• Elementary School Attendance in Bradford 1863-1903: A Study Using School Log Books.

      Jennings, Benjamin R.; Sheeran, George; Jackson, John Charles (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2015)
      This thesis examines the issue of elementary school attendance in later nineteenth century Bradford. It seeks to do this by means of a little used source: the school log book. The focus of the study is on the experiences of head teachers who faced a constant struggle to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of attendance in Bradford where child employment in the flourishing textile industry had long been an inherent feature of working class life. It investigates broader issues affecting attendance in the context of prevailing social, cultural, religious, and economic factors. While the significant and influential pressures on attendance in Bradford were to be found elsewhere (for example, parental apathy; hostility to compulsory attendance; child labour; health and welfare), this investigation discovers that the town’s problems were compounded and made difficult by its phenomenal growth and rapid emergence by the middle of the nineteenth century as the undisputed capital of the world’s worsted manufacturing trade. It concludes that in the study of Victorian elementary school attendance Bradford deserves greater recognition in consideration of the tension between the demands of the most prolific half-time system of employment in the country, and prevailing attitudes to the introduction of universal elementary education in England and Wales.
    • Embodiment and its Effects. How Creativity, Perception and Sensory Processing Sensitivity Link with Empathy and Theory of Mind Mechanisms

      Lesk, Valerie E.; Comerford Boyes, Louise; Kiou, Jade L. (University of BradfordDivision of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2018)
      Embodied cognition is the study of how actions and interactions with objects and individuals affect cognitive processing. Neuroaesthetics deals with the neural, biological and evolutionary aspects of aesthetic experience which occur through the senses and consist of the emotional value placed onto objects, for example the appreciation of art work, dance, or music. These are individual and differ depending on level of expertise and experience within the art. The main aim of the thesis was to investigate the link between embodiment and aesthetics through examining people’s level of creativity, colour perception and sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) in relation to levels of empathy and theory of mind (ToM). Research into this is sparse as the role of the body in relation to aesthetic experiences is a relatively new concept. Preference for portraits versus landscapes was also investigated to look at any role of social stimuli in aesthetic preference. Results demonstrate that participants with (i) higher levels of creativity (for some types of creativity) and (ii) more acute colour perception had higher levels of empathy/ToM. Individuals who had higher SPS demonstrated higher empathy/ToM. It was also found that colour perception and empathy levels decrease with age, and aesthetic preference for portraits increase with age. These results have implications for education/schools, the prison service, for specific clinical conditions such as autism, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, particularly given the role of dopamine in these disorders and in colour perception. Future research should investigate these findings using brain imaging and physiological measures.
    • The Emergence and Development of Digital Film-Making in Iran

      Goodall, Mark D.; Robison, David J.; Razazifar, Alireza (University of BradfordSchool of Media Design and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2015)
      Iranian digital film-making, which has emerged and developed since 2000 in the Iranian cinematic context, mainly follows a trend based on the nature of new media. However, this trend is subject to fluctuation because of specific aspects of Iranian cinema. In addition, due to the realistic cinematic culture of Iran and the presence of Iranian neorealism film-makers, we face the emergence of a new kind of film-making which has certain international effects in world cinema. These film-makers have found a new method to approach reality and represent it in their films. On the other hand, this new cinematic reality contains more elements from a representation of reality than the analogue one, due to the power of digital cameras and technology. In this research, firstly I investigate the emergence of digital film-making in Iran, which may be unique to some extent compared to other parts of world cinema, and I show the gradual development of this phenomenon up to 2013. This investigation will reveal which parts of Iranian cinema have undergone the most changes. In the next steps, I focus on Iranian neorealism (Iranian art house cinema) and also on Iranian big-budget films. In the former, I focus on changes in the ‘representation of reality’, which I argue is the main characteristic of this mode, and in the latter I show the newly established relationship between governmental desire and the new digital special effects. Thus, I believe I will cover most of the changes that have been occurring in Iranian cinema due to the digitalisation process.
    • An empirical analysis of determinants of financial performance of insurance companies in the United Kingdom

      Sharma, Abhijit; Ward, Damian; Jadi, Diara Md. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2015)
      The determinants that affect the financial performance of an insurance company are complicated due to the intangible nature of insurance products and the lack of transparency in the market. Consequently, the financial performance of insurance companies is important to various stakeholders such as policyholders, insurance intermediaries and policymakers. This study aims to investigate the determinants of financial performance of insurance companies based on their financial strength rating performance. The empirical data are drawn from A.M. Best Insurance Report Online: Non- US Database. The sample consists of 57 insurers in the United Kingdom over the period of 2006 to 2010. The analyses include eight firm-specific variables, which are leverage, profitability, liquidity, size, reinsurance, growth, type of business and organisational form. Rating transition matrices and regression models are employed in this study. Rating transition analysis demonstrates a significant degree of rating changes, as reflected in the rating fluctuations. Based on the empirical results, this study establishes that profitability, liquidity, size and organisational form are statistically significant determinants of financial performance of insurance companies in the United Kingdom. This study recommends an alternative to measure the size of an insurance company, which is based on the gross premium written. In addition, this study provides insights into the effects of the global financial crisis on the financial performance of the insurance companies.
    • An empirical investigation in using multi-modal metaphors to browse internet search results. An investigation based upon experimental browsing platforms to examine usability issues of multi-nodal metaphors to communicate internet-based search engine results.

      Rigas, Dimitrios I.; Ciuffreda, Antonio (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Informatics,, 2010-05-14)
      This thesis explores the use of multimodality to communicate retrieved results of Internet search engines. The investigation aimed to investigate suitable multimodal metaphors which would increase the level of usability of Internet search engine interfaces and enhance users` experience in the search activity. The study consisted of three experiments based on questionnaires and Internet search activities with a set of text-based and multimodal interfaces. These interfaces were implemented in two browsing platforms, named AVBRO and AVBRO II. In the first experiment, the efficiency of specific multimodal metaphors to communicate additional information of retrieved results was investigated. The experiment also sought to obtain users` views of these metaphors with a questionnaire. An experimental multimodal interface of the AVBRO platform, which communicated additional information with a combination of three 2D graphs and musical stimuli, was used as a basis for the experiment, together with the Google search engine. The results obtained led to the planning of a second experiment. The aim of this experiment was to obtain and compare the level of usability of four different experimental multimodal interfaces and one traditional text-based interface, all implemented in the AVBRO II platform. Effectiveness, efficiency and users` satisfaction were used as criteria to evaluate the usability of these interfaces. In the third and final experiment the usability analysis of a traditional text-based interface and the two most suitable experimental multimodal interfaces of the AVBRO II platform was further investigated. Learnability, errors rate, efficiency, memorability and users` satisfaction were used as criteria to evaluate the usability of these interfaces. The analysis of the results obtained from these experiments provided the basis for a set of design guidelines for the development of usable interfaces based on a multimodal approach.
    • An empirical investigation of how the impact of the four self-congruity types on brand attitude varies depending on an individual's self-construals, cosmopolitan and local orientaion.

      Fastoso, Fernando; Fukukawa, Kyoko; Reast, Jon; Gonzalez Jimenez, Hector (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2015-06-24)
      This thesis empirically investigates the impact of an individual’s dominant independent self-construal, interdependent self-construal, cosmopolitan and local orientation on the effect of the four self-congruity types (actual, ideal, social, ideal social) on brand attitude. A widely used practice among marketers focuses on communicating the notion that using their brands will bring consumers closer to how they would like to see themselves, their ideal self-concept (e.g. being a slim person like the models in the ads), instead of how they actually see themselves, their actual self-concept. However, recent research shows that there is no “universality” of a superior self-congruity effect. Specifically, individual-level characteristics (e.g. public self-consciousness) determine whether actual or ideal self-congruity impacts brand perceptions more strongly (Malär et al., 2011). This study extends that research by considering (a) all four self-congruity types and (b) additional individual-level characteristics (independent and interdependent self-construal, cosmopolitan and local orientation), which are valuable for segmenting consumer markets within and across countries. Survey data from a non-student sample were collected in two countries (the US and India). After performing data cleaning procedures, over 800 usable responses in each country were analysed with the use of PLS-SEM. The findings show that, as expected, these individual-level characteristics have an impact in regard to which of the four self-congruity types has the strongest effect on brand attitude. For instance, for individuals with a local orientation or interdependent self-construal, actual self-congruity has the strongest effect on brand attitude. These findings extend self-congruity theory by considering how an individual’s dominant independent and interdependent self-construal, cosmopolitan and local orientation impact the effect of the four self-congruity types on brand attitude. Moreover, the findings offer marketers insights into which self-concept type they should try to match with their brand communications when targeting these specific consumer groups. Details on the contributions as well as managerial implications are presented.
    • An empirical investigation of information systems success. An analysis of the factors affecting banking information systems success in Egypt.

      Taylor, Margaret; Taylor, W. Andrew; Hussein, Safaa A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-05-14)
      Information technology (IT) plays an important role in contemporary organisations and this role continues to expand in scope and complexity and affects business operations dramatically. Advances in the IT industry have caused major changes in every industry sector. The banking industry is no exception and it has undergone a dramatic change over the past few decades. With the coming of the information age, IS investments are becoming increasingly important to banks` survival, growth and prosperity. IS managers are under increasing pressure to justify the value and contribution of IS expenditure to the productivity, quality and competitiveness of the organisation. This study aims to propose a model which investigates the success of information systems in the banking industry in order to help bank managers to evaluate the success of their IS, to be able to develop these systems and to improve the performance of bank managers and employees. Given that the ultimate dependent variable for this research is individual impacts, DeLone and McLean (2003) updated IS success model is leveraged and extended in this research. The study proposes a research model which is guided by the decision to select a suitable number of key potential demographic and situational variables, in addition to the adoption of DeLone and McLean (2003) updated model. This model proposes that a variety of factors were found to affect IS success in general, however, from the socio-technical viewpoint, IS success should capture both technological and human elements. Therefore, an effective Banking Information System (BIS) typically requires an appropriate combination of both. As such, Thus, the technological dimensions (i.e. system, service and information quality) and the human dimensions (e.g. user satisfaction, perceived system benefits, user involvement, user training, age, education and system use) can be a good starting point when considering suitable constructs for measuring BIS success. The research methodology of this study involved interviews with BIS practitioners and professionals to shape and refine the research model. Further, questionnaire survey was employed to collect data from bank managers in Egyptian banks. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using Partial Least Square (PLS) was used to test the research model. Three research models were proposed according to age groups and initial results from PLS analysis reported different results in each research model. Findings indicated that system, information and service quality, level of training, age, length of system use, user involvement and top management support were the main predictors (success constructs) of user satisfaction and individual impacts in the three proposed research models. However, the relationships between these constructs varied according to each age group of managers. The study offers important academic and practical contributions. Firstly, as a contribution to research, the study serves to extend the DeLone and McLean (2003) IS success model by introducing some key human and situational dimensions and confirming certain links in that model with the context of banking industry. The contribution to practice is especially relevant for bank CIOs, software designers and developers looking for ways to improve BIS developments by providing them with directions regarding the BIS success dimensions that should be considered to encourage bank managers to adopt and be more satisfied with BIS which in turn influence their job performance.
    • An empirical investigation of the effect of Intellectual Property Rights systems on Foreign Direct Investment Flows and Spillovers

      Wang, Chengang; Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos; Magkonis, Georgios; Christopoulou, Danai (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2018)
      The major themes of this thesis are the impact of Intellectual Property (IP) systems on foreign direct investment spillovers and bilateral FDI flows. This thesis consists of three empirical studies. The first study integrates in the existing theoretical frameworks the distinct effect of the public IP enforcement element of IP systems on FDI horizontal spillovers. By employing a meta-analysis approach and the ordered probit model estimation technique, it finds that the strength of public IP enforcement in a host country has a positive effect on FDI horizontal spillovers but it dampens the positive effect of IP law protection on FDI horizontal spillovers when it becomes too strong. The second empirical study examines the impact of IP systems on FDI vertical spillovers. This study employs a similar conceptual and empirical approach and finds that the strength of public IP enforcement has a positive effect on FDI vertical spilloversbut a negative moderating effect on the relationship between the strength of IP law protection and FDI vertical spillovers. In the third empirical study, a gravity model is applied to test the effect of IP systems on bilateral FDI flows in OECD countries. Using the Poisson pseudo-maximum-likelihood, it finds both the strength of IP law protection and the strength of public IP enforcement to have a positive effect on bilateral FDI flows. The broad implication of these findings is that countries should strengthen both their IP law protection and enforcement but apply appropriate measures to mitigate the negative effect resulted from excessive IP protection.
    • An empirical investigation of total quality management in Palestine: A proposed generic framework of implementation. The construction of a generic framework for effective TQM implementation in Palestinian organisations: An empirical investigation of critical quality factors and best practice.

      Zairi, Mohamed; Baidoun, Samir D. (University of BradfordManagement Centre. European Centre for Total Quality Management., 2009-10-28)
      Although academic interest in TQM increased substantially in the last decade, still the gap in the literature is hardly surprising given that research and theory in TQM implementation are still at a very early stage in the West. To-date, there are only a handful of empirical researches reported in the literature that have attempted to identify what constitute as constructs of TQM that can be manipulated to effectively implement TQM. All but very few are studies done in developed economies. Moreover, knowledge of TQM in developing economies is almost totally lacking. Against this backdrop, this researcha ddressesth e identified gaps in the literature on TQM. Thus this thesis focuses on the effective implementation of total quality management in Palestine, a developing economy, through an empirical investigation of critical quality factors. The research methodology involves combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies to identify the key quality factors cited in the literature and considered by consultants and experts as essential to successful TQM implementation. The research design also included: Lan empirical investigation to assessth e level of TQM awarenessa nd understandingi n the Palestinian context, 2. determining which key quality factors are critical to successful implementation using a survey questionnaire, 3. determining what tactics and techniques are used in addressing and implementing these critical quality factors by Palestinian organisations, using semi-structured interviews, 4. determining the prerequisites of effective TQM implementation in the pre-launch stage using in depth interviews. By complementing and integrating the findings, an implementation framework was constructed with the support of the knowledge acquired from the literature review. A simple and practical step by step with implementation guidelines framework aiming at assisting Palestinian organisations in planning on effective implementation of TQM was constructed. The research findings indicate that top management commitment and involvement, employee commitment and involvement, managing by customer-driven system and processes and continuous performance improvement, are essential to effective implementation of TQM. This implies that Palestinian organisations recognise and implement the same critical quality factors found in Western countries. The proposed framework is built around four major constructs that relate to top management commitment, employee commitment, customer-driven system and processes, and continuous improvement. It emphasises an implementation approach of top-down deployment and bottom-up participation focussing on businessp rocessesth at add value to customers atisfaction. In conclusion, this empirical research revealed that TQM could be implemented in the developing economies (such as Palestine) as Palestinian organisations subscribe to the same quality factors as those found in the developed economies.
    • An empirical study of critical sucess factors for small and medium enterprises in Saudi Arabia. Challenges and Opportunities.

      Hafeez, Khalid; Hussain, Zahid I.; Alfaadhel, Saud (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2011-06-22)
      Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are considered to be a most efficient tool which is able to push economic and social development to experience significant progress and development as they offer useful services to consumers, and provide much needed employment. With this in consideration, they are useful for training, acquiring experience and technical and managerial skills. The objectives of this research are to identify the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for SMEs in Saudi Arabia. Based on the literature review, 20 factors have been identified and subsequently structured into three groups, namely entrepreneurial, enterprise and environmental factors. The study also focuses on the SMEs Support Programme by identifying the current situation and accordingly providing recommendations based on those made by the support providers. Data have been collected by utilising a mixed method approach: first, 146 postal questionnaires with SME owners/managers have been analysed by using SPSS; second, in order to gain further understanding of the situation and particular challenges, 15 in-depth interviews with support providers have been conducted; and third, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used to analyse the pairwise comparison of the factors. The main findings of this study are that, for the CSFs for SMEs in Saudi Arabia, three factors are deemed to be important both for owners/managers and support providers. These factors are quality of the product and service, customer satisfaction, and business planning. The findings also indicate that there are many ¿important support gaps¿ which show that existing support needs to be addressed in order to improve and develop the support structure.
    • An empirical study of IT based knowledge management systems implementation: A comparative study with the Kuwait and the UK public sectors and proposed model for best practice knowledge management.

      Zairi, Mohamed; Alazmi, Mutiran A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2009-10-21)
      Knowledge Management (KM) helps extend the knowledge of individuals or groups across organisations in ways that directly affect performance. Further, it is a formalised and integrated approach to identify and manage an organisation's knowledge assets. The study is an exploratory investigation of the implementation of IT-based Knowledge Management Systems. It is also a comparative study of the Kuwait and UK public sectors with the specific aim of building a best practice model for KM implementation in conjunction with IT. This includes examination of the relevant literature, a comprehensive analysis of case studies of KM implementation in 91 organisations presented in the literature, in order to arrive at the most critical factors of KM implementation and their degree of criticality, and an exploratory survey of 68 organisations both in the UK and Kuwait relating to their experiences in implementing initiatives such as KM and the role of IT in that process. In view of the intensive and extensive data for interdependence relationships between variables, statistical techniques were used, and in-depth studies of 16 leading organisations, to understand how the KM implementation processes and the critical factors identified were addressed and implemented. This study identifies critical factors of success in KM domain that applicable to Kuwaiti organisations. These factors were categorised under four different headings: (1) Technology, (2) KM processes, (3) Change management, (4) Top management commitment. A generic holistic model for effective KM implementation is proposed.
    • An empirical study of multisection virtual 3D healthcare learning environments. Investigation into the effect of multisection incorporation on the usability of online 3D virtual healthcare learning environments and the production of empirically derived guidelines for designing the learning environments.

      Ruan, Tao; Jiang, Ping; Nik Ahmad, Nik Siti Hanifah (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2013-11-21)
      The thesis investigated the use of combination of sections using learning steps in the development of courseware presentation in the 3D Virtual Worlds platform. The technical objective of the study is to present the design of multisection strategy in developing healthcare course in 3D Virtual World online environment. The main aim of this study is to know the effects of multisection [objective, tutorial (with or without video), quiz and test] sections incorporation in an online 3D Virtual World towards the usability. The empirical research described in this thesis comprised three experimental phases. In the first phase, an initial experiment was carried out with 21 users to explore the usability and learning performance of courseware created using 3D the Virtual World platform of Second Life. The second experiment phase involved an experiment conducted with 30 users to investigate their perception, satisfaction and performance of the role of each main section involved in Virtual World courseware. In the third phase, a total of 30 users experimentally examined a unique approach to the use of video segment added in the Tutorial section of the OTQT framework. The overall obtained results demonstrated the usefulness of the tested multisection to enhance the development of healthcare course in an online learning of 3D Virtual World program. These results in three experiments provided a set of unique and empirically derived guidelines for the design and the use of three multisection frameworks to generate more usable courseware in the 3D Virtual Worlds of an online learning interface. For example, when designing avatars as animated virtual lecturers in e-learning interfaces, specific facial expression and body gestures should be incorporated due to its positive influence in enhancing learners¿ attitude towards the learning process.
    • Energy Efficient Cloud Computing Based Radio Access Networks in 5G. Design and evaluation of an energy aware 5G cloud radio access networks framework using base station sleeping, cloud computing based workload consolidation and mobile edge computing

      Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun; Sigwele, Tshiamo (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2017)
      Fifth Generation (5G) cellular networks will experience a thousand-fold increase in data traffic with over 100 billion connected devices by 2020. In order to support this skyrocketing traffic demand, smaller base stations (BSs) are deployed to increase capacity. However, more BSs increase energy consumption which contributes to operational expenditure (OPEX) and CO2 emissions. Also, an introduction of a plethora of 5G applications running in the mobile devices cause a significant amount of energy consumption in the mobile devices. This thesis presents a novel framework for energy efficiency in 5G cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) by leveraging cloud computing technology. Energy efficiency is achieved in three ways; (i) at the radio side of H-C-RAN (Heterogeneous C-RAN), a dynamic BS switching off algorithm is proposed to minimise energy consumption while maintaining Quality of Service (QoS), (ii) in the BS cloud, baseband workload consolidation schemes are proposed based on simulated annealing and genetic algorithms to minimise energy consumption in the cloud, where also advanced fuzzy based admission control with pre-emption is implemented to improve QoS and resource utilisation (iii) at the mobile device side, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is used where computer intensive tasks from the mobile device are executed in the MEC server in the cloud. The simulation results show that the proposed framework effectively reduced energy consumption by up to 48% within RAN and 57% in the mobile devices, and improved network energy efficiency by a factor of 10, network throughput by a factor of 2.7 and resource utilisation by 54% while maintaining QoS.
    • Energy efficient cloud computing based radio access networks in 5G: Design and evaluation of an energy aware 5G cloud radio access networks framework using base station sleeping, cloud computing based workload consolidation and mobile edge computing

      Pillai, Prashant; Hu, Yim Fun; Sigwele, Tshiamo
      Fifth Generation (5G) cellular networks will experience a thousand-fold increase in data traffic with over 100 billion connected devices by 2020. In order to support this skyrocketing traffic demand, smaller base stations (BSs) are deployed to increase capacity. However, more BSs increases energy consumption which contributes to operational expenditure (OPEX) and CO2 emissions. Also, an introduction of a plethora of 5G applications running in the mobile devices causes a significant amount of energy consumption in the mobile devices. This thesis presents a novel framework for energy efficiency in 5G cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) by leveraging cloud computing technology. Energy efficiency is achieved in three ways; (i) at the radio side of H-C-RAN (Heterogeneous C-RAN), a dynamic BS switching off algorithm is proposed to minimise energy consumption while maintaining Quality of Service (QoS), (ii) in the BS cloud, baseband workload consolidation schemes are proposed based on simulated annealing and genetic algorithms to minimise energy consumption in the cloud, where also advanced fuzzy based admission control with pre-emption is implemented to improve QoS and resource utilisation (iii) at the mobile device side, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is used where computer intensive tasks from the mobile device are executed in the MEC server in the cloud. The simulation results show that the proposed framework effectively reduced energy consumption by up to 48% within RAN and 57% in the mobile devices, and improved network energy efficiency by a factor of 10, network throughput by a factor of 2.7 and resource utilisation by 54% while maintaining QoS.
    • Energy efficient radio frequency system design for mobile WiMax applications. Modelling, optimisation and measurement of radio frequency power amplifier covering WiMax bandwidth based on the combination of class AB, class B, and C operations.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; McEwan, Neil J.; Hussaini, Abubakar S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-05)
      In today´s digital world, information and communication technology accounts for 3% and 2% of the global power consumption and CO2 emissions respectively. This alarming figure is on an upward trend, as future telecommunications systems and handsets will become even more power hungry since new services with higher bandwidth requirements emerge as part of the so called ¿future internet¿ paradigm. In addition, the mobile handset industry is tightly coupled to the consumer need for more sophisticated handsets with greater battery lifetime. If we cannot make any significant step to reducing the energy gap between the power hungry requirements of future handsets, and what battery technology can deliver, then market penetration for 4G handsets can be at risk. Therefore, energy conservation must be a design objective at the forefront of any system design from the network layer, to the physical and the microelectronic counterparts. In fact, the energy distribution of a handset device is dominated by the energy consumption of the RF hardware, and in particular the power amplifier design. Power amplifier design is a traditional topic that addresses the design challenge of how to obtain a trade-off between linearity and efficiency in order to avoid the introduction of signal distortion, whilst making best use of the available power resources for amplification. However, the present work goes beyond this by investigating a new line of amplifiers that address the green initiatives, namely green power amplifiers. This research work explores how to use the Doherty technique to promote efficiency enhancement and thus energy saving. Five different topologies of RF power amplifiers have been designed with custom-made signal splitters. The design core of the Doherty technique is based on the combination of a class B, class AB and a class C power amplifier working in synergy; which includes 90-degree 2-way power splitter at the input, quarter wavelength transformer at the output, and a new output power combiner. The frequency range for the amplifiers was designed to operate in the 3.4 - 3.6 GHz frequency band of Europe mobile WiMAX. The experimental results show that 30dBm output power can be achieved with 67% power added efficiency (PAE) for the user terminal, and 45dBm with 66% power added efficiency (PAE) for base stations which marks a 14% and 11% respective improvement over current stateof- the-art, while meeting the power output requirements for mobile WiMAX applications.
    • Energy use in buildings and design requirements. The energy costs and financial costs of building materials, structures and space heating, the detailed patterns of use of heating systems in dwellings, and their interactions: their implications for design.

      Mills, G.M.; Sansam, Robert Verdon (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Science and Society., 2010-02-10)
      The primary energy costs of building materials and structures are discussed and comparisons are made between typical dwelling types. The economics of alternative wall, roof and floor constructions, providing various levels of insulationy are examined. Costs are assessed for a number of periods from 1970 to early 1980 for heating by gas and night rate electricity. The effect of price changes-on the economic attractiveness of insulation is investigated and the likely effects of future price rises are considered. It is concluded that, in certain circumstances, higher levels of insulation than those normally used in the UK have been economically attractive for the last few years and may possibly become more so. A survey of over fifty local authority houses with central heating, carried out by the author in Spring 1978, is described. Three types of houses of similar size were involved, having gas-fired 'wet' systems, and ducted warm air heating from electric storage and gas-fired units respectively. The survey was designed to determine certain aspects of occupant behaviour relevant to fuel consumption. Using regression techniques, relationships are obtained which explain more than two thirds of the variance of mean useful energy input rate between the houses of a given type in cold weather in terms of hours of use of central heating window opening habits, and for warm air heating, the closing of outlet registers. It was also revealed that for the house types with gas-fired heating the number of hours of use of the central heating was strongly influenced by household size and occupancy patterns. The implications for building design of the effects of occupant behaviour and of financial and energy costs are discussed.
    • Enforcing Global Strategies in Subsidiaries of Highly Decentralized Multinational Corporations. The Role of International Sales Managers

      Not named; Schill, Richard Bruno (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013)
      Resistance of subsidiaries of multinational corporations to global coordination efforts by their headquarters is an important contemporary research subject in the field of international business studies. This case study of sales and marketing organizations in five international subsidiaries of a highly divisionalized corporation illustrates how the capabilities and the willingness to adopt and pursue global strategies is strongly influenced by local situational and organizational factors. The defining business problem was different in each country organization, ranging from product related issues such as quick innovation cycles and price competition, to economic concerns like emerging market dynamics and economic crisis, and other problems related to cultural dissimilarity. A large degree of divisionalization seems to dilute central leadership, as central managers compete for the attention and the resources of the subsidiaries and local managers behave like independent distributors, picking and choosing the most favorable offerings. In order to establish successful leadership in the absence of hierarchical control, intermediate central sales and marketing managers need to first of all internally coordinate their activities towards their local counterparts. Top management needs to establish legitimate authority of intermediate managers by clear definitions of international matrix roles and management procedures. Central sales and marketing managers need to have enough international field experience to be able to correctly assess the different local situations, advance their initiatives in a diplomatic way on all local hierarchy levels and to become overall credible and accepted partners for the local teams. Directly engaging in field activities with local customers and sales teams seems to help achieving these objectives and thus to contribute to the successful enforcement of global strategies.
    • Engine modelling for virtual mapping. Development of a physics based cycle-by-cycle virtual engine that can be used for cyclic engine mapping applications, engine flow modelling, ECU calibration, real-time engine control or vehicle simulation studies.

      Ebrahimi, Kambiz M.; Olley, Peter; Pezouvanis, Antonios (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010-08-27)
      After undergoing a study about current engine modelling and mapping approaches as well as the engine modelling requirements for different applications, a major problem found to be present is the extensive and time consuming mapping procedure that every engine has to go through so that all control parameters can be derived from experimental data. To improve this, a cycle-by-cycle modelling approach has been chosen to mathematically represent reciprocating engines starting by a complete dynamics crankshaft mechanism model which forms the base of the complete engine model. This system is modelled taking into account the possibility of a piston pin offset on the mechanism. The derived Valvetrain model is capable of representing a variable valve lift and phasing Valvetrain which can be used while modelling most modern engines. A butterfly type throttle area model is derived as well as its rate of change which is believed to be a key variable for transient engine control. In addition, an approximation throttle model is formulated aiming at real-time applications. Furthermore, the engine inertia is presented as a mathematical model able to be used for any engine. A spark ignition engine simulation (SIES) framework was developed in MATLAB SIMULINK to form the base of a complete high fidelity cycle-by-cycle simulation model with its major target to provide an environment for virtual engine mapping procedures. Some experimental measurements from an actual engine are still required to parameterise the model, which is the reason an engine mapping (EngMap) framework has been developed in LabVIEW, It is shown that all the moving engine components can be represented by a single cyclic variable which can be used for flow model development.
    • Engineering of Inhalation Aerosols Combining Theophylline and Budesonide

      Paradkar, Anant R.; Grimsey, Ian M.; Shao, Qun; Chen, Chi (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Science, 2014)
      In asthma therapy, the use of theophylline to prevent bronchial spasm and glucocorticoids to decrease inflammation is widely indicated. Apart from the acute asthma attack oral theophylline is treated for chronic therapy in order to minimize inflammation and to enhance the efficiency of corticosteroids and recover steroids’ anti-inflammatory actions in COPD treatment. The preferred application route for respiratory disease treatment is by inhalation, such as dry powder inhalers (DPI) being the delivery systems of first choice. As shown recently, there is an advantageous effect if the drugs are given simultaneously which is caused by a synergistic effect at the same target cell in the lung epithelia. Therefore, it seems rational to combine both substances in one particle. This type of particle has the advantage over a combination product containing both drugs in a physical mixture which occurs rather randomly deposition leading to API segregation and non-dose-uniformity. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is a type of therapeutic pharmaceutical formulations usually present in the solid form. Due to the nature of the solid-state, an understanding of chemical and physical properties must be established for acquiring optimum performance of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In recent year, generation of DPIs is a destructive procedure to meet the micron size. Such processes are inefficient and difficult to control. Moreover, according to current researches on combination APIs formulation, this type of DPIs performed a greater variability in does delivery of each active, leading to poor bioavailability and limit clinical efficient. This result suggest that combination formulations require advanced quality and functionality of particles with suitable physicochemical properties. Hence, in order to production of binary and combination DPIs products, the aim of this study was to develop the spray drying and ultrasonic process for engineering of combination drug particles that will be delivered more efficiently and independently of dose variations to the lung. Microparticles were produced by spray drying or/and ultrasonic technique. The processing parameters and addition of excipients (polymers) were optimized using a full factorial design such that microparticles were produced in a narrow size range suitable for inhalation. Employing excipients resulted in high saturation environment leading to minimized sphere particles when compared to conventional solvent. Solid state characterization of microparticles using powder x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the particles contained crystalline but no cocrystal. The combination particles comparable to or better than micronized drug when formulated as a powder blended with lactose. It was concluded that the use of HPMC enhanced crystallinity suitable for inhalation; and combination particles improved uniform distribution on the stage of NGI.
    • Engineering System Design for Automated Space Weather Forecast. Designing Automatic Software Systems for the Large-Scale Analysis of Solar Data, Knowledge Extraction and the Prediction of Solar Activities Using Machine Learning Techniques.

      Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Alomari, Mohammad H. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2010-03-03)
      Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are energetic events taking place at the Sun that can affect the space weather or the near-Earth environment by the release of vast quantities of electromagnetic radiation and charged particles. Solar active regions are the areas where most flares and CMEs originate. Studying the associations among sunspot groups, flares, filaments, and CMEs is helpful in understanding the possible cause and effect relationships between these events and features. Forecasting space weather in a timely manner is important for protecting technological systems and human life on earth and in space. The research presented in this thesis introduces novel, fully computerised, machine learning-based decision rules and models that can be used within a system design for automated space weather forecasting. The system design in this work consists of three stages: (1) designing computer tools to find the associations among sunspot groups, flares, filaments, and CMEs (2) applying machine learning algorithms to the associations¿ datasets and (3) studying the evolution patterns of sunspot groups using time-series methods. Machine learning algorithms are used to provide computerised learning rules and models that enable the system to provide automated prediction of CMEs, flares, and evolution patterns of sunspot groups. These numerical rules are extracted from the characteristics, associations, and time-series analysis of the available historical solar data. The training of machine learning algorithms is based on data sets created by investigating the associations among sunspots, filaments, flares, and CMEs. Evolution patterns of sunspot areas and McIntosh classifications are analysed using a statistical machine learning method, namely the Hidden Markov Model (HMM).