• The impact of domestic water user cultures on water efficiency interventions in the South East of England: Lessons for water demand management.

      Sharp, Liz; Hopkinson, Peter G.; Knamiller, C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Geography and Environmental Science, 2012-01-11)
      The need for a more sustainable approach to water consumption has increasingly gained attention in the last decade. The domestic sector accounts for over half of abstracted water in the UK and, as such, has become a major target for water efficiency interventions. Current research and water efficiency interventions are dominated by a positivist approach, focusing on a limited range of factors that can be quantitatively measured. This thesis questions the dominant approach and argues that a more holistic overview of water efficiency can be achieved through the consideration of socio-technical and behavioural theories. Taking a more constructivist approach, this research draws on four theories from socio-technical and behavioural fields and combines them to create a framework for the analysis of water efficiency interventions. The framework is applied to two case studies, exploring water users¿ perceptions of water, water supply, personal water use, and their responses to the water efficiency interventions. The case studies were selected to provide examples of current mainstream approaches to water demand management. Research methods used included semi-structured interviews and observation. The research findings support the argument that the current dominant approach to domestic water efficiency interventions is limited and, in some cases, ineffectual. Issues of trust, knowledge, motivation and the relationships between water users and water companies were raised. The thesis concludes that the use of a constructivist perspective could help to provide a more effective approach to understanding and improving water demand management.
    • The impact of E-marketing practices on market performance of small business enterprises. An empirical investigation.

      Trueman, Myfanwy; Fukukawa, Kyoko; El-Gohary, Hatem O.A.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-05-19)
      The major aims of this research are to explore and analyse the different factors affecting the adoption of Electronic Marketing (E-Marketing) by industrial and trading small business enterprises (SBEs); to explore the different forms, implementation levels and tools of E-Marketing used by these SBE and to investigate the relationship between E-Marketing adoption and industrial and trading SBEs marketing performance. It aims to develop a theoretical model that can help to understand and interpret these relationships and seeks to evaluate the potential of E-Marketing for SBEs in developed countries (UK) and developing countries (Egypt). This work builds on previous research in the fields of E-marketing and SBEs and adds to the relatively limited empirical research that has been conducted on E-Marketing in a small business context. This research develops and validates a conceptual model based on systematic and in-depth analysis of the literature in the field as well as the results of two exploratory studies conducted in Egypt and UK. It utilises a post-positivist research philosophy with a triangulation approach, in which quantitative and qualitative data is collected based on survey strategy through questionnaires, focus group and semi-structured interviews to address different levels of the study. Even though triangulation requires a commitment to greater amounts of effort, time and funds, it has the advantage of removing the bias that is often associated with the use of a single technique. This research finds that E-Marketing adoption by SBEs is significantly affected by their perception of E-Marketing relative advantage (usefulness), ease of use, compatibility as well as the SBE internal factors such as owner skills and support, available resources, organisational culture, type of products, international orientation and SBE size. On the other hand, the SBE internal factors have a positive direct impact on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) related factors such as perceived ease of use, perceived relative advantage and perceived compatibility. These findings indicate that Internet Marketing and E-Mail Marketing are the most commonly used E-Marketing tools and that E-Marketing adoption has a strong positive impact on current and future marketing performance of SBEs. In terms of contribution to knowledge, this study provides an insight for entrepreneurs, policy makers, practitioners, researchers, and educators by providing a clearer view and deep understanding of the issues related to E-Marketing adoption and practices by small business enterprises as opposed to large companies. It addresses some research gaps in the field, particularly in terms of the impact of E-Marketing on marketing performance. The research model has been tested by a major survey of UK SBEs with a response rate of 32%, and has been robustly tested for reliability and validity. Moreover, the exploratory survey in Egypt indicated that there is another rich seam for investigation in terms of E-Marketing in developing countries. Overall the theory in the field of E-Marketing is still in its infancy stage and is not yet well established. This study can be considered as a step towards theory building in the field of E-marketing and has brought to light a number of concepts for the practice of E-Marketing by SBEs.
    • Impact of eWOM Source Characteristics on The Purchasing Intention.

      Liao, Mei-Na; Reynolds, Nina L.; Shabsogh, Nisrein Mohammad Ahmad (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, 2013)
      The use of e-mail communication between consumers has been growing and companies are seeking to increase their understanding of this type of private communication medium between consumers. The privacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics of e-mail make it an important communication medium for consumers. Consumers use e-mail to exchange a variety of information including electronic word of mouth (eWOM) about products, services and organisations. The travel industry, the context of this study, is increasingly being delivered online. Understanding what influences consumers and how consumers evaluate eWOM will increase the travel industry’s knowledge about its consumer base. This study aims to contribute to existing knowledge on the impact of eWOM on consumer purchase intention. Its focus is on an interpersonal context where eWOM is sent from the source to the receiver in an e-mail about holiday destination. The study, which was undertaken from a positivist perspective, used qualitative and quantitative research techniques to better understand the influence of eWOM on purchase intention. The literature on word of mouth (WOM) and eWOM was initially examined to identify the major factors that have an influence on the receiver of eWOM. Consistent with previous studies, both perceived expertise and similarity were identified as source characteristics that have an influence on the receiver’s purchase intention. The literature also indicated that trustworthiness belief would have a key effect on the influence of eWOM on the attitude of the receiver. Consequently, this study examined each trustworthiness dimension – ability, benevolence, and integrity – with respect to its role in the influence of eWOM on purchase intention. The literature review also revealed that certain receiver characteristics were important in the process of influence, especially consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. The relationships between the variables identified were further developed into the research model, which has its roots in the theory of reasoned-action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) and the dual process theory of influence (Deutsch and Gerard, 1955). Methodologically, a scenario-building approach to developing authentic e-mail was used. The qualitative data gathered from eight focus group discussions were analysed using “framework analysis” (Ritchie and Spencer, 1994) to develop eight scenarios. This was then used to manipulate the moderating variables in the scenario. Three manipulations, each with two levels, were included: eWOM direction “positive and negative”; source characteristic of “expert/non-expert”; and source characteristic of “similar/non-similar”. These scenarios formed part of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of University of Bradford students. The final number of usable questionnaires was 477. Structural equation modelling was used to determine the validity of the conceptual model and test the hypotheses. In particular, multiple group analysis was used to assess both the measurement and structural models, and to identify the impact of the eWOM direction. The theoretical model that describes the relationships between the exogenous variables (source’s and receiver’s characteristics) and the endogenous variables (trustworthiness dimensions, interpersonal influence and purchase intention) was accepted. The research findings provided empirical evidence on the difference in the impact of positive and negative eWOM on purchase intention. The source’s and receiver’s characteristics and related trustworthiness beliefs, (i.e. ability, benevolence, and integrity) are influenced by the direction of eWOM. The findings show that positive and negative eWOM differ with respect to how they impact on consumers’ attitudes and intentions. For instance, consumers have more belief in the credibility of a source who provides negative eWOM. However, the overall influence of the source’s characteristics tends to be stronger with positive than with negative eWOM. The findings of this study provide insights for both academics and practitioners to understand the potential of eWOM. This might be tailored to help develop more private relationships with customers through e-mail marketing strategies that incorporate eWOM. Negative eWOM is more credible but less directly useful to marketers. Nevertheless, it is important for marketers to realise the significance of managing dissatisfaction and to harness the power of negative eWOM. Similarly, positive eWOM is effective especially when the source is both expert and similar. This might be translated into online marketing campaigns that use consumer-to-consumer discussions in addition to viral marketing. Future research might test the model in different contexts, (e.g. financial services), to provide a more comprehensive picture of the influence of eWOM on purchase intention.
    • The Impact of External Shocks on Nigeria’s GDP Performance within the Context of the Global Financial Crisis

      Jalilian, Hossein; Arora, Rashmi; Akpan, Nkereuwem I.
      This research examines the impact of external shocks on Nigeria’s output performance for the period 1981 – 2015. It aims to bring to the fore the importance of considering external shocks during policy design and implementation. The multivariate VAR and VECM frameworks were used to evaluate the impact of the shock variables on Nigeria’s output performance and to achieve the stated objectives. Findings show that the external shock and domestic policy variables have short-run effects on Nigeria’s output performance. Also, all the measures of external shocks and domestic policies display some viable information in explaining the variabilities in Nigeria’s output performance over the horizon. The comparison between the results of the VECM and the unrestricted VAR shows that the unrestricted VAR model outperformed the VECM. The overall result of the study confirms the view about the vulnerability of the Nigerian economy to external shocks. These shocks explain more than half of the variance in real output performance and have varying effects on output performance in Nigeria. The dynamic response of output performance to each of the defined shock variables show that output performance responds rapidly to the shock variables, while its response to the domestic economic variables is seemingly moderate. Finally, the variance decomposition show that international crude oil price and terms of trade have the largest share in accounting for the variability in output performance, followed closely by the shares of capital inflows and monetary policy.
    • The impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in developing countries : Empirical evidence and policy implications

      Potts, David J.; Weiss, John A.; Porojan, Anca; Wu, Zongmin; Ruzibuka, John S. (University of BradfordBradford Centre for International Development. School of Social and International Studies, 2012)
      This study examines the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in developing countries. Based on deduction from the relevant theoretical and empirical literature, the study tests the following hypotheses regarding the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth. First, fiscal deficits have significant positive or negative impact on economic growth in developing countries. Second, the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth depends on the size of deficits as a percentage of GDP – that is, there is a non-linear relationship between fiscal deficits and economic growth. Third, the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth depends on the ways in which deficits are financed. Fourth, the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth depends on what deficit financing is used for. The study also examines whether there are any significant regional differences in terms of the relationship between fiscal deficits and economic growth in developing countries. The study uses panel data for thirty-one developing countries covering the period 1972- 2001, which is analysed based on the econometric estimation of a dynamic growth model using the Arellano and Bond (1991) generalised method of moments (GMM) technique. Overall, the results suggest the following. First, fiscal deficits per se have no any significant positive or negative impact on economic growth. Second, by contrast, when the deficit is substituted by domestic and foreign financing, we find that both domestic and foreign financing of fiscal deficits exerts a negative and statistically significant impact on economic growth with a lag. Third, we find that both categories of economic classification of government expenditure, namely, capital and current expenditure, have no significant impact on economic growth. When government expenditure is disaggregated on the basis of a functional classification, the results suggest that spending on education, defence and economic services have positive but insignificant impact on growth, while spending on health and general public services have positive and significant impact. Fourth, in terms of regional differences with regard to the estimated relationships, the study finds that, while there are some regional differences between the four different regions represented in our sample of thirty-one developing countries - namely, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa – these differences are not statistically significant. On the basis of these findings, the study concludes that fiscal deficits per se are not necessarily good or bad for economic growth in developing countries; how the deficits are financed and what they are used for matters. In addition, the study concludes that there are no statistically significant regional differences in terms of the relationship between fiscal deficits and economic growth in developing countries.
    • Impact of HIV and AIDS on intergenerational knowledge formation, retention and transfer and its implication for both sectoral and summative, governances in Namibia.

      Not named; Mameja, Jerry (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, School of Social and International Studies, 2015-06-22)
      In this thesis, I argue for a move from the preoccupation with the obvious (crude and quantifiable impacts), towards critically examining the subtle (less than obvious impacts), which will allow us to deal with adversities (the likes of HIV and AIDS) in the most effective ways. The thesis adopts the summative governance framework to demonstrate how our preoccupation with the quantifiable impacts shrouds our intellectual and practical ability to deal with the subtle impacts of AIDS. Governance is hypothesised to emerge amidst turbulent, unpredictable, messy, complex and dynamic path conditions predicated upon certain orders of criticality, including but not limited to the process of knowledge formation, retention and transfer. The thesis suggests that the evolution of governance from nascent to fully institutionalised mechanisms of control is in itself a product of the evolution of knowledge. Notwithstanding, HIV and AIDS constrain the emergence of governance through impacting the process of knowledge formation, retention and transfer. Resultantly, these impacts are not merely additive and isolated to the sectoral governances, but are summative, intergenerational and structured, and potentially endanger the fundamental systems of governance. The pre and post independence induced vulnerabilities of Namibia are presented to demonstrate that the country is an engrossing, but yet a perilous mix of the past and the present. Whilst Namibia aspires for a democratic, non-racial, progressive society, the thesis demonstrates that due to constraints engendered by HIV and AIDS this proceeds on terms and conditions that by no means guarantee a happy outcome.
    • The impact of intellectual capital and balanced scorecard implementation on firm performance

      Li, Jing; Mazooz, Khelifa; Al Maskari, Ghadna S.S.
      The connotation that intellectual capital (IC) replaces physical assets as the major source of competitive advantage (CA) is now generally accepted in both management and accounting literature. Thus, IC management has become a major concern for management regarding enhancing firm performance (FP). The main objective of this thesis is to examine the relationship between IC and FP and whether this relationship is direct or indirect through the firm’s CA, IC management tool use (through balanced scorecard (BSC) implementation) and the success in the use of the IC management tool. To achieve this objective, this thesis is divided into three research frameworks. The first framework examines the mediating effect of CA on the relationship between IC and FP. The second framework focuses on the mediating effect of BSC implementation on the relationship between IC and firms’ CA and performance. The third framework investigates the mediating effect of the success factors and BSC implementation success on the relationship between BSC implementation extent, CA and FP. This study used both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data were collected using a questionnaire sent to 192 Omani firms with a response rate of 54%. Depending on the survey participants’ willingness and availability, 32 interviews were also conducted in order to support the results from the survey further. The results suggest that the relationship between IC and FP is indirect through the mediation impact of the extent and success of BSC implementation, the success factors and CA.
    • Impact of material attributes & process parameters on critical quality attributes of the amorphous solid dispersion products obtained using hot melt extrusion

      Sabnis, Aniket D.
      The feasibility of hot melt extrusion (HME) was explored for development of amorphous solid dispersion systems. Controlled release formulations were developed using a cellulose based derivative, AffinisolTMHPMC 100cP and 4M grades. BCS class II drugs ibuprofen and posaconazole were selected due to their difference in glass transition temperature and lipophilicity. This study focused on investigation of the impact the material attributes and process parameters on the critical quality attributes in preparation of amorphous solid dispersions using hot melt extrusion. The critical quality attributes were sub divided into three main attributes of material, process and product. Rheology of ibuprofen-Affinisol 100cP from melt phase to extrudate phase was tracked. A partial factorial design was carried out to investigate the critical parameters affecting HME. For optimisation of 40%IBU-Affinisol 100cP blends, a feed rate of 0.6kg/hr, screw speed of 500rpm and screw configuration with two mixing elements were found to be optimum for single phase extrudates. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was found to be an indirect technique of choice in predicting the maximum ibuprofen drug load within extrudates. Prediction was based on the prepared extrudates without charging them to stability conditions. An alternative strategy of incorporation of di-carboxylic acids to increase the dissolution of posaconazole-Affinisol 4M blends was investigated. Succinic acid and L- malic acid incorporation was found to increase the dissolution of posaconazole. Although, the extrudates crystallised out quicker than the naïve posaconazole-Affinisol 4M, but free posaconazole formed eutectic and co-crystal with succinic and L-malic acid within extrudates. This lead to an increase in dissolution of the extrudates compared to day 0.
    • Impact of mixed solvent on co-crystal solubility, ternary diagrams and crystallisation scale-up. Crystallisations of Isonicotinamide ¿Benzoic Acid Co-crystals from Ethanol ¿Water Co-solvent System.

      Blagden, Nicholas; Munshi, Tasnim; Redha, Batul H. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2013-11-20)
      The production of stable solid crystalline material is an important issue in the pharmaceutical industry and the challenge to control the desired active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with the specific chemical and physical properties has led to more development in the drug industry. Increasing the solubility and the dissolution of the drug will increase its bioavailability; therefore the solubility can be improved with the change in the preparation method. The formation of co-crystals has emerged as a new alternate to the salts, hydrates and solvate methods since the molecules that cannot be formed by the usual methods might crystallise in the form of co-crystals. Co-crystals are multicomponent crystals which can be known as supramolecules and are constructed by the non covalent bonds between the desired former and co-former. Therefore the synthon approach was utilised to design co-crystals with the specific properties, this involves the understanding of the intermolecular interactions between these synthons. These interaction forces can be directed to control the crystal packing in the design of the new crystalline solid with the desired chemical and physical properties. The most familiar synthon was the amide group with its complementary carboxylic group, in this work isonicotinamide and benzoic acid were chosen to design co-crystal and much literature exist that introduce the determination of co-crystal growth from these two compounds. The growth of co-crystals was carried out in water, ethanol and ethanol / water mixed solvent (30 - 90 % ethanol) by utilising the Cryo-Compact circulator. Co-crystals (1:1) and (2:1) were grown in ethanol and water respectively and a mixture of both phases were grown in the mixed solvent. All the phases were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman, Infrared and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The solubility of isonicotinamide, benzoic acid, co-crystals (1:1) and (2:1) in water, ethanol and ethanol/water mixed solvent (30 - 90 % ethanol) were determined at 25 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C by utilising the React-Array Microvate. It was important to understand some of the thermodynamic factors which control the formation of these polymorphs such as the change in the enthalpy and the change in the entropy. Also it was important to study the pH behaviour during dissolution of the former, co-former and co-crystals in water, ethanol and ethanol/water mixed solvent (30 - 90 % ethanol) in-order to examine the affect of the solvent composition on the solubility and to identify if some ions were formed during the dissociation and how this could affects the formation of co-crystals. A discussion has been introduced in this research of how similar solubility of the compounds maps the formation of the typical ternary phase diagram of the mixture of 1:1 while compounds with different solubility maps the formation of skewed phase diagram as shown in section In this project an isotherm ternary phase diagram at 20 °C and 40 °C was constructed to map the behaviour of benzoic acid and isonicotinamide and to show all possible phases formed and the regions where all phases are represented in the ternary phase diagram were determined by the slurry method. The ternary phase diagram was used to design a drawn out and cooling crystallisation at 100 cm3 solution of 50 % ethanol / water mixed solvent and a study of the impact of seeds of co-crystals 1:1 on the cooling crystallisation method.
    • The Impact of Oil Revenue on the Iranian Economy

      Jalilian, Hossein; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Olfati, Ronak (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2018)
      This study aims to identify the effects of oil income on economic growth in Iran over the period 1955-2014. The empirical literature indicates that countries with natural resources are growing more slowly than their counterparts. However, the results from this literature are far from conclusive, particularly in regard to the role played by oil-rich countries. Needless to say, this role depends on other factors as well, including the political situation in the country, the quality of institutions, and the efficacy of the financial system. Some empirical research has found that natural resources, particularly oil, can have a positive impact on the output of a country. although natural resources are not a factor of production in growth theories, studies have used different growth frameworks in order to discover whether having natural resources is a blessing or a curse. In line with recent studies, this work uses an augmented neoclassical growth model to develop a theoretical framework where oil enters the long-term output of the country through saving and investment. Overall, the results suggests that oil income has a positive impact on the level of output per capita in Iran. The findings of the econometric results are in line with the historical analysis of the study. Since different methods and proxies were used, a total of eight models were estimated. Interestingly, when PRIVY is used as an index of financial development, the result of the study changes and oil no longer has a significant impact on the economy. However, this can be translated to an inefficient allocation of credit to the private sector.
    • Impact of oil revenue volatility on the real exchange rate and the structure of economy: Empirical evidence of “Dutch disease” in Iraq

      Jalilian, Hossein; Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Yaqub, Kamaran Q.
      This thesis analyses the extent to which a boom in a particular export commodity sector (i.e., oil) affects relative price of non-tradable goods against tradable goods, the real exchange rate and competitiveness in the rest of the economy: This problem has been analysed in the early stage by (Corden and Neary 1982) with the so-called ‘Dutch-disease’. As a result, booming sector (oil Sector) the country’s currency appreciates, thereby reducing the competitiveness of the country’s traditional export sector in international market. This thesis examines whether Dutch Disease is present in Iraq in the light of having not study about Dutch Disease phenomena. It evaluates the impact of growing oil revenues on non-oil sectors of the Iraqi economy. It produces some empirical evidence for the explanation non-tradable goods and contraction of tradable goods sector due to booming oil sector and appreciation real exchange rate and made tradable goods sector become uncompetitive for export. The main findings form this thesis that the Iraqi economy was subject to have the Dutch disease phenomena during the boom. Some of the indications of the disease, remarkably the increase of relative prices, the real exchange rate appreciation, contraction tradable goods sector and expansion of nontraded goods output were applicable. The study uses annual time series data sourced from home and international agencies from 1970 to 2013. Due to problem with endogeneity, the data are analysed through the use of two stages least square. Finally, the thesis discusses briefly some policy measures that will help avoid the issue of appreciation real exchange rate and changing the structure of economy out of tradable goods to non-tradable goods sector.
    • Impact of peace movements on a society immersed in conflict. An analysis of the framing processes of the Basque peace movement.

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Anton, Egoitz G. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2012-02-02)
      The Basque conflict has waged since the 1950s in its current form. However, with the arrival of democracy 36 years ago, the Basque Country has been the scene of an intense peace mobilization, dominated by two peace organizations: Gesto por la Paz, a group of community organizations that mobilize to publicly reject political violence, and Lokarri/Elkarri, an organization that includes a conflict resolution proposal based on dialogue between conflicting parties. While there is some literature on these organizations, none has analysed their extraordinary impact on Basque society. This research explores how the Basque peace movement has impacted on the social and political culture of the Basque conflict. It seeks to understand the nature of this impact and to determine the channels and methods by which it was achieved, using frame analysis. Three interlinked questions serve to guide the research, asking first if there is a Basque Peace Frame and if it could be considered a master frame, how this Basque Peace Frame has evolved, and, finally, how the Basque Peace Frame has impacted on other Basque Civil Society Organizations related to the conflict. This qualitative research spans the period between the March 2006 declaration of ceasefire by ETA and the end of fieldwork for this research in September 2008. The research includes 18 in depth interviews, written media, and analysis of seven notable Basque social organizations related to the conflict, in addition to the two peace organizations mentioned above. The research found the impact of the Basque peace movement in the Basque Country is significant and rich. The Basque Peace Frame developed based on the rejection of the use of violence as a political tool and identifies that violence as the main barrier to achieving an inclusive conflict resolution. The Basque peace movement organizations developed a specific kind of mobilization to enforce the Basque Peace Frame based on silent and symbolic acts. The objective was to counter the former dynamics of mobilization that were contentious and directed to promote Basque national rights. The Basque Peace Frame proposed a change in the way the political collective identity was constructed in the Basque Country, showing that an association between nationalism and violence is not obligatory. The Basque Peace Frame has evolved and spread between social organizations in the Basque Country, using sympathetic identity networks as the main channel of frame diffusion. Even organizations that did not reject the use of contentious methods of protest are now questioning the use of violence, signifying exciting prospects for the future of non-violent political action in the Basque Country.
    • The impact of perceived interactivity, control and involvement on bank satisfaction and loyalty. An integrated eService model for eBanking.

      Pujari, Devashish; Reynolds, Nina L.; Chan, Shiu Fai (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012-01-30)
      Control and involvement are well researched concepts in traditional marketing, while interactivity is a relatively new concept associated with Internet marketing and communication. From an Internet interaction perspective, the research examines the impact of interactivity, control and involvement on customer satisfaction and loyalty in an eBanking context. Using Flow Theory as the theoretical foundation, it is proposed that these three Internet communication constructs lead to eService dependency and eService encounter satisfaction, which, in turn, enhance the overall satisfaction and loyalty to the principal bank at corporate level. A mixed methodology using both qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection is adopted. In-depth interviews with eBankers and focus group studies with eBanking customers support the importance of interactivity, control and involvement in the eService encounter. The in-depth interviews and focus groups facilitate the identification of eService dependency as a new construct in the model. Participants¿ views also help the operationalisation of constructs and development of questionnaire for quantitative data collection. ii Analysis of the quantitative data using structural equation modelling shows support for all three constructs¿ hypothesised positive relationships with eService dependency and eService encounter satisfaction i.e. satisfaction at the service encounter level. It is also confirmed that eService dependency and eService encounter satisfaction have a positive impact on overall satisfaction with the principal bank i.e. satisfaction at corporate level. However, the influence of eService dependency and eService encounter satisfaction on loyalty to principal bank is not supported. The research concludes with the theoretical contributions and managerial implications of the research. Strategies to enhance interactivity with, control of and involvement by eBanking customers are recommended to eBankers. Limitations of the research and directions for future research in Internet and eService are also suggested.
    • Impact of state fragility on capital flows and economic growth in Nigeria

      Jalilian, Hossein; Potts, David J.; Laniran, Temitope J. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2018)
      This thesis aims to investigate the impact of state fragility on capital inflows and economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1980-2015. In line with existing studies, it adopts an augmented neoclassical growth model where capital is divided into domestic and foreign capital inflows (FDI, ODA and Remittances). Using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration, significant long-run relationship was confirmed between state fragility, capital flows and economic growth. The results reveal domestic capital to be very significant and contribute positively to economic growth. Similarly it was observed that remittances remain a very crucial form of capital flow to Nigeria and that the presence of state fragility makes it more significant. For ODA a positive contribution to economic growth was observed, however, the presence of state fragility renders it insignificant. In the case of FDI, the study found a negative relationship between FDI and economic growth albeit insignificant. However, the presence of state fragility makes it significant but still negative. A negative relationship was also observed between state fragility and economic growth. These findings, implies that while the issue of state fragility needs to be addressed and concerted efforts put into building state resilience, not just for the direct impact of state fragility on the economy, but also its impact on the economy through other channels such as capital flows.
    • The Impact of the contextual factors on the success of e-government in Lebanon: Context-System Gap

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Baz Chamas, Hassan A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management & Law, 2017)
      Purpose: The relationship between context and e-governance has been gaining a significant momentum in academic circles due its social and technical complexities. There are many challenges posed by the disparity between the context and the system when it comes to e-governance in developing countries. This research aims to reveal more successful adoption of e-governance initiatives and exposes factors that hinder its implementation. We develop a conceptual framework showing the reciprocity between the context and the system or what is termed “Context-System Gap”. Therefore, this research will study the appropriateness of the context and its influence on the system and the influence of the system on the context. The purpose of this research is to explore the factors that enable successful e-government adoption in Lebanon, where e-governance is still at its initial stage. Most empirical research and theories on the implementation of e-governance in developing countries remain at the macro-level and miss out on the complexities of the context of deployment and the role of the gap between the citizens and the government. The purpose of this thesis is to provide an empirical model differentiating between the electronic context and the electronic system and shed a light over a new gap, government-citizen gap, in the adoption of e-government. Design/methodology/approach: Following previous research on e-government services adoption, this study uses several technology use and acceptance models and literature to examine the elements behind the adoption and use of e-government services in Lebanon from citizen and government perspectives. The research strategy is a quantitative method approach employing questionnaire. Quantitative data will be collected from e-government users (citizens) and statistical tests will be conducted in order to examine the relation between variables. Practical implications: The findings are useful for policy-makers and decision-makers to develop a better understanding of citizens' needs. The proposed model can be used as a guideline for the implementation of e-government services in developing countries. Originality/value: This study is the only one to examine the dimensions influencing citizens’ adoption of e-government technologies in developing countries using a unified model merging context and system elements.
    • The impact of TQM on a traditionally segregated work environment: An empirical study of the healthcare sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

      Zairi, Mohamed; Al-Dakheel, Hiafa M. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-08-26)
      In the last decade, the rapid development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has forced its government to implement modern management styles such as Total Quality Management (TQM) to ensure continuous improvement in the provision of healthcare. There is a considerable body of literature that shows the benefits of implementing TQM in hospitals, but there are few empirical studies that show TQM implementation efforts in the healthcare sector. Furthermore, the healthcare literature did not explore the implementation of TQM in a context of gender segregated environment such as the case in KSA. This research project is an exploratory investigation assessing the impact of TQM in a gender segregated healthcare environment such as KSA. The research design used triangulation methods to investigate the problem at hand. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used through field-work and external comparisons. The approach was based on the following: (1) Assessing the level of perception and understanding of TQM principles in several KSA hospitals, taking into account the differences and similarities between the different gender population, (2) Examining the approach to TQM implementation and its degree of effectiveness in four Saudi hospitals to highlight critical factors for effective implementations using the Baldrige assessment method; (3) Benchmarking the Saudi hospital experiences to UK and USA hospitals to highlight key facilitating and inhibiting factors; (4) Using key findings from the previous steps to identify the critical factors and propose a model for TQM implementations in a segregated healthcare environment such as the case in the KSA. The survey research findings show a weak appreciation, awareness and understanding of TQM in managing healthcare organisations by the respondents in the KSA. It clearly shows that many employees in the organisations do riot understand TQM. The degree of emphasis for each quality activity varied and thus more research needs to be done to investigate the importance of each quality activity to a TQM implementation process, as there are varying degrees of emphasis across the board. The KSA case studies show that in implementing organisations, TQM intentions and TQM policy frameworks are generally acceptable. However, the implementation process is generally weak and lacks coordination in the majority of these organisations. It is clear that the majority of the KSA cases have not succeeded in total commitment towards a total quality culture. When compared to the UK and USA hospitals, the majority of the KSA cases show deficiencies in most of the critical activities that form the foundation of a successful quality process. Furthermore, the study indicates three critical factors in KSA hospitals that either did not exist or were not given full attention. The importance of these factors were further validated in the literature. The factors were continuous top management commitment, continuous education and training, and culture awareness. These factors were then used to develop a model for TQM implementation for a segregated healthcare environment.
    • The impact of urbanisation and industrialisation in Medieval and Post-Medieval Britain. An assessment of the morbidity and mortality of non-adult skeletons from the cemeteries of two urban and two rural sites in England (AD 850-1859).

      Roberts, Charlotte A.; Lewis, Mary Elizabeth (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2010-01-18)
      This study compares the morbidity and mortality of non-adults in urban and rural cemeteries between AD 850-1859 It was hypothesised that the development of urbanisation and industrialisation with subsequenot overcrowding and environmental pollution, would result in a decline in human health in the urban groups. This would be evident in lower mean ages at death, retarded growth and higher rates of childhood stress and chronic infection in the children living in the urbanised environments. Non-adult skeletons were examined from Raunds Furnells in Northamptonshire (Anglo- Saxon), St. Helen-on-the-Walls in York (later medieval, urban), Wharrarn Percy in Yorkshire (later medieval, rural) and from the crypt of Christ Church Spitalfields, in London (AD 1729-1859). The results showed that it was industrialisation, rather than urbanisation that was most detrimental to child health. Weaning ages declined from two years in the Anglo-Saxon period to one year in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Industrialisation was characterised by a lower mean age at death, growth retardation and an increase in the prevalence of rickets and scurvy. Although higher rates of dental disease and matemal stress were apparent in the urbanised samples, respiratory diseases were more common in the rural areas. Growth profiles suggested that environmental factors were similar in the urban and rural communities in the later medieval period. However, there was evidence that employment had a detrimental effect on the health of later medieval apprentices. This study demonstrates the importance of non-adult remains in addressing issues of health and adaptation in the past and, the validity of using skeletal material to measure environmental stress.
    • The Impact of Visual Representations of Leadership in Tribal Dominated Societies: A critical qualitative study of aesthetic leadership in the United Arab Emirates

      Kelly, Simon; Harding, Nancy H.; Bitar, Amer (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2017)
      This thesis explores the role and impact of leadership as a socially constructed and aesthetic phenomenon in tribal-dominated Bedouin Arabia. The concept of leadership is investigated in terms of its discursive and aesthetic dimensions across different geographical, historical, and intellectual settings by adopting and applying a Foucauldian perspective of interconnected concepts of power/knowledge, discourse, subjectivity, body symbolism and the power of gaze. The thesis draws on three related types of data: First, images to understand the leaders’ perspective. Second, interviews with artists to gain insights into the visual message and the creative process. Third, through semi-structured interviews with the audience to garner an understanding of how it perceives the message leaders send. This thesis contributes theoretically to ongoing research into the visual representation of leadership and to critical debates concerning Foucauldian perspectives on discourse, power, discipline and the body. This thesis concludes by recommending practical implications for rethinking leadership as something both aesthetic and mythical to consider the role of followership in the consumption of leadership-themed visual artworks and communication, and the growing global role and influence of social media in shaping leader-follower relations.
    • The impact on knowledge spillovers on MNE ownership modes and sub-national locations: Evidence from India

      McDonald, Frank; Wei, Yingqi; Wang, Chengang; Konwar, Ziko (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013)
      The thesis investigates how FDI intra-industry spillovers are affected by MNE ownership modes and sub-national locations. A conceptual framework is developed which utilises IB theories to propose how MNE ownership modes and sub-national locations are likely to matter for FDI spillovers. The research propositions are explored quantitatively using an unbalanced firm-level panel dataset of 1624 Indian manufacturing firms (1991-2008) with 5203 firm-year observations. The model estimation is carried out in STATA 13.0 in two stages; firstly, by using semi-parametric (Levinsohn-Petrin) method to derive the dependent variable (TFP of domestic firms); and secondly, by using fixed effects model estimated in first-differences to relate TFP of domestic firms' with different measures of foreign presence. Results from the first model reveal that WOSs and MAJVs have positive spillover effects whereas MIJVs have negative spillover effects in the Indian manufacturing sector. The second model finds that the net spillover effect in non-metropolitan regions is higher than in metropolitan regions. The thesis discusses the possible major policy implications of the results and considers possible reasons for the differences in the spillovers for different ownership modes and sub-national locations.
    • The implementation of knowledge management systems: An empirical study of critical success factors and a proposed model

      Zairi, Mohamed; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Alsadhan, Abdulaziz O.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Informatics, 2010-01-15)
      KM is the process of creating value from the intangible assets of an enterprise. It deals with how best to leverage knowledge internally in the enterprise (in its individual employees, and the knowledge that gets built into its structures and systems) and externally to the customers and stakeholders. As KM initiatives, projects and systems are just beginning to appear in organisations, there is little research and empirical field data to guide the successful development and implementation of such systems or to guide the expectations of the potential benefits of such systems. In addition, about 84 per cent of KM programmes failed or exerted no significant impact on the adopting organisations worldwide due to inability to consider many critical factors that contribute to the success of KM project implementation. Hence, this study is an exploratory investigation into the KM implementation based on an integrated approach. This includes: (1) a comprehensive review of the relevant literature; (2) a comprehensive analysis of secondary case studies of KM implementations in 90 organisations presented in the literature, in order to arrive at the most critical factors of KM implementation and their degree of criticality; (3) exploratory global survey of 92 organisations in 23 countries that have already implemented or are in the process of implementing KM; (4) in-depth case studies of four leading organisations to understand how KM implementation processes and the critical factors identified are being addressed. Based on the empirical findings of the study, 28 critical factors were identified that must be carefully considered in the KM implementation to achieve a successful project. Moreover, the study proposes an integrated model for effective KM implementation which contains essential elements that contribute to project success.