• Images of the west as portrayed in the political cartoons of the United Kingdom-based Arab media. A survey of the stereotypes and images exchanged between the Arab world and the west with an analysis of the United Kingdom-based Arab media's presentation of the west.

      Rigby, Andrew; Awad, Ali A.Y. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2010-07-13)
      DESCRIPTION: The research is divided into five chapters (plus an introduction and a conclusion) as follows: INTRODUCTION, in which the work is introduced, the problem is identified, and the need for the research. is presented. CHAPTER ONE: The image of the Arab in the West (from the old sources up to the present time). CHAPTER TWO: The Arab view of the West, The development and the changing approach in viewing the World from pre- Islamic Arabia including the contemporary schools of thought in the Arab world. CHAPTER THREE: Political cartoons as a medium of communication, their influence and role in opinion changing and image making. CHAPTER FOUR: UK-Based Arab Owned Mass Media. A survey of the newspapers and the magazines published in the United Kingdom and owned by Arab personalities, companies, governments and political parties. That includes the 38 daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly publications. This chapter studies the attitudes and presentations of the Arab media in a definite period of time, in regard to the West. (from Dec. 1987 till March 1991) CHAPTER FIVE : The Case Study. The image of the West in the Arab-owned press through political cartoons (four London-based daily newspapers). The findings of the field work, categorising and analysing the main features and elements of the image. CONCLUSION: Room for Improvement. Recommendations for better understanding, presentation and improvement in the Arab-West International relations and presentations. The major, original, part of the thesis has been devoted to surveying the Britain-based Arab press, as well as an analysis of the coverage of some of these papers and magazines of the West, using the political cartoon as indicators of the public perceptions of the West. The research also makes an attempt to trace the main outline of the historical development of perceptions of the West in the Arab mind. Appendices; Appendix(A): Arab Political Cartoonists. Appendix(B): Cartoons of Arabs in the Western Media. Appendix(C); Cartoons of the West in the Arab Media. Bibliography
    • An immunohistopathological and functional investigation of β3 integrin antagonism as a therapeutic strategy in cancer. Characterisation, development, and utilisation of preclinical cancer models to investigate novel ¿3 integrin anatgonists.

      Shnyder, Steven D.; Sheldrake, Helen M.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Alshammari, Fatemah O.F.O. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, 2014-05-07)
      Tumour cell dissemination is a major issue with the treatment of cancer, thus new therapeutic strategies which can control this process are needed. Antagonism of integrins highly expressed in tumours is one potential strategy. The integrins are transmembrane glycoprotein adhesive receptors. Two of the integrins, αVβ3 and αIIbβ3, are highly expressed in a number of tumours and induce bi-directional signalling through their interaction with extracellular matrix proteins, and growth factor receptors. Through this signalling they play an important role in a number of cellular processes that are involved in tumour dissemination such as tumour growth, migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Dual αIIbβ3 and αVβ3 integrin antagonism will have a direct effect on β3-expressing tumour cells that leads to the inhibition of cell migration and dissemination. Furthermore, through targeting tumour cell interaction with endothelial cells and platelets, this will also lead to inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. The aim of this project was to characterise the expression of αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrin in a panel of tumour cell lines and in human tumour xenograft samples, and to develop and utilise cell-based models to investigate potential novel β3 antagonists. The expression of αV and β3 subunits was detected in xenograft tissue using immunoblotting techniques. A panel of cell lines of different tumour types including melanoma, prostate, breast, colon and non small cell lung carcinoma was then characterised for αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrin expression using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Melanoma cell lines demonstrated the strongest αVβ3 expression. No αIIbβ3 integrin expression was seen in any of the cell lines evaluated. A selection of cell lines with varying αVβ3 expression were then used to develop a functional test for cell migration, the scratch wound healing assay. Migration of tumour cells that expressed αVβ3 integrin was inhibited by the known β3 antagonists, cRGDfV peptide and LM609 antibody. A panel of 12 potential novel β3 integrin antagonists was screened for cytotoxicity and activity in the validated scratch assay. ICT9055 was the most effective antagonist in inhibition of M14 cell migration as determined by the scratch assay, with an IC50 of < 0.1 µM. Therefore the work presented in this thesis has established models and tools for evaluating potential novel β3 integrin antagonists, and identified a promising molecule to progress for further preclinical evaluation.
    • The impact of British Christian missionaries on Indian religious, social and cultural life between 1800 and 1857. With particular reference to the role of missionaries in the events leading up to the 1857 Mutiny

      Gregory, James R.T.E.; Price, Munro; Bi, Nagina (University of BradfordDepartment of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2014-05-01)
      This study examines the impact of British Christian missionaries in the north of India between 1800 and 1857. The study focuses on the cross cultural encounter between the Christian Missionaries and the Muslim inhabitants of three Indian cities: Agra, Delhi and Peshawar. Alongside this, the role of the missionaries in creating anti ¿ British sentiment in Agra and Delhi, is examined. Crucially, an assessment is made as to what extent Christian missionary involvement in these three cities influenced people to revolt against the British in 1857.
    • Impact of business forecasting on demand planning. A strategy for improving business forecasting and reducing inventories throughout the supply chain for fast moving consumer goods in the Middle East market.

      Betts, James; Tanwari, Anwar U. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Department of Industrial Technology, 2010-06-17)
      Poor quality of information and forecasting create a number of problems for manufacturing companies, such as poor planning of products and insufficient service levels, which leads to increased inventory and stock holding or stockouts and increased total costs. Cussons (UK) Limited is experiencing precisely these problems. Apart from these problems normally associated with forecasting demand for fast moving consumer goods there is an additional problem of reconciling the Western calendar with the Muslim calendar, and a recognition of the effects that Muslim religious holidays, as opposed to Christian religious holidays, have on demand. Muslim religious holidays rotate backwards with regard to the Western calendar, but in fact they occur at known dates and therefore the effect they have on demand for products can be taken into consideration when attempting to forecast demand. An additional problem that influences Cussons' sales in the market is the seasonal pattern of demand. Due to this, there is an increase in demand for Cussons' products during summer months. From the analysis of both data sets it was identified that the warehouse movement data is less variable and more reliable for business forecasting than order data. In this thesis, these forecasting problems are examined as a case study, focusing on these particular problems. To overcome these problems and to improve business forecasting of Cussons' products in the Middle East market, a forecasting strategy has been suggested which will enable Cusson's to reduce the inventories throughout the supply chain and to improve their customer's service.
    • The impact of business orientations on customer loyalty. An empirical study using a case study approach.

      Mohammed, Zairi; Yang, Deli; Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Bettany, Shona M.M.; Khan, Osman (University of BradfordEuropean Centre for TQM, 2009)
      Customer loyalty is considered to be critically important to growth, profitability and sustainability. It has received much attention by practitioner and managers. However, some important variables about the different types of loyalty have remained unclear. While businesses look towards adopting various strategies to help them grow and succeed in the marketplace, a number of key business orientations have emerged. Each of these orientations has claimed to increase both profitability and customer loyalty for an organization. This research has examined both of these factors, as well as their inter-relationships. The research was conducted in a two part study, based on a sequential triangulation approach. The first study focused on finding out the differences between two of the highest types of loyalties, attitudinal and emotional. The study, based on 40 interviews with customers from three different companies, across two cultural settings (Asian and European), has led to the emergence of key differentiating factors. The second study focused on the relationships between business orientations and customer loyalty. This study was based on six case studies of best practice firms. The study found a positive link between business orientations and loyalty. Moreover, a set of critical success factors were identified that would enable companies to implement effective loyalty management systems. Based on both of these two studies, a loyalty management model has been presented. The model helps to improve our understanding of loyalty, and would be of use to managers who would want to develop and manage customer loyalty in an organisation.
    • Impact of combined microprocessor control of the prosthetic knee and ankle on gait termination in unilateral trans-femoral amputees. Limb mechanical work performed on centre of mass to terminate gait on a declined surface using linx prosthetic device

      Buckley, John G.; Abdulhasan, Zahraa M. (University of BradfordDivision of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, 2018)
      The major objective of this thesis was to investigate how the use of a recently developed microprocessor-controlled limb system altered the negative mechanical work done by the intact and prosthetic limb when trans-femoral amputees terminated gait. Participants terminated gait on a level surface from their self-selected walking speed and on declined surface from slow and customary speeds, using limb system prosthesis with microprocessor active or inactive. Limb negative work, determined as the integral of the negative mechanical (external) limb power during the braking phase, was compared across surface, speed and microprocessor conditions. Halting gait was achieved predominantly from negative work done by the trailing/intact. Trailing versus leading limb mechanical work imbalance was similar to how able body individuals halted gait. Importantly, the negative limb work performed on the prosthetic side when terminating gait on declined surface was increased when the microprocessor was active for both slow and customary speeds (no difference on level surface) but no change on intact limb. This indicates the limb system’s ‘ramp-descent mode’ effectively/dynamically altered the hydraulic resistances at the respective joints with evidence indicating changes at the ankle were the key factor for increasing the prosthetic limb negative work contribution. Findings suggest that trans-femoral amputees became more assured using their prosthetic limb to arrest body centre of mass velocity when the limb system’s microprocessor was active. More generally findings suggest, trans-femoral amputees should obtain clinically significant biomechanical benefits from using a limb system prosthesis for locomotion involving adapting to their everyday walking where adaptations to an endlessly changing environment are required.
    • The impact of commercial global television on cultural change and identity formation. A study of Kurdish women and the Turkish soap opera 'Noor'.

      Roberts, Benjamin L.; Goodall, Mark D.; Hamasaeed, Nazakat Hussain (University of BradfordBradford Media School, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-05-15)
      This thesis aimed to report on the qualitative research conducted which identified the role played by international television soap operas in identity formation and cultural change in relation to Kurdish women. Currently, Kurdish women live in a cultural context where traditional values often conflict with modern values when it comes to behaviour deemed appropriate for their gender. Through the impact of international television soap operas, Kurdish women come to identify themselves as being ¿traditional¿ while at the same time they attempt to integrate non-traditional beliefs into their value system. This study looked at the relationship between Kurdish women¿s exposure to international television, soap operas and consumerism, as well as the problems which they create in terms of non-Western women¿s identity formation. This thesis has documented the lives and experiences of 21 female Kurdish participants, aged between 18 and 40, through in-depth interviews and observations. The thesis assumes that the views recorded are representative of the general viewpoint of viewers of the international soaps. Open-ended, in-depth interviews about women were used to explore viewing habits and preferences for various soaps. This thesis incorporates and expresses the ideas which were recorded with regards to the accepted ¿typical¿ characteristics of men and 4 women ¿ it is these characteristics which play an important role in selfformation. It became evident that these women had incorporated values from the traditional Kurdish culture and the modern way of life. The Kurdish women cannot be said to have a ¿modernist¿ outlook on gender-appropriate behaviour, as they are still endemically entrenched in traditional Kurdistan worldviews. The qualitative research analysed the level in which the soap operas act as a kind of medium between the values of modernity and those of tradition. This study, in addition, demonstrates the appeal that soap operas can have on the norms, and other aspects, in the Kurdistan Region, and therefore illustrates that the soaps have an active role as a mechanism of change in Kurdistan. Thus, the research demonstrates the power of the soap operas and their effects on the Kurdish people in this region. Furthermore, this research explored the current media environment in the Kurdistan Region by reviewing the dependency of Kurdish viewers, and the Kurdish television channels, on foreign and imported television programmes into the region.
    • Impact of Culture on Employment Relations Practice in Former British Colonies: A Comparative Case Study of Cadbury (Nigeria) Plc and Cadbury Worldwide.

      Cornelius, Nelarine; Perrett, Robert A.; George, Olusoji J. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-06-22)
      The Paternalistic employment relations practice was in existence in most areas now known as Nigeria before the advent of the British colonialists (Ubeku, 1993).The British colonialists replaced the Nigerian Paternalistic employment relations system with their Voluntarist employment relations system. This was done without any considerations for the differences in the socio-cultural realties of Britain and Nigeria and the differences in the socio-cultural realities of the various ethnic groups that were merged to become Nigeria. This thesis however demonstrates the importance of socio-cultural factors in the transfer. The Nigerian Paternalistic employment relations practice was based on the predominantly agricultural economy, culture and traditions which formed the basis for systems of work and reward while the British Voluntarist employment relations practice was developed based on the prevailing social, political and economic philosophy at the period of industrial revolution of the 18th and early 19th centuries in Britain. This was that of lasisez-faire, with respect for individual liberty based on the Benthamite utilitarian principle (Yesufu, 1982:31; Florence, 1957:184). As there are very few studies (if any) on comparative employment relations practice between the developed countries of the world and the developing African countries; this study relying on secondary sources of data collection and the case study methodology identified a close relationship between culture and employment relations practice in particular and management practices in general. The study concludes that it is very problematic if not impossible to device a template of employment relations practice and other management practices in one cultural area and transfer to another cultural area or areas.
    • The impact of direct foreign investment upon industrial structure. A case study of the uk electrical and instrument engineering industry: A reappraisal of the model of industrial structure incorporating the impact of direct foreign investment, utilising empirical evidence from a survey of the electrical and instrument engineering industry.

      Buckley, Peter J.; Newton, David J. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Management and Administration, 2009-10-02)
      With the development of multinational corporations, the United Kingdom has experienced increasing penetration of its economy by foreign affiliates. This is particularly noticeable in high technology industries such as Electrical and Instrument Engineering. The thesis identifies the mechanism by which direct foreign investment can influence industrial structure in such an industry; charts the effects within the UK Electrical and Instrument Engineering Industry; and identifies the extent to which this impact varies with the nationality of the investor. The study begins with a synthesis of the comprehensive and complex material available upon industrial/market structure and direct foreign investment. Chapters 2 and 3 demonstrate that the structure of Electrical and Instrument Engineering has changed significantly since the inter-war years. Productive capacity has expanded faster than that of any other UK industry. Throughout the minimum-list-headings of the industry market power has become more concentrated in the hands of the largest companies. Individual affiliates now display greater product specialisation and vertical integration, whilst the level of entry barriers has risen steadily. The model presented in chapter-3 hypothesises that direct foreign investment can be related to industrial structure in three distinct ways. Firstly, that a relationship exists between the distribution of foreign affiliates 11 25 I and the structural characteristics of the industries in which they operate. Secondly, that a similar relationship exists across the minimum-list-headings of each individual industry. Thirdly, that the operating characteristics of foreign affiliates in any individual minimum-list-heading differ from those of domestic companies. The first two of these are termed the Destination impact, and the third the Behavioural impact of direct foreign investment. The results of a survey of over 500 British and foreign owned companies, sub-divided by origin and size, suggest that foreign affiliates have contributed significantly to the changing structure of Electrical and Instrument Engineering both in their destination and behaviour. The destination of foreign investors was significantly related to areas displaying the fastest growth of productive capacity; imperfection of competition; technologically specialised and vertically integrated operations; and high barriers to entry. The behaviour of individual foreign affiliates was found to differ significantly from that of their UK counterparts (including affiliates of UK multinationals). Foreign owned companies exhibited high levels of sales. growth and efficiency; a disproportionate impact upon the distribution of market power; greater product specialisation and levels of vertical integration; and a significant contribution to the level of entry barriers. This influence was compounded by a greater productivity and profitability in the foreign affiliate; a differing pattern of geographical location to that of UK owned establishments; and a domestic reaction by UK companies and the government to foreign penetration. Variations within the foreign group were related to geographical origin. The total operations of US affiliates were most significant, but investors from EEC countries displayed characteristics which varied most from those of UK companies. The study concludes by relating changes in industrial structure to the presence of foreign affiliates, and outlining the implications of further foreign involvement
    • The impact of domestic water user cultures on water efficiency interventions in the South East of England: Lessons for water demand management.

      Sharp, Liz; Hopkinson, Peter G.; Knamiller, C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Geography and Environmental Science, 2012-01-11)
      The need for a more sustainable approach to water consumption has increasingly gained attention in the last decade. The domestic sector accounts for over half of abstracted water in the UK and, as such, has become a major target for water efficiency interventions. Current research and water efficiency interventions are dominated by a positivist approach, focusing on a limited range of factors that can be quantitatively measured. This thesis questions the dominant approach and argues that a more holistic overview of water efficiency can be achieved through the consideration of socio-technical and behavioural theories. Taking a more constructivist approach, this research draws on four theories from socio-technical and behavioural fields and combines them to create a framework for the analysis of water efficiency interventions. The framework is applied to two case studies, exploring water users¿ perceptions of water, water supply, personal water use, and their responses to the water efficiency interventions. The case studies were selected to provide examples of current mainstream approaches to water demand management. Research methods used included semi-structured interviews and observation. The research findings support the argument that the current dominant approach to domestic water efficiency interventions is limited and, in some cases, ineffectual. Issues of trust, knowledge, motivation and the relationships between water users and water companies were raised. The thesis concludes that the use of a constructivist perspective could help to provide a more effective approach to understanding and improving water demand management.
    • The impact of E-marketing practices on market performance of small business enterprises. An empirical investigation.

      Trueman, Myfanwy; Fukukawa, Kyoko; El-Gohary, Hatem O.A.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-05-19)
      The major aims of this research are to explore and analyse the different factors affecting the adoption of Electronic Marketing (E-Marketing) by industrial and trading small business enterprises (SBEs); to explore the different forms, implementation levels and tools of E-Marketing used by these SBE and to investigate the relationship between E-Marketing adoption and industrial and trading SBEs marketing performance. It aims to develop a theoretical model that can help to understand and interpret these relationships and seeks to evaluate the potential of E-Marketing for SBEs in developed countries (UK) and developing countries (Egypt). This work builds on previous research in the fields of E-marketing and SBEs and adds to the relatively limited empirical research that has been conducted on E-Marketing in a small business context. This research develops and validates a conceptual model based on systematic and in-depth analysis of the literature in the field as well as the results of two exploratory studies conducted in Egypt and UK. It utilises a post-positivist research philosophy with a triangulation approach, in which quantitative and qualitative data is collected based on survey strategy through questionnaires, focus group and semi-structured interviews to address different levels of the study. Even though triangulation requires a commitment to greater amounts of effort, time and funds, it has the advantage of removing the bias that is often associated with the use of a single technique. This research finds that E-Marketing adoption by SBEs is significantly affected by their perception of E-Marketing relative advantage (usefulness), ease of use, compatibility as well as the SBE internal factors such as owner skills and support, available resources, organisational culture, type of products, international orientation and SBE size. On the other hand, the SBE internal factors have a positive direct impact on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) related factors such as perceived ease of use, perceived relative advantage and perceived compatibility. These findings indicate that Internet Marketing and E-Mail Marketing are the most commonly used E-Marketing tools and that E-Marketing adoption has a strong positive impact on current and future marketing performance of SBEs. In terms of contribution to knowledge, this study provides an insight for entrepreneurs, policy makers, practitioners, researchers, and educators by providing a clearer view and deep understanding of the issues related to E-Marketing adoption and practices by small business enterprises as opposed to large companies. It addresses some research gaps in the field, particularly in terms of the impact of E-Marketing on marketing performance. The research model has been tested by a major survey of UK SBEs with a response rate of 32%, and has been robustly tested for reliability and validity. Moreover, the exploratory survey in Egypt indicated that there is another rich seam for investigation in terms of E-Marketing in developing countries. Overall the theory in the field of E-Marketing is still in its infancy stage and is not yet well established. This study can be considered as a step towards theory building in the field of E-marketing and has brought to light a number of concepts for the practice of E-Marketing by SBEs.
    • Impact of eWOM Source Characteristics on The Purchasing Intention.

      Liao, Mei-Na; Reynolds, Nina L.; Shabsogh, Nisrein Mohammad Ahmad (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, 2013)
      The use of e-mail communication between consumers has been growing and companies are seeking to increase their understanding of this type of private communication medium between consumers. The privacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics of e-mail make it an important communication medium for consumers. Consumers use e-mail to exchange a variety of information including electronic word of mouth (eWOM) about products, services and organisations. The travel industry, the context of this study, is increasingly being delivered online. Understanding what influences consumers and how consumers evaluate eWOM will increase the travel industry’s knowledge about its consumer base. This study aims to contribute to existing knowledge on the impact of eWOM on consumer purchase intention. Its focus is on an interpersonal context where eWOM is sent from the source to the receiver in an e-mail about holiday destination. The study, which was undertaken from a positivist perspective, used qualitative and quantitative research techniques to better understand the influence of eWOM on purchase intention. The literature on word of mouth (WOM) and eWOM was initially examined to identify the major factors that have an influence on the receiver of eWOM. Consistent with previous studies, both perceived expertise and similarity were identified as source characteristics that have an influence on the receiver’s purchase intention. The literature also indicated that trustworthiness belief would have a key effect on the influence of eWOM on the attitude of the receiver. Consequently, this study examined each trustworthiness dimension – ability, benevolence, and integrity – with respect to its role in the influence of eWOM on purchase intention. The literature review also revealed that certain receiver characteristics were important in the process of influence, especially consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. The relationships between the variables identified were further developed into the research model, which has its roots in the theory of reasoned-action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) and the dual process theory of influence (Deutsch and Gerard, 1955). Methodologically, a scenario-building approach to developing authentic e-mail was used. The qualitative data gathered from eight focus group discussions were analysed using “framework analysis” (Ritchie and Spencer, 1994) to develop eight scenarios. This was then used to manipulate the moderating variables in the scenario. Three manipulations, each with two levels, were included: eWOM direction “positive and negative”; source characteristic of “expert/non-expert”; and source characteristic of “similar/non-similar”. These scenarios formed part of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of University of Bradford students. The final number of usable questionnaires was 477. Structural equation modelling was used to determine the validity of the conceptual model and test the hypotheses. In particular, multiple group analysis was used to assess both the measurement and structural models, and to identify the impact of the eWOM direction. The theoretical model that describes the relationships between the exogenous variables (source’s and receiver’s characteristics) and the endogenous variables (trustworthiness dimensions, interpersonal influence and purchase intention) was accepted. The research findings provided empirical evidence on the difference in the impact of positive and negative eWOM on purchase intention. The source’s and receiver’s characteristics and related trustworthiness beliefs, (i.e. ability, benevolence, and integrity) are influenced by the direction of eWOM. The findings show that positive and negative eWOM differ with respect to how they impact on consumers’ attitudes and intentions. For instance, consumers have more belief in the credibility of a source who provides negative eWOM. However, the overall influence of the source’s characteristics tends to be stronger with positive than with negative eWOM. The findings of this study provide insights for both academics and practitioners to understand the potential of eWOM. This might be tailored to help develop more private relationships with customers through e-mail marketing strategies that incorporate eWOM. Negative eWOM is more credible but less directly useful to marketers. Nevertheless, it is important for marketers to realise the significance of managing dissatisfaction and to harness the power of negative eWOM. Similarly, positive eWOM is effective especially when the source is both expert and similar. This might be translated into online marketing campaigns that use consumer-to-consumer discussions in addition to viral marketing. Future research might test the model in different contexts, (e.g. financial services), to provide a more comprehensive picture of the influence of eWOM on purchase intention.
    • The Impact of External Shocks on Nigeria’s GDP Performance within the Context of the Global Financial Crisis

      Jalilian, Hossein; Arora, Rashmi; Akpan, Nkereuwem I.
      This research examines the impact of external shocks on Nigeria’s output performance for the period 1981 – 2015. It aims to bring to the fore the importance of considering external shocks during policy design and implementation. The multivariate VAR and VECM frameworks were used to evaluate the impact of the shock variables on Nigeria’s output performance and to achieve the stated objectives. Findings show that the external shock and domestic policy variables have short-run effects on Nigeria’s output performance. Also, all the measures of external shocks and domestic policies display some viable information in explaining the variabilities in Nigeria’s output performance over the horizon. The comparison between the results of the VECM and the unrestricted VAR shows that the unrestricted VAR model outperformed the VECM. The overall result of the study confirms the view about the vulnerability of the Nigerian economy to external shocks. These shocks explain more than half of the variance in real output performance and have varying effects on output performance in Nigeria. The dynamic response of output performance to each of the defined shock variables show that output performance responds rapidly to the shock variables, while its response to the domestic economic variables is seemingly moderate. Finally, the variance decomposition show that international crude oil price and terms of trade have the largest share in accounting for the variability in output performance, followed closely by the shares of capital inflows and monetary policy.
    • The impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in developing countries : Empirical evidence and policy implications

      Potts, David J.; Weiss, John A.; Porojan, Anca; Wu, Zongmin; Ruzibuka, John S. (University of BradfordBradford Centre for International Development. School of Social and International Studies, 2012)
      This study examines the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in developing countries. Based on deduction from the relevant theoretical and empirical literature, the study tests the following hypotheses regarding the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth. First, fiscal deficits have significant positive or negative impact on economic growth in developing countries. Second, the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth depends on the size of deficits as a percentage of GDP – that is, there is a non-linear relationship between fiscal deficits and economic growth. Third, the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth depends on the ways in which deficits are financed. Fourth, the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth depends on what deficit financing is used for. The study also examines whether there are any significant regional differences in terms of the relationship between fiscal deficits and economic growth in developing countries. The study uses panel data for thirty-one developing countries covering the period 1972- 2001, which is analysed based on the econometric estimation of a dynamic growth model using the Arellano and Bond (1991) generalised method of moments (GMM) technique. Overall, the results suggest the following. First, fiscal deficits per se have no any significant positive or negative impact on economic growth. Second, by contrast, when the deficit is substituted by domestic and foreign financing, we find that both domestic and foreign financing of fiscal deficits exerts a negative and statistically significant impact on economic growth with a lag. Third, we find that both categories of economic classification of government expenditure, namely, capital and current expenditure, have no significant impact on economic growth. When government expenditure is disaggregated on the basis of a functional classification, the results suggest that spending on education, defence and economic services have positive but insignificant impact on growth, while spending on health and general public services have positive and significant impact. Fourth, in terms of regional differences with regard to the estimated relationships, the study finds that, while there are some regional differences between the four different regions represented in our sample of thirty-one developing countries - namely, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa – these differences are not statistically significant. On the basis of these findings, the study concludes that fiscal deficits per se are not necessarily good or bad for economic growth in developing countries; how the deficits are financed and what they are used for matters. In addition, the study concludes that there are no statistically significant regional differences in terms of the relationship between fiscal deficits and economic growth in developing countries.
    • Impact of HIV and AIDS on intergenerational knowledge formation, retention and transfer and its implication for both sectoral and summative, governances in Namibia.

      Not named; Mameja, Jerry (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, School of Social and International Studies, 2015-06-22)
      In this thesis, I argue for a move from the preoccupation with the obvious (crude and quantifiable impacts), towards critically examining the subtle (less than obvious impacts), which will allow us to deal with adversities (the likes of HIV and AIDS) in the most effective ways. The thesis adopts the summative governance framework to demonstrate how our preoccupation with the quantifiable impacts shrouds our intellectual and practical ability to deal with the subtle impacts of AIDS. Governance is hypothesised to emerge amidst turbulent, unpredictable, messy, complex and dynamic path conditions predicated upon certain orders of criticality, including but not limited to the process of knowledge formation, retention and transfer. The thesis suggests that the evolution of governance from nascent to fully institutionalised mechanisms of control is in itself a product of the evolution of knowledge. Notwithstanding, HIV and AIDS constrain the emergence of governance through impacting the process of knowledge formation, retention and transfer. Resultantly, these impacts are not merely additive and isolated to the sectoral governances, but are summative, intergenerational and structured, and potentially endanger the fundamental systems of governance. The pre and post independence induced vulnerabilities of Namibia are presented to demonstrate that the country is an engrossing, but yet a perilous mix of the past and the present. Whilst Namibia aspires for a democratic, non-racial, progressive society, the thesis demonstrates that due to constraints engendered by HIV and AIDS this proceeds on terms and conditions that by no means guarantee a happy outcome.
    • The impact of intellectual capital and balanced scorecard implementation on firm performance

      Li, Jing; Mazooz, Khelifa; Al Maskari, Ghadna S.S.
      The connotation that intellectual capital (IC) replaces physical assets as the major source of competitive advantage (CA) is now generally accepted in both management and accounting literature. Thus, IC management has become a major concern for management regarding enhancing firm performance (FP). The main objective of this thesis is to examine the relationship between IC and FP and whether this relationship is direct or indirect through the firm’s CA, IC management tool use (through balanced scorecard (BSC) implementation) and the success in the use of the IC management tool. To achieve this objective, this thesis is divided into three research frameworks. The first framework examines the mediating effect of CA on the relationship between IC and FP. The second framework focuses on the mediating effect of BSC implementation on the relationship between IC and firms’ CA and performance. The third framework investigates the mediating effect of the success factors and BSC implementation success on the relationship between BSC implementation extent, CA and FP. This study used both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data were collected using a questionnaire sent to 192 Omani firms with a response rate of 54%. Depending on the survey participants’ willingness and availability, 32 interviews were also conducted in order to support the results from the survey further. The results suggest that the relationship between IC and FP is indirect through the mediation impact of the extent and success of BSC implementation, the success factors and CA.
    • Impact of material attributes & process parameters on critical quality attributes of the amorphous solid dispersion products obtained using hot melt extrusion

      Sabnis, Aniket D.
      The feasibility of hot melt extrusion (HME) was explored for development of amorphous solid dispersion systems. Controlled release formulations were developed using a cellulose based derivative, AffinisolTMHPMC 100cP and 4M grades. BCS class II drugs ibuprofen and posaconazole were selected due to their difference in glass transition temperature and lipophilicity. This study focused on investigation of the impact the material attributes and process parameters on the critical quality attributes in preparation of amorphous solid dispersions using hot melt extrusion. The critical quality attributes were sub divided into three main attributes of material, process and product. Rheology of ibuprofen-Affinisol 100cP from melt phase to extrudate phase was tracked. A partial factorial design was carried out to investigate the critical parameters affecting HME. For optimisation of 40%IBU-Affinisol 100cP blends, a feed rate of 0.6kg/hr, screw speed of 500rpm and screw configuration with two mixing elements were found to be optimum for single phase extrudates. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was found to be an indirect technique of choice in predicting the maximum ibuprofen drug load within extrudates. Prediction was based on the prepared extrudates without charging them to stability conditions. An alternative strategy of incorporation of di-carboxylic acids to increase the dissolution of posaconazole-Affinisol 4M blends was investigated. Succinic acid and L- malic acid incorporation was found to increase the dissolution of posaconazole. Although, the extrudates crystallised out quicker than the naïve posaconazole-Affinisol 4M, but free posaconazole formed eutectic and co-crystal with succinic and L-malic acid within extrudates. This lead to an increase in dissolution of the extrudates compared to day 0.
    • Impact of mixed solvent on co-crystal solubility, ternary diagrams and crystallisation scale-up. Crystallisations of Isonicotinamide ¿Benzoic Acid Co-crystals from Ethanol ¿Water Co-solvent System.

      Blagden, Nicholas; Munshi, Tasnim; Redha, Batul H. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2013-11-20)
      The production of stable solid crystalline material is an important issue in the pharmaceutical industry and the challenge to control the desired active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with the specific chemical and physical properties has led to more development in the drug industry. Increasing the solubility and the dissolution of the drug will increase its bioavailability; therefore the solubility can be improved with the change in the preparation method. The formation of co-crystals has emerged as a new alternate to the salts, hydrates and solvate methods since the molecules that cannot be formed by the usual methods might crystallise in the form of co-crystals. Co-crystals are multicomponent crystals which can be known as supramolecules and are constructed by the non covalent bonds between the desired former and co-former. Therefore the synthon approach was utilised to design co-crystals with the specific properties, this involves the understanding of the intermolecular interactions between these synthons. These interaction forces can be directed to control the crystal packing in the design of the new crystalline solid with the desired chemical and physical properties. The most familiar synthon was the amide group with its complementary carboxylic group, in this work isonicotinamide and benzoic acid were chosen to design co-crystal and much literature exist that introduce the determination of co-crystal growth from these two compounds. The growth of co-crystals was carried out in water, ethanol and ethanol / water mixed solvent (30 - 90 % ethanol) by utilising the Cryo-Compact circulator. Co-crystals (1:1) and (2:1) were grown in ethanol and water respectively and a mixture of both phases were grown in the mixed solvent. All the phases were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman, Infrared and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The solubility of isonicotinamide, benzoic acid, co-crystals (1:1) and (2:1) in water, ethanol and ethanol/water mixed solvent (30 - 90 % ethanol) were determined at 25 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C by utilising the React-Array Microvate. It was important to understand some of the thermodynamic factors which control the formation of these polymorphs such as the change in the enthalpy and the change in the entropy. Also it was important to study the pH behaviour during dissolution of the former, co-former and co-crystals in water, ethanol and ethanol/water mixed solvent (30 - 90 % ethanol) in-order to examine the affect of the solvent composition on the solubility and to identify if some ions were formed during the dissociation and how this could affects the formation of co-crystals. A discussion has been introduced in this research of how similar solubility of the compounds maps the formation of the typical ternary phase diagram of the mixture of 1:1 while compounds with different solubility maps the formation of skewed phase diagram as shown in section 1.6.2.3. In this project an isotherm ternary phase diagram at 20 °C and 40 °C was constructed to map the behaviour of benzoic acid and isonicotinamide and to show all possible phases formed and the regions where all phases are represented in the ternary phase diagram were determined by the slurry method. The ternary phase diagram was used to design a drawn out and cooling crystallisation at 100 cm3 solution of 50 % ethanol / water mixed solvent and a study of the impact of seeds of co-crystals 1:1 on the cooling crystallisation method.
    • The Impact of Oil Revenue on the Iranian Economy

      Jalilian, Hossein; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Olfati, Ronak (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2018)
      This study aims to identify the effects of oil income on economic growth in Iran over the period 1955-2014. The empirical literature indicates that countries with natural resources are growing more slowly than their counterparts. However, the results from this literature are far from conclusive, particularly in regard to the role played by oil-rich countries. Needless to say, this role depends on other factors as well, including the political situation in the country, the quality of institutions, and the efficacy of the financial system. Some empirical research has found that natural resources, particularly oil, can have a positive impact on the output of a country. although natural resources are not a factor of production in growth theories, studies have used different growth frameworks in order to discover whether having natural resources is a blessing or a curse. In line with recent studies, this work uses an augmented neoclassical growth model to develop a theoretical framework where oil enters the long-term output of the country through saving and investment. Overall, the results suggests that oil income has a positive impact on the level of output per capita in Iran. The findings of the econometric results are in line with the historical analysis of the study. Since different methods and proxies were used, a total of eight models were estimated. Interestingly, when PRIVY is used as an index of financial development, the result of the study changes and oil no longer has a significant impact on the economy. However, this can be translated to an inefficient allocation of credit to the private sector.
    • Impact of oil revenue volatility on the real exchange rate and the structure of economy: Empirical evidence of “Dutch disease” in Iraq

      Jalilian, Hossein; Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Yaqub, Kamaran Q.
      This thesis analyses the extent to which a boom in a particular export commodity sector (i.e., oil) affects relative price of non-tradable goods against tradable goods, the real exchange rate and competitiveness in the rest of the economy: This problem has been analysed in the early stage by (Corden and Neary 1982) with the so-called ‘Dutch-disease’. As a result, booming sector (oil Sector) the country’s currency appreciates, thereby reducing the competitiveness of the country’s traditional export sector in international market. This thesis examines whether Dutch Disease is present in Iraq in the light of having not study about Dutch Disease phenomena. It evaluates the impact of growing oil revenues on non-oil sectors of the Iraqi economy. It produces some empirical evidence for the explanation non-tradable goods and contraction of tradable goods sector due to booming oil sector and appreciation real exchange rate and made tradable goods sector become uncompetitive for export. The main findings form this thesis that the Iraqi economy was subject to have the Dutch disease phenomena during the boom. Some of the indications of the disease, remarkably the increase of relative prices, the real exchange rate appreciation, contraction tradable goods sector and expansion of nontraded goods output were applicable. The study uses annual time series data sourced from home and international agencies from 1970 to 2013. Due to problem with endogeneity, the data are analysed through the use of two stages least square. Finally, the thesis discusses briefly some policy measures that will help avoid the issue of appreciation real exchange rate and changing the structure of economy out of tradable goods to non-tradable goods sector.