• General queueing network models for computer system performance analysis. A maximum entropy method of analysis and aggregation of general queueing network models with application to computer systems.

      Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; El-Affendi, Mohamed A. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Computing, 2009-10-23)
      In this study the maximum entropy formalism [JAYN 57] is suggested as an alternative theory for general queueing systems of computer performance analysis. The motivation is to overcome some of the problems arising in this field and to extend the scope of the results derived in the context of Markovian queueing theory. For the M/G/l model a unique maximum entropy solution., satisfying locALl balance is derived independent of any assumptions about the service time distribution. However, it is shown that this solution is identical to the steady state solution of the underlying Marko-v process when the service time distribution is of the generalised exponential (CE) type. (The GE-type distribution is a mixture of an exponential term and a unit impulse function at the origin). For the G/M/1 the maximum entropy solution is identical in form to that of the underlying Markov process, but a GE-type distribution still produces the maximum overall similar distributions. For the GIG11 model there are three main achievements: first, the spectral methods are extended to give exaft formulae for the average number of customers in the system for any G/G/l with rational Laplace transform. Previously, these results are obtainable only through simulation and approximation methods. (ii) secondly, a maximum entropy model is developed and used to obtain unique solutions for some types of the G/G/l. It is also discussed how these solutions can be related to the corresponding stochastic processes. (iii) the importance of the G/GE/l and the GE/GE/l for the analysis of general networks is discussed and some flow processes for these systems are characterised. For general queueing networks it is shown that the maximum entropy solution is a product of the maximum entropy solutions of the individual nodes. Accordingly, existing computational algorithms are extended to cover general networks with FCFS disciplines. Some implementations are suggested and a flow algorithm is derived. Finally, these results are iised to improve existing aggregation methods. In addition, the study includes a number of examples, comparisons, surveys, useful comments and conclusions.
    • General queueing networks with priorities. Maximum entropy analysis of general queueing network models with priority preemptive resume or head-of-line and non-priority based service disciplines.

      Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Tabet Aouel, Nasreddine (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-02-08)
      Priority based scheduling disciplines are widely used by existing computer operating systems. However, the mathematical analysis and modelling of these systems present great difficulties since priority schedulling is not compatible with exact product form solutions of queueing network models (QNM's). It is therefore, necessary to employ credible approximate techniques for solving QNM's with priority classes. The principle of maximum entropy (ME) is a method of inference for estimating a probability distribution given prior information in the form of expected values. This principle is applied, based on marginal utilisation, mean queue length and idle state probability constraints, to characterise new product-form approximations for general open and closed QNM's with priority (preemptive-resume, non-preemtive head-of-line) and non-priority (first-come-first-served, processor-sharing, last-come-first-served with, or without preemtion) servers. The ME solutions are interpreted in terms of a decomposition of the original network into individual stable GIG11 queueing stations with assumed renewal arrival processes. These solutions are implemented by making use of the generalised exponential (GE) distributional model to approximate the interarrival-time and service-time distributions in the network. As a consequence the ME queue length distribution of the stable GE/GEzl priority queue, subject to mean value constraints obtained via classical queueing theory on bulk queues, is used as a 'building block' together with corresponding universal approximate flow formulae for the analysis of general QNM's with priorities. The credibility of the ME method is demonstrated with illustrative numerical examples and favourable comparisons against exact, simulation and other approximate methods are made.
    • Generalised analytic queueing network models. The need, creation, development and validation of mathematical and computational tools for the construction of analytic queueing network models capturing more critical system behaviour.

      Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Almond, John (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Computing, 2009-10-22)
      Modelling is an important technique in the comprehension and management of complex systems. Queueing network models capture most relevant information from computer system and network behaviour. The construction and resolution of these models is constrained by many factors. Approximations contain detail lost for exact solution and/or provide results at lower cost than simulation. Information at the resource and interactive command level is gathered with monitors under ULTRIX'. Validation studies indicate central processor service times are highly variable on the system. More pessimistic predictions assuming this variability are in part verified by observation. The utility of the Generalised Exponential (GE) as a distribution parameterised by mean and variance is explored. Small networks of GE service centres can be solved exactly using methods proposed for Generalised Stochastic Petri Nets. For two centre. systems of GE type a new technique simplifying the balance equations is developed. A very efficient "building bglloocbka"l. is presented for exactly solving two centre systems with service or transfer blocking, Bernoulli feedback and load dependent rate, multiple GE servers. In the tandem finite buffer algorithm the building block illustrates problems encountered modelling high variability in blocking networks. ': . _. A parametric validation study is made of approximations for single class closed networks of First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) centres with general service times. The multiserver extension using the building block is validated. Finally the Maximum Entropy approximation is extended to FCFS centres with multiple chains and implemented with computationally efficient convolution.
    • Generation of Software Test Data from the Design Specification Using Heuristic Techniques. Exploring the UML State Machine Diagrams and GA Based Heuristic Techniques in the Automated Generation of Software Test Data and Test Code.

      Dahal, Keshav P.; Hossain, M. Alamgir; Doungsa-ard, Chartchai (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2012-02-10)
      Software testing is a tedious and very expensive undertaking. Automatic test data generation is, therefore, proposed in this research to help testers reduce their work as well as ascertain software quality. The concept of test driven development (TDD) has become increasingly popular during the past several years. According to TDD, test data should be prepared before the beginning of code implementation. Therefore, this research asserts that the test data should be generated from the software design documents which are normally created prior to software code implementation. Among such design documents, the UML state machine diagrams are selected as a platform for the proposed automated test data generation mechanism. Such diagrams are selected because they show behaviours of a single object in the system. The genetic algorithm (GA) based approach has been developed and applied in the process of searching for the right amount of quality test data. Finally, the generated test data have been used together with UML class diagrams for JUnit test code generation. The GA-based test data generation methods have been enhanced to take care of parallel path and loop problems of the UML state machines. In addition the proposed GA-based approach is also targeted to solve the diagrams with parameterised triggers. As a result, the proposed framework generates test data from the basic state machine diagram and the basic class diagram without any additional nonstandard information, while most other approaches require additional information or the generation of test data from other formal languages. The transition coverage values for the introduced approach here are also high; therefore, the generated test data can cover most of the behaviour of the system.
    • Generator Maintenance Scheduling Models in Power Systems. Integrated Cost Models for Generator Maintenance Strategy under Market Environment.

      Dahal, Keshav P.; Al-Arfaj, Khalid A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-05-28)
      Change from a regulated to deregulated structure means that, the centralized maintenance system is not valid any more. In the surveyed published literature, there is not a single model which incorporates all maintenance cost components to analyze the effect of different maintenance strategies for generator companies (GENCOs). The work enclosed in this thesis demonstrates that there is a considerable requirement for accurately modelling cost components of the maintenance model, to be used in maintenance scheduling for deregulated power system, in order to attain a superior schedule with major financial and operational impact. This research investigates and models most cost factors that affect the maintenance activities of the deregulated GENCOs, and demonstrates the utilization of the developed cost models in maintenance scheduling. It also presents the data gathering process for the developed maintenance cost model. A generator maintenance scheduling model that considers direct and indirect maintenance costs, opportunity costs (i.e. loss of customer goodwill), effective maintenance strategies, failures, and interruptions is developed. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) based approach is employed to achieve maintenance schedules to various generators maintenance scenarios. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach is proposed for modelling customer goodwill. The maintenance model was redeveloped under the Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) strategy to analyze the effect of a maintenance strategy on maintenance costs. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the utilisation of the developed models.The investigation shows that the market prices, opportunity costs and maintenance strategy have an effect on the final maintenance schedule. The research demonstrates that the cost components are critical factors to achieve an effective maintenance schedule, and they must be considered and carefully modelled in order to reflect more realistic situation for maintenance scheduling of generator units in deregulation environment.
    • Genoprotective effect of aspirin and ibuprofen in human lymphocyte cells. Effect of nano and bulk forms of aspirin and ibuprofen on lymphocytes from breast cancer patients compared with those from healthy females

      Anderson, Diana; Baumgartner, Adolf; Dandah, Osama M.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      Various recent studies have suggested that regular intake of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a preventative effect against several types of tumours including breast cancer. The term nanotechnology refers to technology in which one-billionth of a meter is used as a scale for chemical particle size. This work aims to study the effect of both ibuprofen and aspirin on DNA damage using peripheral blood lymphocytes from breast cancer patients and comparing the results with those from healthy females as a control using the Comet and micronucleus assays. Western blot analysis (WBA) was used to investigate the effect of these drugs on XRCC3 and p53 proteins, whereas QPCR was to evaluate this effect on p53, cox1 and cox2 genes. Two hundred fifty ng/ml of ibuprofen (NP and bulk) and 500 ng/ml of aspirin (NP and bulk) were used to treat the lymphocytes. Both aspirin and ibuprofen caused a reduction in DNA damage and micronucleus formation. Aspirin, both forms, showed a reduction in DNA damage in the Comet and micronucleus assays. Ibuprofen both forms, by contrast, showed a statistically significant reduction in micronucleus frequency in the micronucleus assay, while its preventative effect with the Comet assay was weak or insignificant. NPs of both agents were more effective than bulk sizes. Using the Comet repair assay, aspirin and ibuprofen nano form catalysed DNA repair to a greater extent than their bulk forms. Also, both sizes showed better repair with NSAIDs compared to samples repaired without NSAIDs. In WBA aspirin increased the expression of XRCC3 protein in healthy cells. However, both NSAIDs decreased that expression in cells from BC patients. Furthermore, aspirin increased p53 expression in BC patients lymphocytes. With the QPCR method, results of both aspirin forms increased the expression of the p53 gene in BC patient cells statistically significantly. Both drugs reduced cox1 expression in healthy volunteers and cancer patients lymphocytes. Moreover, cox2 reduction was only in lymphocytes from BC patients. The results of this work are consistent with the view that NSAIDs, particularly aspirin and ibuprofen, could have a promising role in cancer treatment including breast cancer.
    • Genotoxic effects of nano and bulk forms of aspirin and ibuprofen on blood samples from prostate cancer patients compared to those from healthy individuals: The protective effects of NSAIDs against oxidative damage, quantification of DNA repair capacity and major signal transduction pathways in lymphocytes from healthy individuals and prostate cancer patients

      Anderson, Diana; Baumgartner, Adolf; Guma, Azeza S.S.
      Inhibiting inflammatory processes or eliminating inflammation represents a logical role in the suppression and treatment strategy of cancer. Several studies have shown that anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have promise as anticancer agents while reducing metastases and mortality. NSAIDs are seriously limited by side effects and their toxicity, which can become cumulative with their long-term administration for chemoprevention. The huge development in nanotechnology allows the drugs to exhibit novel and significantly improved properties compared to the large particles of the respective bulk compound, leading to more targeted therapy and reduced dosage. The overall aim of this thesis is to add to our understanding of cancer prevention and treatment through studying the genotoxicity mechanisms of NSAIDs agents in lymphocytes. In this study, the genotoxicity mechanisms of NSAID in bulk and nanoparticles forms a strategy to prevent and minimise the damage in human lymphocytes. Aspirin nano (ASP N) caused a significant decrease in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage compared to aspirin bulk (ASP B). Also, ibuprofen nano (IBU N) showed a significant reduction in DNA damage compared to ibuprofen bulk (IBU B). Micronuclei (MNi) decreased after ASP N, ASP B and IBU N in prostate cancer patients and healthy individuals, and the ibuprofen bulk showed a significant increase of MNi formation in lymphocytes from healthy and prostate cancer patients when compared to untreated lymphocytes from prostate cancer patients. In order to study the geno-protective properties of these drugs, the protective effect of NSAIDs and the quantification of the DNA repair capacity in lymphocytes was studied. ASP N was found to increase the DNA repair capacity and reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation significantly more than ASP B. Finally, the role of NSAIDs on some key regulatory signal transduction pathways in isolated lymphocyte cells was investigated by studying their effect on ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) mRNA. ATM mRNA significantly increased after treatment with ASP B, ASP N and IBU N. ATR expression also increased after treatment with IBU B and IBU N, but was only significant with IBU N. These findings indicate that a reduction in particle size had an impact on the reactivity of the drug, further emphasising the potential of nanoparticles as improvement to current treatment options.
    • Genotoxic effects of NSAIDs and hydrocortisone in bulk and nano forms in lymphocytes from patients with haematological cancers

      Anderson, Diana; Normington, Charmaine
      Chronic inflammation is intimately linked with cancer development and progression and therefore reducing or eliminating inflammation represents a logical treatment and prevention strategy. Studies have shown that anti-inflammatory agents have anti-tumour effects in cancers, with reduced metastases and mortality. Current use of anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment and prevention of cancer is limited by their toxicity and side effects. The emerging field of nanotechnology allows the fundamental properties of a drug to be altered, creating a product with improved reactivity and bioavailability, leading to more targeted treatments and reduced dosage. In the present study, the genotoxic effects of three commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs; aspirin, ibuprofen and hydrocortisone, in their bulk and nano forms were evaluated on peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors using the comet assay and the micronucleus assay. In order to determine any anti-cancer effects, these agents were also tested in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with haematological cancers. The glucocorticoid hydrocortisone was also evaluated for anti-oxidant capacity. Our results demonstrate that the nano versions of each drug produced a different response than the bulk counterpart, indicating that a reduction in particle size had an impact on the reactivity of the drug. Our results also indicate that the nano versions of each drug were less genotoxic than the bulk formulation, further emphasising the potential of nanoparticles as an improvement to current treatment options. We also found an anti-oxidant effect with hydrocortisone, with a more profound effect seen with the nano formulation.
    • Genotoxic effects of NSAIDs and hydrocortisone on bulk and nano forms in lymphocytes from patients with haematological cancers

      Anderson, Diana; Normington, Charmaine (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      Chronic inflammation is intimately linked with cancer development and progression and therefore reducing or eliminating inflammation represents a logical treatment and prevention strategy. Studies have shown that anti-inflammatory agents have anti-tumour effects in cancers, with reduced metastases and mortality. Current use of anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment and prevention of cancer is limited by their toxicity and side effects. The emerging field of nanotechnology allows the fundamental properties of a drug to be altered, creating a product with improved reactivity and bioavailability, leading to more targeted treatments and reduced dosage. In the present study, the genotoxic effects of three commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs; aspirin, ibuprofen and hydrocortisone, in their bulk and nano forms were evaluated on peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors using the comet assay and the micronucleus assay. In order to determine any anti-cancer effects, these agents were also tested in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with haematological cancers. The glucocorticoid hydrocortisone was also evaluated for anti-oxidant capacity. Our results demonstrate that the nano versions of each drug produced a different response than the bulk counterpart, indicating that a reduction in particle size had an impact on the reactivity of the drug. Our results also indicate that the nano versions of each drug were less genotoxic than the bulk formulation, further emphasising the potential of nanoparticles as an improvement to current treatment options. We also found an anti-oxidant effect with hydrocortisone, with a more profound effect seen with the nano formulation.
    • Genotoxic effects of oestrogens and nano-NSAIDs: Genotoxic effects of oestrogens in vivo and nano- and bulk forms of NSAIDs on blood samples from prostate cancer patients

      Anderson, Diana; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Rathore, Dildar S. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2014)
      The genotoxicological effects of five intra-peritoneal administered oestrogens (17β- oestradiol, daidzein, diethylstilboestrol, genistein, and equol), were examined. Male hooded- Lister rats were used to examine to what extent DNA damage occurred. The alkaline Comet assay was the chosen method used to assess double-strand DNA breakage by examining the Olive tail moment and %age tail DNA. Tissues from the testis, bone marrow, liver and blood were analysed after an 8-day duration of exposure. Statistically significant increases in DNA damage were observed in the testis with daidzein and in the blood with diethylstilboestrol. In addition, a further study was carried out to examine the effects of bulk and nanotised forms of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin and ibuprofen, in the Comet and micronucleus assays, on whole blood taken from prostate cancer patients or volunteers. These were used because it is known that the sensitivity of DNA to genotoxins can be heightened in patients with cancer. Patients’ and volunteers’ blood was cultured with either the bulk or nano-forms for 44 hours at 37°C, 5% CO2. Data were obtained for the Comet assay as above and the number of binucleated cells scored for the micronucelus assay. The results show the nanotised forms of the NSAIDs decreased the levels of strand breakage and lowered the numbers of micronuclei generated compared with their bulk forms. There was no clear difference between the sensitivity of the healthy controls and the prostate cancer patients, with only one individual showing evidence of heightened sensitivity.
    • Genotoxicity of haloacetic acids, aspirin and ibuprofen in human cells. Genotoxic effects of water disinfectant- by-products in human blood and sperm and bulk and nano forms of aspirin and ibuprofen in human blood of respiratory disease patients

      Anderson, Diana; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Ali, Aftab H.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2014)
      This project focuses on two important topics which may pose hazards to human health. Firstly, drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are generated by the chemical disinfection of water have been investigated. What has not been shown is the effect of DBPs in human germ cells as well as somatic cells and whether oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of genotoxic action. Three different DBPs (halo acetic acids: HAAs), together with the antioxidants – catalase and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were investigated in peripheral blood cells and sperm from healthy individuals using the Comet assay and lymphocytes only using the micronucleus assay. Secondly, nanoparticles of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin and ibuprofen, have been investigated in patients with respiratory diseases, in the micronucleus assay and the Comet repair assay. NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme activity, which plays part in tumour progression. In the Comet assay, BHA and catalase were able to reduce DNA damage in both cell types compared to HAAs alone. Similarly, in the micronucleus assay, micronuclei were reduced with the antioxidants, suggesting oxygen radical involvement in both assays. With the NSAIDs, reductions were seen for DNA damage in the micronucleus assay with aspirin and ibuprofen nanoparticles compared to their bulk forms. Using the Comet repair assay, aspirin and ibuprofen nanoparticles aided repair of DNA to a greater extent than their bulk counterparts, which in turn showed better repair compared to samples repaired without NSAIDs. These observations show the importance of DBPs and NSAIDs in genotoxic public health issues.
    • Geometric modelling and shape optimisation of pharmaceutical tablets. Geometric modelling and shape optimisation of pharmaceutical tablets using partial differential equations.

      Ugail, Hassan; Gonzalez Castro, Gabriela; Ahmat, Norhayati (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-11-21)
      Pharmaceutical tablets have been the most dominant form for drug delivery and they need to be strong enough to withstand external stresses due to packaging and loading conditions before use. The strength of the produced tablets, which is characterised by their compressibility and compactibility, is usually deter-mined through a physical prototype. This process is sometimes quite expensive and time consuming. Therefore, simulating this process before hand can over-come this problem. A technique for shape modelling of pharmaceutical tablets based on the use of Partial Differential Equations is presented in this thesis. The volume and the sur-face area of the generated parametric tablet in various shapes have been es-timated numerically. This work also presents an extended formulation of the PDE method to a higher dimensional space by increasing the number of pa-rameters responsible for describing the surface in order to generate a solid tab-let. The shape and size of the generated solid tablets can be changed by ex-ploiting the analytic expressions relating the coefficients associated with the PDE method. The solution of the axisymmetric boundary value problem for a finite cylinder subject to a uniform axial load has been utilised in order to model a displace-ment component of a compressed PDE-based representation of a flat-faced round tablet. The simulation results, which are analysed using the Heckel model, show that the developed model is capable of predicting the compressibility of pharmaceutical powders since it fits the experimental data accurately. The opti-mal design of pharmaceutical tablets with particular volume and maximum strength has been obtained using an automatic design optimisation which is performed by combining the PDE method and a standard method for numerical optimisation.
    • Ghana: From fragility to resilience? Understanding the formation of a new political settlement from a critical political economy perspective

      Harris, David; Poku, Nana K.; Ruppel, Julia Franziska (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2015)
      During the late 1970s Ghana was described as a collapsed and failed state. In contrast, today it is hailed internationally as beacon of democracy and stability in West Africa. In light of Ghana’s drastic image change from a fragile and even collapsed polity to a resilient state, this thesis contributes to the statebuilding debate by analysing the social change that occurred. Grounded in a critical theory approach the thesis applies a political settlement analysis to explore how power is distributed and changed over time between contending social groups; exploring the extent to which this is embedded in formal and informal institutional arrangements. Ghana’s 2012 elections serve as an empirical basis and lens to observe the country’s current settlement. This approach enables a fine grained within-case comparison with Ghana’s collapsed post-independent settlement. The analysis illustrates that while there has been no transformation of the Ghanaian state, however, continuous incremental structural change has occurred within it, as demonstrated by a structurally altered constellation of power. While internationally propagated (neo-)liberal economic and political reforms had a vital impact on the reconstruction process of state-society relations, Ghana’s labelling as “success story” evokes the distorted idea of a resilient liberal state. The sustainability of Ghana’s current settlement characterised by electoral competitive clientelism depends on a continued inflow of foreign capital. So far the mutually beneficial interest of portraying Ghana as a resilient state by its elites and donors ensures the flow of needed financial assistance to preserve the settlement.
    • Globalization and the accountancy profession in developing countries. An examination of the historical developmemt of the Indonesian accountancy profession (1954-2008).

      Haniffa, Roszaini M.; Irmawan, Yudi (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-09-01)
      Studies on the development of the accountancy profession in the ex-colony countries have recently adopted theoretical and methodological frameworks that linked such development with the socio-historical context of these countries as former colonies or dependants of the more developed countries. More specifically, they associate the emergence and development of the accountancy profession in these countries with the historical and contemporary global expansion of capitalism. However, there is still a need for further research. First, how global expansion of capitalism penetrates is different across different country settings. Hence, this process would be best understood by incorporating the socio-political, economic and historical specificity of the given country. Second, previous studies emphasize the internal dialectic contradictions of capitalism in analysing the changes and dynamics of the profession in ex-colony countries. Recent literature, however, has introduced methodologies that recognize the need to acknowledge the existence of any rivalling structures as possible external sources of the dialectic progress of capitalist expansion. In regard to this, the socio-political and historical context of Indonesia may offer a case of how the interactions between global expansion of capitalism and existing rivalling structures may shape the development of the accountancy profession. The need for further research is amplified by the fact that previous studies on the Indonesian accountancy profession have generally ignored the influence of these wider socio-political factors. The primary aim of this study is thus to investigate how the accountancy profession has emerged and developed in Indonesia over the last five decades. To achieve its objectives, this research draws insights from the tradition of the globalization theory as a critique to global expansion of capitalism and Robert Cox historical structure methodology. The central argument of this thesis is that the development of the Indonesian accountancy profession followed the changes in the country¿s system of political economy, which in turn has been heavily influenced by the relationship between ex-colony countries with their former colonizers within the context of the capitalistic world order. In other words, this study accepts the contention that the spread of the Western-style accountancy profession across the globe, including Indonesia, was the consequence of global expansion of capitalism. However, the working and the extent of such influence is also shaped by alternative social structure(s) existing at the global level and/or emanating from the complexities of the Indonesian historical and societal context. To substantiate this argument, the study uses document analysis to understand the development of the Indonesian accountancy profession during the three main periods in its history. In the first period (1954 ¿ 1966), the analysis shows that the Westernization of the accounting profession was compromised by Indonesian nationalism, ideological division amongst the Indonesian leaders and the Cold War. In the second period (1967 ¿ 1997), the process was compromised by the oligarchic capitalism of the New Order political regime. The Westernization of the profession could only reach full speed after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which has undermined the politico-business coalitions under the New Order that had prevented Indonesia from fully integrating into the global capitalist economic order.
    • Governance, poverty and natural resources management. A case study of the Niger Delta

      Franks, Tom R.; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Bakare, Ibrahim A.O. (University of BradfordDepartment Development and Economic Studies, 2014-05-01)
      This study employs ethnographic research to investigate the extent to which local governance affects both poverty and natural resources management in the Delta region. The research develops a framework for governance of natural resources to understand the daily practices of different actors within the local context using informal observation and interviews. In applying the framework, the study places emphasis on resources for governance, actors¿ agency, arrangements of access to resources and governance outcomes in the Delta region. Evidence from the study shows that while the state and corporate actors only contextualise resources in terms of economic value, local actors interprete resources beyond economic value to incorporate symbolic and socio-culturally constructed values linked with historic values. The study also identified relational, routine practices and structural factors which differently shape actors¿ agency for resources management. The context which shapes different arrangements of access to local resources by actors varies. These arrangements are subject to negotiation, power differences and socio-cultural factors. The findings related to governance outcomes reveal both positive (favourable) and negative (unfavourable) outcomes for the livelihood of different actors. The study concludes by exploring implications for local governance in order to address poverty and enhance optimal resource management in the Delta region.
    • GPs, stigma and the timely diagnosis of dementia : a qualitative exploration. The implications of general practitioners' perceptions of dementia as a stigma for timely diagnosis.

      Downs, Murna G.; Small, Neil A.; Newell, Robert J.; Gove, Dianne M. (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2013-11-15)
      Background The focus of this study is on how far GPs¿ perceptions of dementia map onto the components and contributing factors to stigma as described by Link and Phelan (2001; 2006) and Jones et al. (1984). Aim The study explores GPs¿ perceptions of dementia as a stigma, develops a specific conceptualization of the stigma of dementia and considers implications for timely diagnosis. Methods Data from twenty-three GPs in northern England were collected by semistructured telephone interviews. Within the context of a qualitative design, a combined process of grounded theory and framework analysis was adopted to collect and analyse data. Results The findings reveal that GPs¿ perceptions of dementia map onto Link and Phelan and Jones¿ identification of contributing factors and components of stigma and may hinder timely diagnosis. Three themes emerged reflecting a dynamic process of making sense of dementia, relating perceptions to oneself and considering the consequences of dementia. Within those themes, certain categories had particular salience for GPs, namely the characteristics of the attribute, existential anxiety and discrimination. The themes and categories are inter-related and can be considered as parts of a system. Perceived lack of reciprocity could be detected in most categories which suggests that it is influential in the social construction of the stigma of dementia. Conclusion The data suggest that current conceptualizations of stigma are insufficient to fully account for the stigma of dementia. A specific conceptualization of the stigma of dementia is proposed and the implications of GPs¿ perceptions for timely diagnosis are discussed.
    • Graphical and Non-speech Sound Metaphors in Email Browsing: An Empirical Approach. A Usability Based Study Investigating the Role of Incorporating Visual and Non-Speech Sound Metaphors to Communicate Email Data and Threads.

      Rigas, Dimitrios I.; Alharbi, Saad T. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media Department of Computing., 2010-02-25)
      This thesis investigates the effect of incorporating various information visualisation techniques and non-speech sounds (i.e. auditory icons and earcons) in email browsing. This empirical work consisted of three experimental phases. The first experimental phase aimed at finding out the most usable visualisation techniques for presenting email information. This experiment involved the development of two experimental email visualisation approaches which were called LinearVis and MatrixVis. These approaches visualised email messages based on a dateline together with various types of email information such as the time and the senders. The findings of this experiment were used as a basis for the development of a further email visualisation approach which was called LinearVis II. This novel approach presented email data based on multi-coordinated views. The usability of messages retrieval in this approach was investigated and compared to a typical email client in the second experimental phase. Users were required to retrieve email messages in the two experiments with the provided relevant information such as the subject, status and priority. The third experimental phase aimed at exploring the usability of retrieving email messages by using other type of email data, particularly email threads. This experiment investigated the synergic use of graphical representations with non-speech sounds (Multimodal Metaphors), graphical representations and textual display to present email threads and to communicate contextual information about email threads. The findings of this empirical study demonstrated that there is a high potential for using information visualisation techniques and non-speech sounds (i.e. auditory icons and earcons) to improve the usability of email message retrieval. Furthermore, the thesis concludes with a set of empirically derived guidelines for the use of information visualisation techniques and non-speech sound to improve email browsing.
    • Grassroots Community Peacebuilding in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, Canada. Identifying Local Perceptions of the Causes of and Means of Preventing Interpersonal Violence

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Ross, Nancy M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2016)
      The term ‘global peacelessness’ is used to describe the impact of persistently high rates of interpersonal violence throughout the world, and particularly violence against women (Flaherty, 2010). This violence is epidemic and constitutes a global health problem and pervasive human rights violation. Responses are critiqued as narrow in scope, reactive and lacking in coordination. The research presented in this thesis contributes to addressing this gap by exploring measures community citizens from diverse backgrounds defined as important to ending violence. Specifically, the research question asked ‘What do community members of Lunenburg County say about the structural and cultural influences on interpersonal violence?’ It links the field of peace studies with the interpersonal anti-violence field and the field of addiction. The meta-analysis that frames this dissertation asserts that grassroots community peacebuilding will involve defining and connecting measures at the local level that can lead to defining and challenging broad, oppressive cultural and structural factors linked to the persistence of violence at provincial, national, and international levels. Situating interpersonal violence within a peacebuilding framework provides a critical lens that moves from a narrow focus on individual responsibility to include a wider analysis of the origins of violence to include social, cultural, economic, and political factors and ultimately compel a collective community response. This emancipatory function of peacebuilding must include a focus on promotion of environments where boys and men, girls and women, can live safe and satisfying lives that include the development of skills that promote nonviolence and peace.
    • Grassroots community-based peacebuilding. Critical narratives on peacebuilding and collaboration from the locality of Indigenous and non-Indigenous activists in Canada.

      Fetherston, A. Betts; Wallace, Rick (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2010-04-01)
      As developed throughout the dissertation¿s chapters, I combined a number of different and interconnected agendas with the overall goal being to strengthen and revitalize the field of conflict resolution and peacebuilding research in a number of ways. First, I critiqued the past and current peacebuilding literature in order to present its theoretical, methodological and substantive gaps and inadequacies. Second, I argued for a recognition of the interconnectedness of methodology, reflexivity and knowledge/power in general, and more specifically within the peacebuilding literature. Third, my theoretical and methodological framework constituted a distinctive exemplar for conflict resolution and peacebuilding that begins to ground our research questions, methodologies and discourses as situated knowledges within relations of power. Fourth, I argued academic peacebuilding discourses and practices are not neutral but inherently involved in larger social relations. Fifth, I presented the critical narratives from the locality of Indigenous and non-Indigenous grassroots activists in order to shift the spotlight of peacebuilding discourses and practices onto the transformative possibilities of grassroots community-based peace building. I continued with a reformulated theorization of grassroots community peacebuilding as alternative geographies of knowledge, place-based practices and counter-narratives, important in themselves, and as part of a glocality of bottom-up transformative change. Finally, I conclude with a call for a renewing of the field of Conflict resolution and Peacebuilding based on social justice and community-based praxis.
    • Greening the chemistry curriculum. To embed the concepts of sustainability and environmental responsibility into the chemistry curriculum in order to equip graduates for future practises in the chemical sciences

      Lucas, Beverley J.; Munshi, Tasnim; Scowen, Ian J.; Ridley, Amy N. (University of BradfordDepartment of Chemical and Forensic Science, 2012-01-24)
      Sustainability and environmental responsibility is increasingly growing in importance. Solving the environmental problems of the planet will one day become the responsibility of future scientists. For this reason, and with the introduction of new chemical legislation (REACH) driving change it is essential that current students are given a broad introduction to sustainability and environmental responsibility in order to equip them as graduates for future practice in the chemical sciences. At the University of Bradford the aim is to teach sustainability and environmental responsibility by embedding it throughout the entire chemistry curriculum rather than teaching it in standalone lectures. Once this has been established within chemistry it is expected that this will potentially provide a template for other areas of laboratory science within the university. In order to achieve the aim of this project, students, staff and potential employers tookpart in surveys with a view to inform curriculum development. Examples of best practice were sought and used as guidance for the development of directed learning activities for use as post lab questions and utilisation of the twelve principles of green chemistry. Green chemistry metrics were applied to undergraduate experiments to test how well they would work in terms of ease of use, applicability and judging ¿greenness¿. It was found that these were not very effective for use within an undergraduate laboratory due to applicability and judging ¿greenness¿, however this work highlighted other areas for improvement. As a result of this work an environmental assessment metric system was developed for use within an undergraduate setting.