• Heat transfer in mixing vessels at low Reynolds numbers. An experimental study of temperature profiles heat transfer rates and power requirements for mechanically agitated vessels operating at low Reynolds numbers.

      Edwards, M.F.; Shamlou, Parviz Ayazi (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering, 2010-08-04)
      The present study investigates experimentally the laminar mixing and heat transfer of a range of helical ribbon and anchor impellers for both Newtonian and inelastic non-Newtonian fluids. The work also correlates the experimental data empirically in the form of dimensionless groups. In order to estimate the relative importance and the effect of all the geometrical parameters on the mixing power and heat transfer, data from the published literature sources will be utilized and combined with the results from this study. Thus, reliable empirical correlations will be obtained which are applicable over the widest range of operating conditions. The study also investigates the ablity of the various impellers to level out temerature distributions. The measurement of these temperature gradients and the impeller power requirements gives a measure of the mixing efficiency of the impeller used.
    • Heat transfer in upward flowing two-phase gas-liquid mixtures. An experimental study of heat transfer in two-phase gas-liquid mixtures flowing upwards in a vertical tube with liquid phase being driven by a pump or air injection.

      Hallam, R.A.; Alahmad, Malik I.N. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering, 2009-10-06)
      An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the heat transfer in a two-phase two-component mixture flowing upward inside a 1" double pipe heat exchanger. The heat transfer coefficient was measured using either air to lift the liquid (air-lift system) or a mechanical pump. The heat transfer coefficient results have been extensively studied and compared with other workers' results. An attempt was made to correlate the present heat transfer data in dimensionless correlations. Possible factors affecting the two-phase heat transfer coefficient have been studied with special attention being given to the fluid properties, particularly the liquid viscosity. Experiments were also carried out to investigate the effect of solid particles added to a liquid flow on the measured heat transfer coefficient. The present investigation was carried out using air as the gas-phase ranging from 2x 10-5 up to 80 x 10-5 m3/s. Liquids used were water and glycerol solutions with viscosity ranging from 0.75 up to 5.0 C. P. and flowrates between 4x 10-5 and 25 x 10-5 m3/s. Void fraction and pressure drop were also measured during the heat transfer process. Flow pattern in gas-liquid mixture was investigated in a perspex tube of identical dimensions to the heat exchanger tube.
    • Here, there is nobody. An ethnography of older people's end-of-life care in hospital

      Oyebode, Jan R.; Capstick, Andrea; Green, Laura I. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2017)
      The alleviation of suffering lies at the core of compassionate end-of-life care, yet little is known about the lived experience of suffering. Motivated by a series of reports on poor care of older people in hospital, this study addresses suffering in older people at the end of life in an acute hospital ward in the United Kingdom. Methods were developed from a synthesis of ethnographic fieldwork and phenomenological interpretation. Data were collected using participant observation on an acute care ward for older people in a hospital in Northern England, over 186 hours between June and August 2015. Data included field notes, documents, photographs and informal interviewing. Staff and patient participants were identified using theoretical sampling. Data were analysed using a hermeneutic approach involving a continuous process of analysis, further data collection, posing of problems and questions, and interpretation. This cyclical approach to the data enabled the development of interpretive perspectives which could then be further explored in the field. Findings suggested that care for older people was shaped by competing ideologies of care and organisational regulatory processes. Particularly when there was ambiguity regarding prognosis, there was a tendency for care to default to a ‘rescuing’ acute care model. Through exploring the experiences of individual patients and placing these in the context of cultures of care, I suggest that iatrogenic suffering was a significant concern that often went unrecognised. Patient-centred goals must be more focused upon avoidance of iatrogenic suffering. Recommendations include innovations in clinical education and multiprofessional working.
    • Heterogeneous crystallisation of polyethylene terephthalate. A study of the influence of organic and inorganic additives on the rate of crystallisation of polyethylene terephthalate and the subsequent changes in morphology and mechanical properties.

      Sheldon, R.P.; Ibbotson, C. (University of BradfordSchool of Polymer Science, 2009-11-26)
      The effect of various inorganic and organic additives as possible nucleating agents on the crystallisation behaviour of P. E. T. and the suosequent influence on the morphological and mechanical properties has been examined. Various methods of mixing(: the polymer and additive were investigated and a method involving the screw-Extrusion of the polymer and the additive was ultimately adopted. Crystallisation studies were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry under dynamic and isothermal modes. The results produced under conditions of isothermal crystallisation were analysed by means of a computer. Despite differences between batches of polymer all the additives with the exception of indigo produced a nucleating effect in the polymer as indicated by an increase in the rate of crystallisation compared with that of the base polymer. Two organo-metallic substances (sodium benzoate and sodium stearate) proved to be the most effective in this respect by decreasing the degree of supercooling of the polymer by 20 [degrees]. Morphological studies were carried out on isothermally crystallised samples, after etching and replication using a transmission electron microscope. A nodular structure whose dimensions were sensitive to both the nucleating agent and the temperature of crystallisation was observed. Mechanical testing of samples direct from the D. S. C. was carried out using a compression method. The breaking loads were found to vary with both the type of nucleating agent used and the crystallisation temperature chosen. A separate study involving the exanination of the resulting fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy revealed that a, high breaking load was associated with a fine discontinuous structure whereas lower breaking loads were characterised by a more continuous linear appearance. This implies a higher energy of fracture due to the increased surface area of the fracture surface of the former.
    • Heterogeneous Networking for Beyond 3G system in a High-Speed Train Environment. Investigation of handover procedures in a high-speed train environment and adoption of a pattern classification neural-networks approach for handover management

      Sheriff, Ray E.; Chan, Pauline M.L.; Ong, Felicia Li Chin (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      Based on the targets outlined by the EU Horizon 2020 (H2020) framework, it is expected that heterogeneous networking will play a crucial role in delivering seamless end-to-end ubiquitous Internet access for users. In due course, the current GSM-Railway (GSM-R) will be deemed unsustainable, as the demand for packet-oriented services continues to increase. Therefore, the opportunity to identify a plausible replacement system conducted in this research study is timely and appropriate. In this research study, a hybrid satellite and terrestrial network for enabling ubiquitous Internet access in a high-speed train environment is investigated. The study focuses on the mobility management aspect of the system, primarily related to the handover management. A proposed handover strategy, employing the RACE II MONET and ITU-T Q.65 design methodology, will be addressed. This includes identifying the functional model (FM) which is then mapped to the functional architecture (FUA), based on the Q.1711 IMT-2000 FM. In addition, the signalling protocols, information flows and message format based on the adopted design methodology will also be specified. The approach is then simulated in OPNET and the findings are then presented and discussed. The opportunity of exploring the prospect of employing neural networks (NN) for handover is also undertaken. This study focuses specifically on the use of pattern classification neural networks to aid in the handover process, which is then simulated in MATLAB. The simulation outcomes demonstrated the effectiveness and appropriateness of the NN algorithm and the competence of the algorithm in facilitating the handover process.
    • Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water over nanoscale powdered titanium dioxide. The photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water (Reactive Orange 16, Triclocarbon, Clopyralid and Estrogens (estrone, 17ß-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol)) was studied; the reaction kinetics and the effect of the operating parameters on the performance of the system were determined; a comparison with other advanced oxidation processes (O3, H2O2, UV) was also made.

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj; Mezughi, Khaled M. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2011-04-08)
      Organic contaminants from industrial and/or domestic effluents may be harmful to humans directly or indirectly by degrading the quality of the aquatic environment. Consequently these contaminants must be reduced to levels that are not harmful to humans and the environment before disposal. Chemical, physical and biological methods exist for the removal of these pollutants from effluents. Among the available chemical methods, heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation has been found particularly effective in removing a large number of persistent organics in water. In this study, photocatalytic degradation was explored for the removal of reactive azo-dye (textile dye), triclocarban (disinfectant), clopyralid (herbicide) and three endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17ß-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) from synthetic effluents. The major factors affecting the photocatalytic processes including the initial concentration of the target compounds, the amount of catalyst, the light intensity, the type of catalyst, the electron acceptor, the irradiation time and the pH were studied. Other oxidation techniques including (O3, H2O2, UV) were also studied. Generally UV light is used in combination with titanium dioxide, as photocatalyst, to generate photoinduced charge separation leading to the creation of electron-hole pairs. The holes act as electron acceptors hence the oxidation of organics occur at these sites. These holes can also lead to the formation of hydroxyl radicals which are also effective oxidants capable of degrading the organics. The results obtained in this study indicated that photolysis (i.e. UV only) was found to have no effect on the degradation of reactive azo-dye (RO16). However, complete photocatalytic degradation of 20 mg/L (3.24×10-2 mM) RO16 was achieved in 20 minutes in the presence of 1g/L TiO2 Degussa P25 at pH 5.5. Comparison between various types of catalysts (i.e. Degussa P25, VP Aeroperl, Hombifine N) gave varied results but Degussa P25 was the most effective photocatalyst hence it was selected for this study. For RO16 the optimum catalyst concentration was 0.5 g/L TiO2 with initial concentration of 20 mg/L RO16. It was found that the disappearance of RO16 satisfactorily followed the pseudo first-order kinetics according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model. The rate constant was k= 0.0928 mol/min. Photodegradation of TCC was studied in 70%v acetonitrile: 30%v water solutions. UV light degraded TCC effectively and the reaction rates increased with decreasing initial concentration of TCC. UV/TiO2 gave unsatisfactory degradation of triclocarban (TCC) since only 36% were removed in 60 minutes with initial concentration of TCC 20 mg/L. The degradation of clopyralid and the EDCs was studied using three oxidation systems UV/TiO2, UV/H2O2 and O3. Complete degradation of clopyralid (3,6-DCP) was achieved with UV/TiO2 in about 90 minutes at an optimum catalyst concentration of 1g/L. Zero-order kinetics was found to describe the first stage of the photocatalytic reaction in the concentration range 0.078-0.521 mM. At pH 5 the rate constant was 2.09×10-6-4.32×10-7 M.s-1.Complete degradation of all the three EDCs was achieved with UV/H2O2 in 60 minutes at catalyst concentration of (2.94×10-2 M). On the other hand complete degradation of the EDCs was achieved in just 2 minutes with ozonation. For high concentration EDCs, TiO2/UV gave low efficiency of degradation as compared with ozone and H2O2/UV. First-order kinetics was found to describe the photocatalytic reaction of the EDCs.
    • A Heuristic Featured Based Quantification Framework for Efficient Malware Detection. Measuring the Malicious intent of a file using anomaly probabilistic scoring and evidence combinational theory with fuzzy hashing for malware detection in Portable Executable files

      Awan, Irfan U.; Disso, Jules P.; Cullen, Andrea J.; Namanya, Anitta P. (University of BradfordSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2016)
      Malware is still one of the most prominent vectors through which computer networks and systems are compromised. A compromised computer system or network provides data and or processing resources to the world of cybercrime. With cybercrime projected to cost the world $6 trillion by 2021, malware is expected to continue being a growing challenge. Statistics around malware growth over the last decade support this theory as malware numbers enjoy almost an exponential increase over the period. Recent reports on the complexity of the malware show that the fight against malware as a means of building more resilient cyberspace is an evolving challenge. Compounding the problem is the lack of cyber security expertise to handle the expected rise in incidents. This thesis proposes advancing automation of the malware static analysis and detection to improve the decision-making confidence levels of a standard computer user in regards to a file’s malicious status. Therefore, this work introduces a framework that relies on two novel approaches to score the malicious intent of a file. The first approach attaches a probabilistic score to heuristic anomalies to calculate an overall file malicious score while the second approach uses fuzzy hashes and evidence combination theory for more efficient malware detection. The approaches’ resultant quantifiable scores measure the malicious intent of the file. The designed schemes were validated using a dataset of “clean” and “malicious” files. The results obtained show that the framework achieves true positive – false positive detection rate “trade-offs” for efficient malware detection.
    • High and Low Involvement: An Exploration of Ethical Product Decisions

      Wright, Gillian H.; Foti, Lianne K.
      Purpose Ethical elaboration is an aspect of product involvement and this research examines the relationship between involvement and ethical consumption providing a more holistic understanding of ethical decision-­making. This paper identifies antecedents of both low and high involvement ethical product decision-­making at farmers’ markets, and with sustainable and energy efficient features in the housing market, respectively. Design/methodology/approach These aims are achieved through semi-­structured and in-­depth interviews with consumers and sellers of ethical products across low and high involvement domains. Findings The empirical investigation reveals new insights into the constructs considered when purchasing high involvement ethical products. Barriers are discussed and findings examine the relationships between trust, information, ethical motivation and signalling. Research implications A research process framework for the study of ethical decision-­making is presented, demonstrating that constructs are approached differently between involvement levels. A conceptual model providing steps for transferring knowledge gained from the research to practice is also developed. Practical implications This research aids in the dispersion of information among stakeholders so that sustainability and energy efficiency can be part of the standard real estate conversation. Social implications Sustainability and energy efficiency (SEE) housing is seen as a niche market and this research will help alter the behaviour of the stakeholders in order to incentivise consumers to change their purchase patterns to include SEE features. Originality/value Most of the work on ethical consumption deals with low-­involvement products. This study addresses high-­involvement ethical consumption within the housing market through a qualitative approach.
    • High speed very thin films with reverse roll coatings. An experimental investigation of reverse roll coating of fluids using rigid and deformable rolls at high speeds.

      Benkreira, Hadj; Patel, Rajnikant; Shibata, Yusuke (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-05)
      The objective of a coating operation is to transfer a defect free liquid film onto a continuous substrate in order to meet the requirements of the final products. Mainly two concerns govern the process. The first concern is the economics of the process and the second concern is the quality of the coated film. The economics of the process are dictated by the speed of coating and the film thickness. Clearly, higher speeds mean better productivity hence less cost of operation and thinner films are desirable because less material is being used. Quality is governed by film uniformity and integrity, indicating that the film will perform as designed. Film defects such as streaks or tiny air bubbles are indication that the film properties are not uniform rendering it unacceptable to customers. One of the most versatile coating systems to achieve thin films at high speeds is reverse roll coating which has been used for a long time all over the world. At low speed, typically 1m/s, this coating operation is inherently stable and with small gaps of order 100 microns can ii lead to film thickness of order 30-50 microns. Much research, theoretical and experimental, has been devoted to this coating flow but only at low speeds and for large gaps (>100 microns). There are no comprehensive data how very thin films, 20 microns and less (particularly lower limits in the region of 5 microns) can be achieved at high speeds, of 2 or more metres per second. This study is concerned precisely with this aim, that of investigating the effect of large speeds and small roller gaps (rollers nearly touching or in elastohydrodynamic contact) to achieve the very thin films desired by modern applications (electronics, medical and others). In order to achieve this aim, a rig was designed and built to enable to understand the effect of various coating conditions and liquid properties on the metered film thickness and coating instability. To achieve thin films at high speeds, small roll gap and low viscosity are needed, however flow instabilities will develop under these conditions. To achieve stable coating window at high speeds high surface tension is needed. It was found that the roll gap and the viscosity have complicated effect on the coating window. In the case of low viscosity liquid (7mPa.s), small roll gaps are needed, whereas in the case of high viscosity liquid (more than 30mPa.s), large gaps are needed. It was found that Weber number is better describer for ribbing instability in rigid reverse roll coating unlike in rigid forward roll coating in which capillary number is the one. In addition the potential of reverse deformable roll coating (rolls in elastohydrodynamic contact) was investigated in order to achieve much thinner films at higher speeds. As a result of the investigation of reverse deformable roll coating, it was found that there is a possibility to get much thinner stable films at much higher speeds compared to reverse rigid roll coating. The liquid transfer from an applicator roller to a PET film was investigated in this study. It was found that air stagnation at downstream meniscus and air entrainment at upstream meniscus depend on the liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension and coating conditions such as web tension and wrap angle of web. As a result, wet film instability also depends on liquid properties and coating conditions. It was found that air stagnation causes streaks on the wet film and air entrainment caused bubbles on the wet film. To get a stable wet film, it was found that suitable viscosity and high surface tension were needed.
    • History’s Wound: Collective Trauma and the Israel/Palestine conflict

      Whitman, Jim R.; Hughes, Caroline; Shahi, Afshin; Thorsten, Marie; Ottman, Esta T.
      In considering the Israel-Palestine conflict, focus has remained on conventional major issues: borders, settlements, Jerusalem, Palestinian refugee rights and water. Should there be one binational state, or two states for two peoples? Yet this is a conflict that is sustained by factors more profound than the dispute over limited resources or competing nationalisms. The parties’ narratives, continually rehearsed, speak of a cataclysmic event or chain of events, a collective trauma, which has created such deep suffering and disruption that the rehearsers remain ‘frozen’ amid the overarching context of political violence. This study offers a critical analysis of the concept of collective trauma together with the role of commemorative practices, including core contemporary canonical days of memory, and asks to what extent they may hinder progress in the resolution of an intractable conflict, such as the Israel/Palestine conflict. Without addressing the powerful traumatic current that underpins a chronic conflict, no amount of top-down formal peace-making is likely to be sustainable.
    • Holding on: gender relations, food security and women’s options and strategies for maintaining access to land in the Acholi region of Uganda

      Macaulay, Fiona; Jacobs, Susie; Thorley, Lisa (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2015)
      This research is based on fieldwork that was carried out in the post-conflict villages of Adunu and Kom in the Acholi region of northern Uganda. It argues that a woman’s maintained access to customary land within these villages is determined not only by her sex and by provisions within Acholi customary law, but also by her marital and parental status as framed by patriarchal ideologies and power relations. It shows that if women wish to retain and hold on to land that is socially (and sometimes, legally) meant to be ‘theirs’, they must be prepared constantly to bargain and negotiate with either their husband, their husband’s lineage or their own natal clan. They must also conform to gendered norms concerning female behaviour, especially those that pertain to their sexuality and reproductive abilities. It is by adopting such strategies and, often, by making concessions, that they will be able to, in most cases, maintain access to land, particularly if land is in abundance. The thesis also shows that women’s food security is contingent on the gendered relations that they have and maintain with male family members and also on factors that are external, be these climate change or their ability to farm effectively. By looking at the relevance of gender relations in land access and food security, through a gender awareness lens and a feminist ethnography, this thesis provides a nuanced understanding of how women maintain access to customary land and how they can achieve food security, albeit within a male dominated system.
    • A holistic approach to injection moulding optimisation for product quality and cost through the characterisation of reprocessed polymeric materials and process monitoring. Experimental evaluations and statistical analysis of multiple reprocessing of unfilled and short glass fibre filled polypropylene materials. An optimised methodology to realise minimum product cost at an acceptable product quality.

      Mulvaney-Johnson, Leigh; Campean, I. Felician; Elsheikhi, Salah A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-04-16)
      The plastics industry is one of the fastest growing major industries in the world. There is an increase in the amount of plastic used for all types of products due to its light weight and ability to reprocess. For this reason, the reprocessing of thermoplastics and the usability of reprocessed materials are gaining significance, and it is important to produce and consume plastic materials in an environmentally friendly way. In addition, rising raw material cost linked to the increased oil prices encouraged for reusing of the plastic materials. The aim of this research was to study and optimize the injection moulding process parameters to achieve a trade-off between the product cost and product quality, measured through mechanical properties and geometry, based on using regrind ratios. The work was underpinned by a comprehensive study of multiple reprocessing effects in order to evaluate the effect of process parameters, material behaviour, reprocessing effects and possible links between the processing parameters and key properties. Experimental investigations were carried out, in particular, focused on the melt preparation phase to identify key process parameters and settings. Multiple reprocessing stages were carried out; using two types of PP material: unfilled and short glass filled. A series of tests were used to examine product quality (mass, colour and shrinkage) and physical properties (density, crystallinity, thermal stability, fibre length, molecular weight, in-line and off-line viscosity, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation (%) and flexural strength). This investigation showed that the mouldability of the filled and unfilled PP materials, through the successive reprocessing stages (using 100 % regrind), was observed to be relatively consistent. Given the link between the processing parameters and key product and material properties, it is possible to manufacture products with minimal loss to part quality and mechanical properties. The final phase of the work focused on process optimisation study for short glass fibre filled PP material and the identified key process parameters (melt temperature, screw rotational speed, holding pressure, holding time and injection rate). A response surface experiment was planned and carried out for three reprocessing stages (0 %, 25 % and 50 % regrind). The fitted response surface models were utilised to carry out the trade-off analysis between the operating cost (material cost, energy cost and labour cost) and product quality (dimensions and tensile strength) Based on the optimal moulding conditions, the operating cost was reduced (from stage I as a reference), by 24% and 30 % for stage II and stage III respectively. A small, perhaps undetectable, change in product dimensions was noted. In addition, a small reduction in tensile strength was noted (from stage I as a reference), by 0.4% and 0.1 % for stage II and stage III respectively. The same data was applied in other countries (Australia, USA, Brazil, Libya and China) to manufacture the same product; and it was observed that the cost was reduced with increasing of regrind ratio. But the significant reduction of the cost, essentially, depended on those countries which have low wage rates (e.g. Brazil, Libya and China). For example, the cost of moulded product manufactured in China is £ 0.025 (using 50% of regrind), while the cost of the same product produced in Australia is £ 0.12, hence giving a total saving of 79 % and making it a valuable issue to be considered in industry.
    • A home physiotherapy service for stroke patients in Malta: constraints and recommendations. The process of setting up a home physiotherapy service for hospitalised stroke patients within the public health system in Malta - new knowledge contributing to a strategy document.

      Hepworth, Deborah; Lungaro-Mifsud, Stephen (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2010-06-08)
      Home physiotherapy is a valid service option for the patient who was recently discharged from hospital after sustaining a stroke, as it enhances functional independence in friendly and familiar surroundings, as opposed to an outpatient clinic (Bader 2008). The aim of this study was to investigate the system responses to the planning and implementation of a home physiotherapy service as an innovation within the Maltese Public Health Service, uncovering barriers or constraints that influenced the introduction and development of state-run home physiotherapy in Malta. Method A qualitative approach was used for this research. A case study design was selected because it possessed contextual, descriptive and heuristic characteristics. Study participants planned and implemented the service using the available resources. Policy makers, physiotherapists, stroke patients and caregivers contributed to the study through their responses to, and experiences of, this service innovation. It was both an exploration and an opportunity to learn about service innovation from a Maltese perspective. A group of stakeholders were interviewed during the planning stage (Phase 1) of the home physiotherapy service. The main purpose of these interviews was to inform the design of the service. Another group of participants was interviewed in the active service stage (Phase 2) - at the beginning and at the end. The purpose here was to gather data from their direct experiences with home physiotherapy. Documents relevant to home rehabilitation were accessed and analysed hermeneutically. These included newspaper media, as it was considered a sensitive instrument to understand social context (Catalán Matamoros 2007; Davis 1990). Findings and discussion Data analysis identified categories of findings such as ¿barriers to the implementation of a new service¿, ¿attitudes to home physiotherapy¿ and ¿fragmented rehabilitation service¿. The category components were discussed and linked to the hermeneutical analysis of documents, offering a deeper understanding of the categories within the local context, and revealing a reinforcement of establishment-based health care. Conclusion The findings of this study provided an insight into the constraints that would appear if home physiotherapy, indeed home rehabilitation, were introduced by the Maltese Public Health Service. This research had an impact on the state physiotherapy services. Recommendations to help mitigate the constraints in an overarching manner were offered at the end of the thesis. To the international reader with experience in organised home physiotherapy, this study gives a glimpse into how issues that would seem trivial and obvious at first glance become significant challenges¿.challenges that the uninitiated would need to overcome.
    • How did governance in Acholi dovetail with violence?

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Francis, David J.; Oloya, John J. (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2015)
      This thesis applies interdisciplinary approaches to explore interactions between two forms of community governance in Acholiland from 1898 to 2010, locating itself within Peace Studies. One form, kaka, was “traditional”, featuring varied forms of “facultative mutualisms” among two or more gangi agnates – with one gang as dominant in the realm. Gangi were kinship-based polities. Like kaka, gangi manifested autopoietic attributes and strong internal “fiduciary cultures”. Then in the 1900s, kaka as governing systems were reshuffled under colonialism and a tribal unit, the Acholi Local Government was created and was subordinated to the Uganda state. Unlike kaka, Acholi Local Government was hierarchal and has consistently been redesigned by various postcolonial governments in their attempts to renegotiate, reshape and control the Acholi people. The study advances a concept of community governance as “socialpolitical” and moral, and counters that kaka was about brotherhoods - not rulersubject relationships. It further distinguishes what was “traditional” from “customary” systems, and demonstrates how colonialism in Acholiland, and a crisis of legitimacy manifested in a trifurcation of authorities, with: i) the despotic civil service - the “customary system”, fusing modernity and the African tradition, ii) a reshuffled kaka system as traditional, and, iii) the cross-modern, manifested as kinematic lugwok paco, linking ethno-governance with the nascent national and global arenas. The study concludes that both colonialism and “coloniality” have reshuffled the mores of kaka along an African neo-patrimonial legitimacy. Conversely, Acholiland is a “limited statehood” – manifesting a higher order of societal entropy - where the “rule by law and customs” dovetail with violence and poverty, demonstrating a genre of exceptionalism.
    • How the New Labour Government Third Way policies (1998-2010) and the delivery of the New Deal for Communities (NDC) regeneration programme impacted on participation in health care in an area-based initiative. A longitudinal study using action-learning research methodology in a New Deal for Communities Area Based Initiative

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Greenham, Felicity J. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies and International Development, 2018)
      The research examines New Labour’s Third Way policies and the impact New Deal for Communities (NDC) regeneration programme had on participation in health care. This longitudinal study (1998-2007) explores participatory joint working, welfare state, social capacity, health inequalities, citizen involvement and community capacity. It captures the experiences of local community and front-line workers whilst delivering the Health Focus Group (HFG) in the NDC programme. Using action learning reflection techniques, the study analyses a purposeful sample of 15 from the local community, front-line workers, and strategic respondents involved in the NDC health programme. The research demonstrated the NDC did increase participation, joint working and involvement of local actors 1998–2003. The importance of communication, leadership and relationships was recognised as an important catalyst for developing community governance models. The new action learning spaces initiated, designed and delivered 19 new models of joint local clinical, community and complementary health and well-being projects. In 2001, New Labour introduced public private finance initiatives with the Primary Care Trust (PCT) which conflicted with the local actors’ involvement in the participatory joint decision-making. The reconfiguration of health and social care services and the new public health models introduced complex governance and monitoring models, further distancing the local actors from the process. Strategic staff changes in key governance positions also adversely affected the communication and trust established with local actors. The research concluded operational, tactical, and strategic alignment is necessary to maximise joint participation in decision-making.
    • Human colour perception. A psychophysical study of human colour perception for real and computer-simulated two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects.

      Bloj, Marina; Hedrich, Monika (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision Science, 2010-05-17)
    • Human resource development : training and development practices and related organisational factors in Kuwaiti organisations.

      Weir, David; Taylor, David; Al-Ali, Adnan A.S. (University of BradfordManagement Centre, 2011-07-07)
      This study examines and aims to disclose the current policies and practices of Training and Development (T&D) within Kuwaiti government and private/joint-venture organisations. The literature review indicates that although much attention has been devoted in studying Training and Development practices, a very few focus on T&D related factors on organisation performance in developing countries. The literature also indicates the need for considering these factors in order to have a better T&D effectiveness, and hence organisation overall performance. In this study the Training for Impact model was adopted and tested within Kuwaiti context in terms of training needs assessment and evaluation and follow-up. This research uses data collected from 100 organisations in Kuwait. 50 of these were government and 50 private /joint venture listed in Kuwait Stock Exchange. Therefore, all managers (100 training personnel) who are in charge of T&D function/programmes, were samples of the respondents of the present study. The main data collection methods adopted by this study were interviews (semi-structured) and "drop-in and pick-up" self-completion questionnaires. The data were quantitatively analysed and triangulation of quantitative findings was carried out in order to find out the difference between the two sectors in Kuwait in terms of T&D practices and related factors. To establish a causal connection between related factors and identified dimensions (T&D effectiveness, organisational rating, and satisfaction with evaluation process), a multiple regression technique was employed. The major findings of this study are noted below: Results indicate that the majority of the investigated organisations do not have a formal T&D system. T&D programmes are still carried out on a piecemeal basis rather than a systematic long-term policy. Findings which were common among the majority of the approached organisations were absence of a systematic organisational training needs analysis, use of conventional training methods, lack of effective procedures for T&D evaluation. The study explores the training personnel's way of thinking towards their T&D function and to the proposed T&D dimensions framework (integrated HRD strategy, top and line management commitment, a supportive formal system, T&D mechanism, organisational culture, and training budget). The findings indicate that most of the training personnel perceived these dimensions as providing motivation, commitment and support to their T&D function. Six main factors were found to influence T&D practices in government and private/joint venture organisations. These factors are: top management commitment, mutual support between organisational philosophy and T&D activities, line management support T&D involvement in organisation strategy, T&D policies and plans, and T&D effects on employees self-development. The study also identifies T&D effects on organisation performance in Kuwaiti organisations in terms of eliminating problems; increasing commitment and motivation; fulfilling individual needs and personal objectives, improving interpersonal and interdepartmental relations, improving quality of goods and services; and leading to effective utilisation and investment in human resources. In addition the study establishes a causal connection of T&D related factors with performance dimensions, organisation rating, and satisfaction of T&D evaluation. The author recommends that for the T&D function to be treated as seriously as other organisational functions, then Kuwaiti training personnel, as well as top and line management, need to be more willing to play proactive and strategic organisational roles in T&D activities.
    • Human Resource Development: An assessment of capacity development initiatives of World Bank projects in Ghana

      Analoui, Farhad; Danquah, Joseph K. (University of BradfordDivision of Peace Studies and International Development, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
      The significance of capacity development programmes, as key driver for sustaining development goals, is anchored in all international fora. This research complements and extends our present understanding of the contribution of capacity development approaches to development and achievement of the SDGs. This is achieved by critically assessing the impact of capacity development initiatives sponsored by the World Bank. This thesis has focused on analysis of implementation strategies and critical assessment of the impact of the projects using multidisciplinary approach, utilising a range of quantitative and qualitative methods. It provides a sound empirical basis for assessing the complexities of these projects. This empirical investigation has identified a wide range of disparities of implementation strategies utilised for capacity development initiatives among the major international players (World Bank and UNDP). These findings clearly indicate that there is no single strategy for the implementation of capacity development initiatives. Thus, based on empirical evidence, as well as a critical review of the literature, the study proposes a model for achieving critical sustainable capacity development based on broad and long-term strategies; input, process, output, and outcome which defines the appropriateness of policies and practices that support sustainable development. It is concluded that capacity development initiatives are relevant and essential ensuring national development and sustainable results. The recommendations include the focus on individual, organisational, and societal factors when planning, developing and adopting strategies for implementing all government/national programmes.
    • Human resource development: An investigation into the nature and extent of training and development in the Saudi private manufacturing sector.

      Taylor, David; Jobber, David; Albahussain, Sami A.M.A. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Management and Administration, 2011-07-14)
      This research explores the nature and extent of training and development (TD) provision, as well as top managers' and TD personnel's attitudes towards the TD function within the medium and large-size private manufacturing organisations of Saudi Arabia. Extensive details of the TD situation are provided and assessed for their adequacy, covering among other elements a descriptive analysis of the main characteristics of the organisations concerned, an evaluation of their TD plans and policies, and a review of their budget allocation and funding. The research then proceeds to describe and discuss the extent to which such organisations are applying a systems approach to TD, both in terms of its design and implementation. Thereafter, the main factors impeding the effectiveness of TD programmes are examined, followed by a consideration of the future challenges that are likely to increase the importance of TD for the organisations in question. The research has adopted a mainly descriptive approach and uses both quantitative and qualitative analytical methods. The required data were gathered through a combination of semi-structural interviews with a number of top managers, and survey questionnaires addressed to the persons responsible for TD within the targeted organisations. The sampling strategy was disproportional stratified random sampling. In total 16 senior executives, 132 medium-size organisations and 94 large-size organisations took part in the study. The findings reveal that although attitudes towards the value of TD are generally favourable, in practice in the majority of cases TD is under-resourced, unplanned and patchy, hardly the ideal features of a systematic model of TD that will enable private manufacturing business to successfully meet the challenges of the future ahead. The research ends with a number of specific and practical recommendations intended to improve the effectiveness of TD in the private manufacturing sector of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as a number of suggestions for further research.