28.3, 60, and 90 L/min plus two inhalations per single dose. The %nominal dose emitted using 2 L inhalation volume was approximately half when compared to results obtained using inhalation volume of 4 L. A significantly (p<0.001) higher amount of drug was also emitted from Easyhaler® at inhalation volume of 4 L through flow rates of 10, 20, 28.3, 40, and 60 L/min compared 2 L. Similar results were observed through Oxis Turbuhaler at inhalation flow rates of 10, 20, 28.3, 40, and 60 L/min. Comparative studies were also carried out to evaluate the particle size distribution of formoterol through the DPIs. The nominal fine particle dose through Aeroliser using inhalation flows of 10, 20, 28.3, 60 and 90 L/min were 9.23%, 14.70 %, 21.37%, 28.93%, and 39.70% for the 4 L and 4.17%, 5.55%, 7.28%, 8.41%, and 11.08% for the 2 L, respectively. The respective MMAD significantly (p<0.001) decreased with increasing flow rates. Aeroliser performance showed significant (p<0.001) increase in the % nominal fine particle dose for two inhalations compared to one inhalation at both 4 and 2 L. The Easyhaler was measured using inhalation flows of 10, 20, 28.3, 40, 60 L/min. The nominal fine particle dose were 19.03%, 27.09%, 36.89%, 49.71% and 49.25% for the 4 L and 9.14%, 15.44%, 21.02%, 29.41%, 29.14% for the 2 L, respectively. The respective MMAD significantly (p<0.001) decreased with increasing flow rates. Easyhaler performance at both 4 and 2 L showed no significant differences between one and two inhalations at low flow rates (10, 20, 28.3), but this was significant (p<0.05) at higher flow rates (40 and 60 L/min). The Oxis Turbuhaler was also measured using inhalation flows of 10, 20, 28.3, 40, 60 L/min. The nominal fine particle dose were 12.87%, 24.51%, 28.25%, 34.61%, 40.53% for the 4 L and 8.55%, 15.31%, 21.36%, 19.53%, 22.31% for the 2 L, respectively. Turbuhaler performance showed significant (p<0.05) differences between one and two inhalations at varying flow rates 2 L inhalation volumes, but not at 4 L. The use of Foradil Aeroliser delivers small particles as the Oxis Turbuhaler using two inhalations hence delivering formoterol deep into the lungs. Also, this thesis shows that high flow resistance of Turbuhaler will indeed influence the ability of patients with severe asthma or children to use the system. Beside, Easyhaler produced the highest drug delivery to the lungs, thus, making it a more desirable system to use, especially for children and asthma sufferers.
    • Index revisions, market quality and the cost of equity capital.

      Mazouz, Khelifa; Freeman, Mark C.; Aldaya, Wael H. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-11-20)
      This thesis examines the impact of FTSE 100 index revisions on the various aspects of stock market quality and the cost of equity capital. Our study spans over the period 1986¿2009. Our analyses indicate that the index membership enhances all aspects of liquidity, including trading continuity, trading cost and price impact. We also show that the liquidity premium and the cost of equity capital decrease significantly after additions, but do not exhibit any significant change following deletions. The finding that investment opportunities increases after additions, but do not decline following deletions suggests that the benefits of joining an index are likely to be permanent. This evidence is consistent with the investor awareness hypothesis view of Chen et al. (2004, 2006), which suggests that investors¿ awareness improve when a stock becomes a member of an index, but do not diminish after it is removal from the index. Finally, we report significant changes in the comovement of stock returns with the FTSE 100 index around the revision events. These changes are driven mainly by noise-related factors and partly by fundamental-related factors.
    • Indigenising post-war state reconstruction. The Case of Liberia and Sierra Leone.

      Francis, David J.; Porto, Joao Gomes; Doe, Samuel G. (University of BradfordThe School of Social and International Studies, 2010-11-11)
      Current approaches to post-war state reconstruction are primarily dominated by the liberal peace thesis. These approaches tend to ignore the indigenous institutions, societal resources and cultural agencies of post-conflict societies, although such entities are rooted in the sociological, historical, political and environmental realities of these societies. Such universalised and `best practice¿ approaches, more often than not, tend to reproduce artificial states. The Poro and Sande are the largest indigenous sodality institutions in the `hinterlands¿¿a pejorative term attributed to rural Liberia and Sierra Leone. Both the Poro and Sande exercise spiritual, political, economic and social authority. In this thesis, I use critical realism and the case study approach to investigate: a) the extent to which the liberal peace practitioners who are leading state reconstruction in Liberia and Sierra Leone recognised the role and potential utility of the Poro and Sande institutions; b) the extent to which the Poro and Sande were engaged; and c) the implications for the quality and viability of the reconstructed states. This evidence-based research suggests that the liberal peace project sidelined indigenous institutions, including the Poro and Sande, in the post-war recovery and rebuilding exercises. The disregard for indigenous and emerging resources in the context of state reconstruction in Liberia and Sierra Leone has contributed to the resurgence of 19th century counter-hegemonic resistance from the sodality-governed interior of both countries. At the same time, the reconstructed states are drifting back towards their pre-war status quo. Authority structures remain fragmented, kleptocracy is being restored, webs of militarised patronage networks are being emboldened, and spaces for constructive dialogues are shrinking. This thesis underscores the need for indigenisation as a complementary strategy to help reverse the deterioration, and to maximise gains from massive investments in peacebuilding.
    • Indoor atmospheric radon in Hamadan, Iran. Atmospheric radon indoors and around Hamadan city in Iran.

      Gillmore, Gavin; Jabarivasal, Naghi (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2012-06-29)
      Radon gas may be a major air quality hazard issue inside the home. Radon (222Rn) comes from the natural breakdown of radioactive uranium (238U) via radium (226Ra) in soil, rocks, and water. Radon and its progeny contribute more than 50% of the total radiation dose to the human population due to inhalation; it can result in severe and fatal lung disease. This investigation has determined the radon concentrations in seventy-seven domestic houses in a mountainous area of Hamadan in Iran which were monitored using track-etch detectors of type CR-39 exposed for three month periods. The arithmetic mean radon concentration in Hamadan buildings was determined to be 80 Bqm-3 and also an average indoor annual effective dose equivalent for the Hamadan city population was calculated as 1.5 mSv. Maximum radon concentrations were noted during the winter and spring season. In addition to this, 28 water wells were monitored by utilizing a Sarad Doseman detector at hourly intervals over extended periods. Radon measurements were also carried out in the nearby Alisadr show cave, using Solid State Nuclear Track etch Detectors (SSNTDs) during the winter and the spring periods. In the cave, the average annual effective geometric and arithmetic mean dose for guides was 28.1 and 34.2 mSv respectively. The dose received by visitors was very low. Hamadan city is built on alluvial fan deposits which are the source of the local water supply. The data from the wells shows that the groundwater in these alluvial deposits influences the flux of radon. The atmospheric radon concentration measurement in wells above the water surface ranged from 1,000 Bqm-3 to 36,600 Bqm-3. There is evidence that radon-rich ground waters play a significant role in the transport of radon through the alluvial fan system. There is evidence that the radon concentrations in homes in Hamadan are greatly influenced by the porous nature of the underlying geology and the movement of groundwater within the alluvial fan.
    • Industry stucture, performance and foreign direct investment: The case of Korea. An empirical study of the impact of foreign direct investment on manufacturing performance in the Republic of Korea.

      Buckley, Peter J.; Cope, Michael A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management and Administration, 2010-02-17)
      The objective of this thesis is to investigate the influence and. impact of foreign direct investment inflow into the Republic of Korea. It is also an investigation of the development of the Korean economy. The research investigates the relationship between foreign direct investment and the development of the Korean economy by examining both the macro and micro aspects of the relationship between the two. This involves considering the performance of the Korean economy as a whole and then taking a more detailed approach by treating the analysis of the relationship at the level of individual industrial sectors. It also involves investigating the role played by the Korean government in the development of the economy and the control of foreign direct investment inflow. The analysis uses a two stage approach, first by taking an exploratory correlation analysis of the interaction between the inflow and a series of key variables, which allows a number of tentative conclusions to be drawn. By using these conclusions in conjunction with the literature survey we were able to analyse the nature and impact of foreign direct investment in Korea using regression analysis. The analysis revealed that except for isolated instances, the influence of the inflow of foreign direct investment at either the macro-or micro level is long-term. The positive effect of the inflow appears to be strongest on Gross National Product and Gross Domestic Product and on exports rather than imports. The results from the principal industrial sectors suggest that greatest impact was when the inflow was associated with larger firms. Furthermore the results suggest that the country of origin of the investment may well have an influence. In addition the research highlights the importance of the role played by the Korean government.
    • Inflation and economic growth relationship in the West African Monetary Zone

      Jalilian, Hossein; Baimbridge, Mark J.; Nwosu, Chioma P.
      Inflation and output growth relationship is of interest to policymakers and researchers. In the West African Monetary Zone, the attainment of low inflation rate is considered as one of the convergence criteria for the successful implementation of monetary union in the zone. Although there has been empirical evidence that the relationship between inflation and output growth in the WAMZ is non-linear, the question yet to be answered is, “at what level is inflation detrimental to economic growth?” This paper extends the link of analysis by investigating the optimal inflation for the WAMZ countries using the quadratic approach to threshold estimation. The findings drawing from economic theory and analysis suggests that inflation rate in the WAMZ is significantly associated with lower growth only after it reaches 12.86 percent. The result further indicates that there are significant differences in the inflation threshold levels in the WAMZ countries. The findings of this research are not surprising given the institutional features and structure of the different countries in the zone. The findings of the research suggest that monetary authorities in the WAMZ countries could accommodate inflation rate up to the threshold level, even when that is higher than what is currently being targeted in the zone, so as not to stifle growth in the area. Also, although the WAMZ countries belong to the same geographical area, which could enhance group formation; there could be other sources of heterogeneity like different political, legal, economic, and national policies that drive individual growth processes in the zone.
    • The influence of acid and direct azo dyes and their intermediates on the degradation of wool keratin. The characterisation by yarn strength measurements of the degradation of wool under conditions relevant to dyeing and of the keratin degradation products, by fractionation, electrophoresis and amino acid analysis.

      Burdett, B. C.; McComish, John (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Colour Chemistry and Colour Technology., 2010-01-21)
      The degradation of wool keratin under conditions relevant to those of wool dyeing was investigated using the techniques of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), ion exchange gel chromatography, and amino acid analysis. Physical testing of the treated and untreated wool was also carried out to determine the physical changes occurring, parameters used being percentage elongation at the break, and the breaking strain of the fibre. Samples of wool keratin were immersed in various aqueous solutions at 1000C for 24 hours and the filtered, aqueous, oxidised extracts were analysed* The solutions used varied only in the dye, or dye intermediate present in the treatment solution. All treatment baths contained 10% owf 1.02 x 10 -2 MSulphuric VI acid; 10%owf 7.04x 10 -3 MSodium sulphate VI ; A 100 :1 liquor ratio was used in each case. Some of the dye intermediates showed a marked catalytic effect, particularly in their effect on breaking strain, a decrease of 40% in some cases. The GPC profiles of the extracted proteins were examined in detail and compared against previous workers' results. An explanation of the behaviour of the dyes and intermediates was proposed. The amino acid composition data of the extracted and fractionated proteins were compared against various morphological components extracted by other workers, as was the total gelatin obtained from each treatment.