• History’s Wound: Collective Trauma and the Israel/Palestine conflict

      Whitman, Jim R.; Hughes, Caroline; Shahi, Afshin; Thorsten, Marie; Ottman, Esta T.
      In considering the Israel-Palestine conflict, focus has remained on conventional major issues: borders, settlements, Jerusalem, Palestinian refugee rights and water. Should there be one binational state, or two states for two peoples? Yet this is a conflict that is sustained by factors more profound than the dispute over limited resources or competing nationalisms. The parties’ narratives, continually rehearsed, speak of a cataclysmic event or chain of events, a collective trauma, which has created such deep suffering and disruption that the rehearsers remain ‘frozen’ amid the overarching context of political violence. This study offers a critical analysis of the concept of collective trauma together with the role of commemorative practices, including core contemporary canonical days of memory, and asks to what extent they may hinder progress in the resolution of an intractable conflict, such as the Israel/Palestine conflict. Without addressing the powerful traumatic current that underpins a chronic conflict, no amount of top-down formal peace-making is likely to be sustainable.
    • Holding on: gender relations, food security and women’s options and strategies for maintaining access to land in the Acholi region of Uganda

      Macaulay, Fiona; Jacobs, Susie; Thorley, Lisa (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2015)
      This research is based on fieldwork that was carried out in the post-conflict villages of Adunu and Kom in the Acholi region of northern Uganda. It argues that a woman’s maintained access to customary land within these villages is determined not only by her sex and by provisions within Acholi customary law, but also by her marital and parental status as framed by patriarchal ideologies and power relations. It shows that if women wish to retain and hold on to land that is socially (and sometimes, legally) meant to be ‘theirs’, they must be prepared constantly to bargain and negotiate with either their husband, their husband’s lineage or their own natal clan. They must also conform to gendered norms concerning female behaviour, especially those that pertain to their sexuality and reproductive abilities. It is by adopting such strategies and, often, by making concessions, that they will be able to, in most cases, maintain access to land, particularly if land is in abundance. The thesis also shows that women’s food security is contingent on the gendered relations that they have and maintain with male family members and also on factors that are external, be these climate change or their ability to farm effectively. By looking at the relevance of gender relations in land access and food security, through a gender awareness lens and a feminist ethnography, this thesis provides a nuanced understanding of how women maintain access to customary land and how they can achieve food security, albeit within a male dominated system.
    • A holistic approach to injection moulding optimisation for product quality and cost through the characterisation of reprocessed polymeric materials and process monitoring. Experimental evaluations and statistical analysis of multiple reprocessing of unfilled and short glass fibre filled polypropylene materials. An optimised methodology to realise minimum product cost at an acceptable product quality.

      Mulvaney-Johnson, Leigh; Campean, I. Felician; Elsheikhi, Salah A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-04-16)
      The plastics industry is one of the fastest growing major industries in the world. There is an increase in the amount of plastic used for all types of products due to its light weight and ability to reprocess. For this reason, the reprocessing of thermoplastics and the usability of reprocessed materials are gaining significance, and it is important to produce and consume plastic materials in an environmentally friendly way. In addition, rising raw material cost linked to the increased oil prices encouraged for reusing of the plastic materials. The aim of this research was to study and optimize the injection moulding process parameters to achieve a trade-off between the product cost and product quality, measured through mechanical properties and geometry, based on using regrind ratios. The work was underpinned by a comprehensive study of multiple reprocessing effects in order to evaluate the effect of process parameters, material behaviour, reprocessing effects and possible links between the processing parameters and key properties. Experimental investigations were carried out, in particular, focused on the melt preparation phase to identify key process parameters and settings. Multiple reprocessing stages were carried out; using two types of PP material: unfilled and short glass filled. A series of tests were used to examine product quality (mass, colour and shrinkage) and physical properties (density, crystallinity, thermal stability, fibre length, molecular weight, in-line and off-line viscosity, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation (%) and flexural strength). This investigation showed that the mouldability of the filled and unfilled PP materials, through the successive reprocessing stages (using 100 % regrind), was observed to be relatively consistent. Given the link between the processing parameters and key product and material properties, it is possible to manufacture products with minimal loss to part quality and mechanical properties. The final phase of the work focused on process optimisation study for short glass fibre filled PP material and the identified key process parameters (melt temperature, screw rotational speed, holding pressure, holding time and injection rate). A response surface experiment was planned and carried out for three reprocessing stages (0 %, 25 % and 50 % regrind). The fitted response surface models were utilised to carry out the trade-off analysis between the operating cost (material cost, energy cost and labour cost) and product quality (dimensions and tensile strength) Based on the optimal moulding conditions, the operating cost was reduced (from stage I as a reference), by 24% and 30 % for stage II and stage III respectively. A small, perhaps undetectable, change in product dimensions was noted. In addition, a small reduction in tensile strength was noted (from stage I as a reference), by 0.4% and 0.1 % for stage II and stage III respectively. The same data was applied in other countries (Australia, USA, Brazil, Libya and China) to manufacture the same product; and it was observed that the cost was reduced with increasing of regrind ratio. But the significant reduction of the cost, essentially, depended on those countries which have low wage rates (e.g. Brazil, Libya and China). For example, the cost of moulded product manufactured in China is £ 0.025 (using 50% of regrind), while the cost of the same product produced in Australia is £ 0.12, hence giving a total saving of 79 % and making it a valuable issue to be considered in industry.
    • A home physiotherapy service for stroke patients in Malta: constraints and recommendations. The process of setting up a home physiotherapy service for hospitalised stroke patients within the public health system in Malta - new knowledge contributing to a strategy document.

      Hepworth, Deborah; Lungaro-Mifsud, Stephen (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2010-06-08)
      Home physiotherapy is a valid service option for the patient who was recently discharged from hospital after sustaining a stroke, as it enhances functional independence in friendly and familiar surroundings, as opposed to an outpatient clinic (Bader 2008). The aim of this study was to investigate the system responses to the planning and implementation of a home physiotherapy service as an innovation within the Maltese Public Health Service, uncovering barriers or constraints that influenced the introduction and development of state-run home physiotherapy in Malta. Method A qualitative approach was used for this research. A case study design was selected because it possessed contextual, descriptive and heuristic characteristics. Study participants planned and implemented the service using the available resources. Policy makers, physiotherapists, stroke patients and caregivers contributed to the study through their responses to, and experiences of, this service innovation. It was both an exploration and an opportunity to learn about service innovation from a Maltese perspective. A group of stakeholders were interviewed during the planning stage (Phase 1) of the home physiotherapy service. The main purpose of these interviews was to inform the design of the service. Another group of participants was interviewed in the active service stage (Phase 2) - at the beginning and at the end. The purpose here was to gather data from their direct experiences with home physiotherapy. Documents relevant to home rehabilitation were accessed and analysed hermeneutically. These included newspaper media, as it was considered a sensitive instrument to understand social context (Catalán Matamoros 2007; Davis 1990). Findings and discussion Data analysis identified categories of findings such as ¿barriers to the implementation of a new service¿, ¿attitudes to home physiotherapy¿ and ¿fragmented rehabilitation service¿. The category components were discussed and linked to the hermeneutical analysis of documents, offering a deeper understanding of the categories within the local context, and revealing a reinforcement of establishment-based health care. Conclusion The findings of this study provided an insight into the constraints that would appear if home physiotherapy, indeed home rehabilitation, were introduced by the Maltese Public Health Service. This research had an impact on the state physiotherapy services. Recommendations to help mitigate the constraints in an overarching manner were offered at the end of the thesis. To the international reader with experience in organised home physiotherapy, this study gives a glimpse into how issues that would seem trivial and obvious at first glance become significant challenges¿.challenges that the uninitiated would need to overcome.
    • How did governance in Acholi dovetail with violence?

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Francis, David J.; Oloya, John J. (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2015)
      This thesis applies interdisciplinary approaches to explore interactions between two forms of community governance in Acholiland from 1898 to 2010, locating itself within Peace Studies. One form, kaka, was “traditional”, featuring varied forms of “facultative mutualisms” among two or more gangi agnates – with one gang as dominant in the realm. Gangi were kinship-based polities. Like kaka, gangi manifested autopoietic attributes and strong internal “fiduciary cultures”. Then in the 1900s, kaka as governing systems were reshuffled under colonialism and a tribal unit, the Acholi Local Government was created and was subordinated to the Uganda state. Unlike kaka, Acholi Local Government was hierarchal and has consistently been redesigned by various postcolonial governments in their attempts to renegotiate, reshape and control the Acholi people. The study advances a concept of community governance as “socialpolitical” and moral, and counters that kaka was about brotherhoods - not rulersubject relationships. It further distinguishes what was “traditional” from “customary” systems, and demonstrates how colonialism in Acholiland, and a crisis of legitimacy manifested in a trifurcation of authorities, with: i) the despotic civil service - the “customary system”, fusing modernity and the African tradition, ii) a reshuffled kaka system as traditional, and, iii) the cross-modern, manifested as kinematic lugwok paco, linking ethno-governance with the nascent national and global arenas. The study concludes that both colonialism and “coloniality” have reshuffled the mores of kaka along an African neo-patrimonial legitimacy. Conversely, Acholiland is a “limited statehood” – manifesting a higher order of societal entropy - where the “rule by law and customs” dovetail with violence and poverty, demonstrating a genre of exceptionalism.
    • How the New Labour Government Third Way policies (1998-2010) and the delivery of the New Deal for Communities (NDC) regeneration programme impacted on participation in health care in an area-based initiative. A longitudinal study using action-learning research methodology in a New Deal for Communities Area Based Initiative

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Greenham, Felicity J. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies and International Development, 2018)
      The research examines New Labour’s Third Way policies and the impact New Deal for Communities (NDC) regeneration programme had on participation in health care. This longitudinal study (1998-2007) explores participatory joint working, welfare state, social capacity, health inequalities, citizen involvement and community capacity. It captures the experiences of local community and front-line workers whilst delivering the Health Focus Group (HFG) in the NDC programme. Using action learning reflection techniques, the study analyses a purposeful sample of 15 from the local community, front-line workers, and strategic respondents involved in the NDC health programme. The research demonstrated the NDC did increase participation, joint working and involvement of local actors 1998–2003. The importance of communication, leadership and relationships was recognised as an important catalyst for developing community governance models. The new action learning spaces initiated, designed and delivered 19 new models of joint local clinical, community and complementary health and well-being projects. In 2001, New Labour introduced public private finance initiatives with the Primary Care Trust (PCT) which conflicted with the local actors’ involvement in the participatory joint decision-making. The reconfiguration of health and social care services and the new public health models introduced complex governance and monitoring models, further distancing the local actors from the process. Strategic staff changes in key governance positions also adversely affected the communication and trust established with local actors. The research concluded operational, tactical, and strategic alignment is necessary to maximise joint participation in decision-making.
    • Human colour perception. A psychophysical study of human colour perception for real and computer-simulated two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects.

      Bloj, Marina; Hedrich, Monika (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision Science, 2010-05-17)
    • Human resource development : training and development practices and related organisational factors in Kuwaiti organisations.

      Weir, David; Taylor, David; Al-Ali, Adnan A.S. (University of BradfordManagement Centre, 2011-07-07)
      This study examines and aims to disclose the current policies and practices of Training and Development (T&D) within Kuwaiti government and private/joint-venture organisations. The literature review indicates that although much attention has been devoted in studying Training and Development practices, a very few focus on T&D related factors on organisation performance in developing countries. The literature also indicates the need for considering these factors in order to have a better T&D effectiveness, and hence organisation overall performance. In this study the Training for Impact model was adopted and tested within Kuwaiti context in terms of training needs assessment and evaluation and follow-up. This research uses data collected from 100 organisations in Kuwait. 50 of these were government and 50 private /joint venture listed in Kuwait Stock Exchange. Therefore, all managers (100 training personnel) who are in charge of T&D function/programmes, were samples of the respondents of the present study. The main data collection methods adopted by this study were interviews (semi-structured) and "drop-in and pick-up" self-completion questionnaires. The data were quantitatively analysed and triangulation of quantitative findings was carried out in order to find out the difference between the two sectors in Kuwait in terms of T&D practices and related factors. To establish a causal connection between related factors and identified dimensions (T&D effectiveness, organisational rating, and satisfaction with evaluation process), a multiple regression technique was employed. The major findings of this study are noted below: Results indicate that the majority of the investigated organisations do not have a formal T&D system. T&D programmes are still carried out on a piecemeal basis rather than a systematic long-term policy. Findings which were common among the majority of the approached organisations were absence of a systematic organisational training needs analysis, use of conventional training methods, lack of effective procedures for T&D evaluation. The study explores the training personnel's way of thinking towards their T&D function and to the proposed T&D dimensions framework (integrated HRD strategy, top and line management commitment, a supportive formal system, T&D mechanism, organisational culture, and training budget). The findings indicate that most of the training personnel perceived these dimensions as providing motivation, commitment and support to their T&D function. Six main factors were found to influence T&D practices in government and private/joint venture organisations. These factors are: top management commitment, mutual support between organisational philosophy and T&D activities, line management support T&D involvement in organisation strategy, T&D policies and plans, and T&D effects on employees self-development. The study also identifies T&D effects on organisation performance in Kuwaiti organisations in terms of eliminating problems; increasing commitment and motivation; fulfilling individual needs and personal objectives, improving interpersonal and interdepartmental relations, improving quality of goods and services; and leading to effective utilisation and investment in human resources. In addition the study establishes a causal connection of T&D related factors with performance dimensions, organisation rating, and satisfaction of T&D evaluation. The author recommends that for the T&D function to be treated as seriously as other organisational functions, then Kuwaiti training personnel, as well as top and line management, need to be more willing to play proactive and strategic organisational roles in T&D activities.
    • Human Resource Development: An assessment of capacity development initiatives of World Bank projects in Ghana

      Analoui, Farhad; Danquah, Joseph K. (University of BradfordDivision of Peace Studies and International Development, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
      The significance of capacity development programmes, as key driver for sustaining development goals, is anchored in all international fora. This research complements and extends our present understanding of the contribution of capacity development approaches to development and achievement of the SDGs. This is achieved by critically assessing the impact of capacity development initiatives sponsored by the World Bank. This thesis has focused on analysis of implementation strategies and critical assessment of the impact of the projects using multidisciplinary approach, utilising a range of quantitative and qualitative methods. It provides a sound empirical basis for assessing the complexities of these projects. This empirical investigation has identified a wide range of disparities of implementation strategies utilised for capacity development initiatives among the major international players (World Bank and UNDP). These findings clearly indicate that there is no single strategy for the implementation of capacity development initiatives. Thus, based on empirical evidence, as well as a critical review of the literature, the study proposes a model for achieving critical sustainable capacity development based on broad and long-term strategies; input, process, output, and outcome which defines the appropriateness of policies and practices that support sustainable development. It is concluded that capacity development initiatives are relevant and essential ensuring national development and sustainable results. The recommendations include the focus on individual, organisational, and societal factors when planning, developing and adopting strategies for implementing all government/national programmes.
    • Human resource development: An investigation into the nature and extent of training and development in the Saudi private manufacturing sector.

      Taylor, David; Jobber, David; Albahussain, Sami A.M.A. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Management and Administration, 2011-07-14)
      This research explores the nature and extent of training and development (TD) provision, as well as top managers' and TD personnel's attitudes towards the TD function within the medium and large-size private manufacturing organisations of Saudi Arabia. Extensive details of the TD situation are provided and assessed for their adequacy, covering among other elements a descriptive analysis of the main characteristics of the organisations concerned, an evaluation of their TD plans and policies, and a review of their budget allocation and funding. The research then proceeds to describe and discuss the extent to which such organisations are applying a systems approach to TD, both in terms of its design and implementation. Thereafter, the main factors impeding the effectiveness of TD programmes are examined, followed by a consideration of the future challenges that are likely to increase the importance of TD for the organisations in question. The research has adopted a mainly descriptive approach and uses both quantitative and qualitative analytical methods. The required data were gathered through a combination of semi-structural interviews with a number of top managers, and survey questionnaires addressed to the persons responsible for TD within the targeted organisations. The sampling strategy was disproportional stratified random sampling. In total 16 senior executives, 132 medium-size organisations and 94 large-size organisations took part in the study. The findings reveal that although attitudes towards the value of TD are generally favourable, in practice in the majority of cases TD is under-resourced, unplanned and patchy, hardly the ideal features of a systematic model of TD that will enable private manufacturing business to successfully meet the challenges of the future ahead. The research ends with a number of specific and practical recommendations intended to improve the effectiveness of TD in the private manufacturing sector of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as a number of suggestions for further research.
    • Human resource management practices and national culture: Empirical evidence from Pakistan.

      Cornelius, Nelarine; Wallace, James; Ali, Ashique (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012-01-09)
      This study examined impact of national culture on human resource management (HRM) functioning in present-day Pakistan.
    • Human Resources Development (HRD) for effective localisation of workforces. An empirical study for identifying the key success factors for the energy sector in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

      Zairi, Mohamed; Al-Marzouqi, Yehya (University of BradfordDepartment of Management, 2012-04-19)
      The objective of the current study is to explore and identify the Critical Success Factors (CSFs), which impact upon the effective implementation of Human Resource Development (HRD) initiatives in support of nationalisation, and to recommend a model for practical application and future research. Accordingly the study focused on identifying and analysing the various factors in the localisation of a workforce with regard to five broad categories, namely: national level factors, organisational (policies and practices related) factors, organisational (HR related) factors, individual level (expatriate and experienced staff related) factors and individual level (UAE national related) factors. The data for the study was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative methods were used to develop an in-depth case study of the Emiratisation process in an oil and gas organisation, as well as for identifying the critical success factors to be included in the survey questionnaire for collecting the quantitative data. The results of the study indicated that the critical success factors identified in the study are part of a complicated reality and need to be managed to ensure success of the localisation of a workforce. The mean scores obtained on the various factors differed significantly across the organisations or sub groups of respondents used in the study. This indicates that the impact of various factors that facilitate or constrain the localisation efforts are highly contextual and organisation specific. The findings of the study revealed valuable insights that could enrich not only future research in the area, but also the practical application of HR tools and methods to support the localisation process. The current study also developed a model for practical application and future research in the area. The model identified the role of HR strategies and tools as critical for managing the CSFs and ensuring the success of the process of localisation. The model developed in the current study also emphasises the need to define the 'success' of localisation in much broader terms, by addressing complex issues such as, employee morale and motivation, expectations of all employees, including expatriates and so forth, rather than just focusing on the number of UAE nationals employed and their competencies. The current study also identified some of the limitations of the study and highlighted suggestions for future research.
    • Human security assemblages. Transformations and governmental rationalities in Canada and Japan.

      Pugh, Michael C.; Hynek, Nikola (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2012-04-19)
      The thesis examines Canadian and Japanese human security assemblages. It aims to delve below stereotypical imageries ¿representing¿ these human security articulations. The concept of ¿human security¿ is not a starting point, but a result of elements, processes, structures and mechanisms which need to be investigated in order to reveal insights about a given articulation of human security. Each human security assemblage is composed of messy discourses and practices which are loosely related and sometimes even disconnected. Academics have frequently avoided studying the messiness of political discourses and practices and their mutual dependencies or their lack thereof. By contrast, this thesis ascertains what has lain beneath Canadian and Japanese spatio-temporal articulation of human security and establishes the kinds of structural terrain which have enabled, shaped, or blocked the unfolding of certain versions of human security. The pivotal contention of the thesis is that Canadian and Japanese articulations of human security have been different because they have grown from completely different domestic economies of power governing the relationship between the state apparatus and the non-profit and voluntary sector. While the Canadian human security assemblage has been shaped by transformations in the country¿s advanced liberal model of government, the Japanese has been shaped by the continuities of Japan¿s bureaucratic authoritarianism. A novel approach is employed for the related process-tracing: a general series linking structural conditions with actual articulations of the human security projects, and their further development, including analysis of their unintended consequences.
    • Human skeletal asymmetry. A study of directional and fluctuating asymmetry in assessing health, environmental conditions, and social status in English populations from the 7th to the 19th centuries.

      Knüsel, Christopher J.; Buckberry, Jo; Storm, Rebecca A. (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2010-06-07)
      Asymmetry is a useful tool for osteological analysis as it detects disruptions in the developmental stability of osseous structures attributed to environmental and biomechanical environments. The primary aim of this study is to establish a baseline for normal levels of asymmetry in English archaeological populations in order to distinguish between normal population variation and increased developmental instability or biomechanical stress. Directional and fluctuating asymmetry is assessed through a database of a comprehensive selection of osteological measurements throughout the skeletons of 1753 adults and subadults. The sample is from 11 archaeological sites spanning the Anglo-Saxon to the Victorian periods. The extent of developmental instability is also determined, for the first time, by employing the prevalence of population outliers. The normal range for directional asymmetry was found to be -5.79 to 6.62%, while fluctuating asymmetry was found to be 0 to 6.53%. The extent of asymmetry, however, was found to be trait specific. Deviations from normal population levels of asymmetry were found to be due to a complex mixture of biomechanical and environmental stresses influenced by age, sex, settlement type, socio-economic status, and period-specific origins of the sample populations. Possible causes of asymmetry could be discerned from comparisons of the levels of population asymmetry when placed in the context of physical activity, social networking, health, and environment developed from the historical, archaeological and osteological record.
    • Humeral torsion and activity-related change in the human upper limb and pectoral girdle. A biomechanical investigation and social implications.

      Knüsel, Christopher J.; Rhodes, Jill Anne (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2010-06-23)
      This project investigas humeral torsion and activity-related change in the human upper limb. Increased humeral torsion angles have been identified in the professional throwing athlete and may be associated with strenuous activity. The nature of humeral torsion as an osteogenic response to the strain environment is investigated to identify its role in the behavioural morphology of the upper limb. These physical manifestations of strenuous physical activity provide an insight into the make-up of medieval armies prior to the establishment of standing armies. Populations analysed include two blade-injured samples, Towton and a subsample of blade-injured men from the Priory of St. Andrew, Fishergate, York. The men from the Mary Rose, a Tudor warship are also investigated. Other samples analysed include the rural sites of Wharram Percy and Hickleton, the urban cemeteries from the Priory of St. Andrew, Fishergate,York and the leprosarium of Sts. James and Mary Magdalene, Chichester, the modern cadaver-based Terry collection and non-human primates, Gorilla sp., Pan sp., Pongo sp., and Macaca sp.. Measurement of the humeral torsion angle and external measurements and indices of architecture, articulations and robusticity are employed. Cross-sectional geometric properties are investigated using CT imaging of the paired humeri from a sub-sample of blade-injured individuals and a comparative sample of those who were not. Bilateral asymmetry is investigated to identify the role of plasticity within the humerus and to reveal aspects of limb dominance. The results are compared with non-human primate species to obtain insight into inter-species differences. Results indicate the humeral torsion is not ontogenetically constrained, but is highly variable between and within populations, individuals and even between sides. Biomechanical analyses indicate that in the Towton population, humeral torsion may serve as part of a two-stage adaptation, in which the architecture is modified to enable greater biomechanical efficiency in distributing strain, reducing the need of increased cortical thickness. Changes in humeral torsion related to strenuous activity have been identified, although in the blade-injured samples it is decreased torsion angles, w hile in the comparative sample it is increased torsion angles that significantly correlate with limb hypertrophy. Humeral torsion appears to be influenced by other measurementd of humeral architecture, specifically, the amount of anterior bowing and anterior curvature to the distal humeral shaft. This work demonstrates the need for individual rather than population-based analyses, as the heterogeneity within population samples obscures individual variation in activity patterns. This analysis provides baseline data for typical populations of the Middle Ages. From this, it is then possible to investigate the individual within this baseline, to identify those who stand out from their samples through habitual, strenuous activity patterns. Movement patterns identified related to warfare include those consistent with the use of the longbow in the Towton sample and the use of a sword in the Fishergate blade-injured sample. These men, and those of the Mary Rose, appear to have either been selected for combat based on size, or benefited from a more nutritious diet during growth.
    • Hybrid Modelling and Optimisation of Oil Well Drillstrings

      Bryant, David; Li, Jian-Ping; Rahmanian, Nejat; Alkaragoolee, Mohammed Y.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      The failure of oil well drillstrings due to torsional and longitudinal stresses caused by stick-slip phenomena during the drilling operation causes great expense to industry. Due to the complicated and harsh drilling environment, modelling of the drillstring becomes an essential requirement in studies. Currently, this is achieved by modelling the drillstring as a torsional lumped model (which ignores the length of the drillstring) for real-time measurement and control. In this thesis, a distributed-lumped model including the effects of drillstring length was developed to represent the drillstring, and was used to simulate stick-slip vibration. The model was developed with increasing levels of detail and the resultant models were validated against typical measured signals from the published literature. The stick-slip model describes the friction model that exists between the cutting tool and the rock. Based on theoretical analysis and mathematical formulation an efficient and adaptable model was created which was then used in the application of a method of species conserving genetic algorithm (SCGA) to optimise the drilling parameters. In conclusion, it was shown that the distributed-lumped model showed improved detail in predicting the transient response and demonstrated the importance of including the drillstring length. Predicting the response of different parameters along the drillstring is now possible and this showed the significant effect of modelling the drillcollar. The model was shown to better represent real system and was therefore far more suited to use with real time measurements.
    • A Hybrid Multibiometric System for Personal Identification Based on Face and Iris Traits. The Development of an automated computer system for the identification of humans by integrating facial and iris features using Localization, Feature Extraction, Handcrafted and Deep learning Techniques.

      Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Nassar, Alaa S.N. (University of BradfordSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2018)
      Multimodal biometric systems have been widely applied in many real-world applications due to its ability to deal with a number of significant limitations of unimodal biometric systems, including sensitivity to noise, population coverage, intra-class variability, non-universality, and vulnerability to spoofing. This PhD thesis is focused on the combination of both the face and the left and right irises, in a unified hybrid multimodal biometric identification system using different fusion approaches at the score and rank level. Firstly, the facial features are extracted using a novel multimodal local feature extraction approach, termed as the Curvelet-Fractal approach, which based on merging the advantages of the Curvelet transform with Fractal dimension. Secondly, a novel framework based on merging the advantages of the local handcrafted feature descriptors with the deep learning approaches is proposed, Multimodal Deep Face Recognition (MDFR) framework, to address the face recognition problem in unconstrained conditions. Thirdly, an efficient deep learning system is employed, termed as IrisConvNet, whose architecture is based on a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Softmax classifier to extract discriminative features from an iris image. Finally, The performance of the unimodal and multimodal systems has been evaluated by conducting a number of extensive experiments on large-scale unimodal databases: FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, CASIA-Iris-V1, CASIA-Iris-V3 Interval, MMU1 and IITD and MMU1, and SDUMLA-HMT multimodal dataset. The results obtained have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed systems compared to the previous works by achieving new state-of-the-art recognition rates on all the employed datasets with less time required to recognize the person’s identity.Multimodal biometric systems have been widely applied in many real-world applications due to its ability to deal with a number of significant limitations of unimodal biometric systems, including sensitivity to noise, population coverage, intra-class variability, non-universality, and vulnerability to spoofing. This PhD thesis is focused on the combination of both the face and the left and right irises, in a unified hybrid multimodal biometric identification system using different fusion approaches at the score and rank level. Firstly, the facial features are extracted using a novel multimodal local feature extraction approach, termed as the Curvelet-Fractal approach, which based on merging the advantages of the Curvelet transform with Fractal dimension. Secondly, a novel framework based on merging the advantages of the local handcrafted feature descriptors with the deep learning approaches is proposed, Multimodal Deep Face Recognition (MDFR) framework, to address the face recognition problem in unconstrained conditions. Thirdly, an efficient deep learning system is employed, termed as IrisConvNet, whose architecture is based on a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Softmax classifier to extract discriminative features from an iris image. Finally, The performance of the unimodal and multimodal systems has been evaluated by conducting a number of extensive experiments on large-scale unimodal databases: FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, CASIA-Iris-V1, CASIA-Iris-V3 Interval, MMU1 and IITD and MMU1, and SDUMLA-HMT multimodal dataset. The results obtained have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed systems compared to the previous works by achieving new state-of-the-art recognition rates on all the employed datasets with less time required to recognize the person’s identity.
    • Hydropolitical peacebuilding. Israeli-Palestinian water relations and the transformation of asymmetric conflict in the Middle East.

      Whitman, Jim R.; Abi-Ezzi, Karen; Pugh, Michael C.; Cleaver, Frances D.; Kelly, Rhys H.S.; Abitbol, Eric (University of BradfordUniversity of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, School of Social and International Studies., 2014-04-29)
      Recognising water as a central relational location of the asymmetric Israel- Palestinian conflict, this study critically analyses the peacebuilding significance of Israeli, transboundary water and peace practitioner discourses. Anchored in a theoretically-constructed framework of hydropolitical peacebuilding, it discursively analyses the historical, officially-sanctioned, as well as academic and civil society water and peace relations of Israelis and Palestinians. It responds to the question: How are Israeli water and peace practitioners discursively practicing hydropolitical peacebuilding in the Middle East? In doing so, this study has drawn upon a methodology of interpretive practice, combining ethnography, foucauldian discourse analysis and narrative inquiry. This study discursively traces Israel¿s development into a hydrohegemonic state in the Jordan River Basin, from the late-19th century to 2011. Recognising conflict as a power-laden social system, it makes visible the construction, production and circulation of Israel¿s power in the basin. It examines key narrative elements invoked by Israel to justify its evolving asymmetric, hydrohegemonic relations. Leveraging the hydropolitical peacebuilding framework, itself constituted of equality, partnership, equity and shared ii sustainability, this study also examines the discursive practices of Israeli transboundary water and peace practitioners in relationship with Palestinians. In so doing, it makes visible their hydrohegemony, hydropolitical peacebuilding, and hydrohegemonic residues. This study¿s conclusions re-affirm earlier findings, notably that environmental and hydropolitical cooperation neither inherently nor necessarily constitute peacebuilding practice. This work also suggests that hydropolitical peacebuilding may discursively be recognised in water and peace practices that engage, critique, resist, desist from, and practice alternative relational formations to hydrohegemony in asymmetric conflicts.