• Digital Image Processing via Combination of Low-Level and High-Level Approaches.

      Jiang, Jianmin; Ipson, Stanley S.; Wang, Dong (University of BradfordThe Digital Media & Systems Research Institute, School of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2012-02-13)
      With the growth of computer power, Digital Image Processing plays a more and more important role in the modern world, including the field of industry, medical, communications, spaceflight technology etc. There is no clear definition how to divide the digital image processing, but normally, digital image processing includes three main steps: low-level, mid-level and highlevel processing. Low-level processing involves primitive operations, such as: image preprocessing to reduce the noise, contrast enhancement, and image sharpening. Mid-level processing on images involves tasks such as segmentation (partitioning an image into regions or objects), description of those objects to reduce them to a form suitable for computer processing, and classification (recognition) of individual objects. Finally, higher-level processing involves "making sense" of an ensemble of recognised objects, as in image analysis. Based on the theory just described in the last paragraph, this thesis is organised in three parts: Colour Edge and Face Detection; Hand motion detection; Hand Gesture Detection and Medical Image Processing. II In Colour Edge Detection, two new images G-image and R-image are built through colour space transform, after that, the two edges extracted from G-image and R-image respectively are combined to obtain the final new edge. In Face Detection, a skin model is built first, then the boundary condition of this skin model can be extracted to cover almost all of the skin pixels. After skin detection, the knowledge about size, size ratio, locations of ears and mouth is used to recognise the face in the skin regions. In Hand Motion Detection, frame differe is compared with an automatically chosen threshold in order to identify the moving object. For some special situations, with slow or smooth object motion, the background modelling and frame differencing are combined in order to improve the performance. In Hand Gesture Recognition, 3 features of every testing image are input to Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and then the Expectation Maximization algorithm (EM)is used to compare the GMM from testing images and GMM from training images in order to classify the results. In Medical Image Processing (mammograms), the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and clustering rule are applied to choose the feature. Two classifier, ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM), have been applied to classify the results, in this processing, the balance learning theory and optimized decision has been developed are applied to improve the performance.
    • Digital Watermarking of Images towards Content Protection.

      Jiang, Jianmin; Ipson, Stanley S.; Nasir, Ibrahim A. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2010-09-20)
      With the rapid growth of the internet and digital media techniques over the last decade, multimedia data such as images, video and audio can easily be copied, altered and distributed over the internet without any loss in quality. Therefore, protection of ownership of multimedia data has become a very significant and challenging issue. Three novel image watermarking algorithms have been designed and implemented for copyright protection. The first proposed algorithm is based on embedding multiple watermarks in the blue channel of colour images to achieve more robustness against attacks. The second proposed algorithm aims to achieve better trade-offs between imperceptibility and robustness requirements of a digital watermarking system. It embeds a watermark in adaptive manner via classification of DCT blocks with three levels: smooth, edges and texture, implemented in the DCT domain by analyzing the values of AC coefficients. The third algorithm aims to achieve robustness against geometric attacks, which can desynchronize the location of the watermark and hence cause incorrect watermark detection. It uses geometrically invariant feature points and image normalization to overcome the problem of synchronization errors caused by geometric attacks. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithms are robust and outperform related techniques found in literature.
    • Directing the Assembly of Multicomponent Organic Crystals. Synthesis, characterisation and structural analysis of multicomponent organic systems formed from dynamic processes.

      Scowen, Ian J.; Munshi, Tasnim; Alomar, Taghrid S. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2015-04-22)
      Directed assembly of molecular solids continues to attract widespread interest with its fundamental application in a wide range of commercial settings where control of the crystalline state of materials corresponds with product performance. These arenas include pharmaceuticals, personal care formulations, foods, paints and pigments and explosives. In recent times, the assembly of multicomponent organic systems has achieved considerable impetus with the widespread interest in co-crystal systems. However, cogent assembly (or engineering) of multicomponent materials is still in its infancy. Considerable advances in crystal design have been made through consideration of intermolecular ‘synthons’ – identifiable motifs utilising hydrogen bonds – but the translation of other molecular information (conformation, chirality, etc.) into solid state properties (e.g. long-range (translational) symmetry, crystal chirality) remains poorly understood. In this study, we have attempted to evaluate the influence of a chiral centre adjacent to molecular synthons to identify potential translation of information into the solid form. We have compared the co-crystallisation of nicotinamide with both the racemic mixture of malic acid against that with an enantiomerically pure form of the acid (L-malic acid). As well as DL-phenyllactic acid and L-phenyllactic acid. iii It is apparent that recognition between enantiomeric molecular forms play a significant role in the assembly of these systems. This mechanism can be considered independently from the H-bonding networks supporting the hetero-molecular interactions (e.g. acid-amide recognition). Discrimination and control of such interactions may play a role in transmitting chiral molecular information into solid state multi-component assemblies. In order to develop an understanding of co-crystal formation in chiral and achiral forms with intermolecular interactions, the CSD and crystal structures were obtained to do the analysis of how co-crystals pack. This study has also investigated the use of boronic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the modification of the hydrogen bonding environment within the hydrogen bonded multi-component systems of boroxines. The study also attempted to determine how the starting materials drive the systems between the boronic acid co-crystal and the boroxine adduct.
    • The Discursive Construction of Terrorism: The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and other Kurdish political movements in Turkish official discourse, and the approach of the Turkish authorities regarding the Kurdish question

      Bluth, Christoph; Green, Tim; Deewanee, Azad A.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Science and Humanities, Division of Peace Studies and International Development, 2018)
    • DISH Everywhere: Study of the Pathogenesis of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis and of its Prevalence in England and Catalonia from the Roman to the Post-Medieval Time Period

      Buckberry, Jo; Beaumont, Julia; Castells Navarro, Laura (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2018)
      Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a spondyloarthropathy traditionally defined as having spinal and extra-spinal manifestations. However its diagnostic criteria only allow the identification of advanced DISH and there is little consensus regarding the extra-spinal enthesopathies. In this project, individuals with DISH from the WM Bass Donated Skeletal Collection were analysed to investigate the pathogenesis of DISH and archaeological English and Catalan samples (3rd–18th century AD) were studied to investigate how diet might have influenced the development of DISH. From the individuals from the Bass Collection, isolated vertical lesions representing the early stages of DISH (‘early DISH’) were identified. Both sample sets showed that the presence of extra-spinal manifestations varies significantly between individuals and that discarthrosis and DISH can co-exist in the same individual. In all archaeological samples, the prevalence of DISH was significantly higher in males and older individuals showed a higher prevalence of DISH. In both regions, the prevalence of DISH was the lowest in the Roman samples, the highest in the early medieval ones and intermediate in the late medieval samples. While when using documentary resources and archaeological data, it was hypothesised that the prevalence of DISH in the English and Catalan samples might have been different, the results show no significant differences even if English samples tend to show higher prevalence of DISH than the Catalan samples. This possibly suggests that the development of DISH depends on a combination of dietary habits and, possibly, genetic predisposition might influence the development of DISH. The individuals from the Bass Collection showed high prevalence of metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. In contrast, no association was found between DISH and rich-diet associated conditions (e.g. carious lesions and gout) or deficiency-related conditions (e.g. scurvy, healed rickets).
    • Distorted Security Discourses. The ROK’s Securitisation of the Korean Nuclear Crisis, 2003–2013

      Bluth, Christoph; Greene, Owen J.; Yoon, Seongwon (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2016)
      South Korea’s security discourse on the nuclear threat posed by North Korea has been dichotomised by its position within the political spectrum between the progressives and conservatives. By drawing upon Securitisation Theory (ST), this study challenges the current security discourse in South Korea, which has divided and misled the public as well as securitising actors. This study examines the security discourses of the Roh Moo-hyun (2003–2008) and Lee Myung-bak (2008–2013) administrations, since they represent the archetypes of the progressives and conservatives respectively. The results of the analysis suggest that the current security discourses that have been prevalent in South Korea do not correspond with reality and, subsequently, the discourses were not able to deal with real challenges that the nuclear threat posed. This research also explains the root cause of the distorted security discourses by applying a ‘discursive chasm’ as a preliminary concept, which indicates a discursive structure that fundamentally impedes the performance of securitising actors’ articulation, and that distorts the discursive formation (securitisation processes). The chasms consist of three elusive discourses: first, a discourse on threats that cannot simply be said to be either imminent or not imminent (nuclear weapons as materiality and discourse); second, a discourse on the other that cannot easily be defined (the difficulty of representation of North Korea); and third, a discourse on measures that cannot easily be realised (intangible extraordinary measures).
    • Dividend Policy, Stock Liquidity and Stock Price Informativeness

      Mazouz, Khelifa; Sharma, Abhijit; Ebrahim, Rabab H.A.H. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, Faculty of Management & Law, 2017)
      Dividend policy, its determinants, and its impact on firm value are of significant academic interest, and many theories and explanations have been posited on the subject over the years, but there has not been a universal agreement. This thesis examines the links between dividend policy, various aspects of stock liquidity and price informativeness. We study a sample of UK firms over the period from 1996-2013. We show that, on average, stocks of dividend payers have significantly lower bid–ask spread and a lower illiquidity ratio than their counterparts of non-dividend payers. We also find that stocks of high-dividend payers are more liquid than those of firms that pay low or no dividends. These findings are consistent with the predictions of asymmetric information that posit that paying dividends reveals inside information to the market and hence decreases the level of asymmetric information, leading to higher stock liquidity. In the subsequent analysis, we suggest and examine a new channel through which dividend policy can impact firm value. Specifically, we show that dividend payers are less exposed to shocks in the aggregate market liquidity than non-dividend payers. Similarly, we find that the systematic liquidity risk is negatively associated with amount of dividends. Finally, in the context of signalling and agency costs models, we show that dividends are negatively related to stock price informativeness and that this relationship is stronger for firms with lower stock liquidity. The findings imply that dividend policy can both affect and be affected by stock markets.
    • Dizziness and falls rate changes after routine cataract surgery and the influence of visual and refractive factors

      Elliott, David B.; Johnson, Louise; Supuk, Elvira (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2015)
      Purpose: To determine whether symptoms of dizziness and fall rates change due to routine cataract surgery and to determine the influence of visual and refractive factors on these common problems in older adults. Methods: Self-reported dizziness and falls were determined in 287 subjects (mean age of 76.5±6.3 years, 55% females) before and after routine cataract surgery for the first (81, 28%), second (109, 38%) and both eyes (97, 34%). Six-month falls rates were determined using self-reported retrospective data. Dizziness was determined using the short-form of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Results: The number of patients with dizziness reduced significantly after cataract surgery (52% vs. 38%; χ2 = 19.14 , p<0.001), but the reduction in number of patients who fell in the 6-months post surgery was not significant (23% vs. 20%; χ2= 0.87, p=0.35). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found significant links between post-operative falls and change in spectacle type (increased risk if switched into multifocal spectacles). Post-operative dizziness was associated with changes in best eye visual acuity and changes in oblique astigmatic correction. Conclusions: Dizziness is significantly reduced by cataract surgery and this is linked with improvements in best eye visual acuity, although changes in oblique astigmatic correction increased dizziness. The lack of improvement in falls rate may be associated with switching into multifocal spectacle wear after surgery.
    • Does Cyberspace outdate Jurisdictional Defamation Laws?

      Usman, Muhammad
      Cyberspace produces friction when the law is implemented by domestic courts using 'state-laws'. These laws are based on a ‘physical presence’ of an individual within the territory. It elevates conflicts relating to cyberspace jurisdiction. This research examines private international law complications associated with cyberspace. The paradigm of libel that takes place within the domain of social media is used to evaluate the utility of traditional laws. This research is conducted using ‘black-letter’ methodology, keeping in mind the changes constituted by the Defamation Act 2013. It pinpoints that the instantaneous nature of social media communication demands an unambiguous exercise of 'personal-jurisdiction', beyond the doctrine of territoriality. An innovation to the code of Civil Procedure is recommended to revise the process of service for non-EU defendants. The permission to serve a writ via social networks (or to the relevant Embassy of the defendant’s domicile state), can accelerate the traditional judicial process. This thesis can be utilised as a roadmap by libel victims for preliminary information. It contributes to the knowledge by discovering that the thresholds under Section 1 and Section 9 of the Defamation Act 2013 overlap with the conventional ‘forum-conveniens’ tests. This crossover is causing legal uncertainty in the application of existing rules to the digital libel proceedings. Section 1 and Section 9 thresholds do not fulfil the purpose of eliminating ‘libel-tourism’ and maintaining a balance between speech freedom and reputation rights. They raised the bar for potential victims and restricted their rights to justice. It is proposed that the traditional ‘conveniens test’ must be used for social media libel victims to produce legal certainty in cyberspace defamation.
    • Does institutionalising decentralisation work? Rethinking agency, institutions and authority in local governance. A case study of Ntonaboma in Kwahu-North District, Ghana.

      Morvaridi, Behrooz; Cleaver, Frances D.; Osei-Kufuor, Patrick (University of BradfordDevelopment and Economic Studies, 2012-01-13)
      This thesis draws on an ethnographic research in Ghana to question mainstream views on decentralisation that local level institutions can be consciously crafted to enlist the participation of marginal actors in governance thereby leading to efficiency and equity in development. The research explores the everyday practice of local governance in Ntonaboma, a resettlement community in the Eastern region of Ghana by using participant observation and interviews. Evidence from the study reveals that first decentralisation is not a technical or managerial exercise but rather a societal practice taking place among heterogeneous actors with diverse interest and values. Secondly, the interactions occurring among these diverse actors are mediated through the interplay of a variety of institutions at the local level. Thirdly, the complex and dynamic character of decentralisation at the community level make the specificities of context very relevant in understanding the transformative potentials of decentralisation especially how it impacts on people and their social organisation. The study places emphasis on the application of agency, institutions and authority in local governance approaches. Evidence from the study suggests that institutionalised decentralisation inadequately provides possibilities for ordinary people to transform the nature of their interactions within the community. The thesis raises further questions about the simplistic and instrumental use of institutions in local governance approaches. The study notes that institutions are not static and do not determine outcomes but are informed by the prevailing conditions at the community level. Thus, the actions of actors and specificities of the locality do shape institutions. The study emphasises the role of existing institutions and socially embedded principles in village governance. It thus suggests that, the process of decentralisation is a political process mediated through diverse institutions and with varied outcomes for different individuals. The study concludes by exploring implications for local governance and decentralisation to making local governance pro-poor.
    • Drug nanosizing using microfluidic reactors. Development, characterisation and evaluation of corticosteroids nano-sized particles for optimised drug delivery.

      York, Peter; Blagden, Nicholas; Ali, Hany S.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Pharmacy, 2011-06-22)
      Over recent years the delivery of nanosized drug particles has shown potential in improving bioavailability. Drug nanosizing is achieved by ¿top-down¿ and by ¿bottom-up¿ approaches. Owing to limitations associated with the top-down techniques, such as high energy input, electrostatic effects, broad particle size distributions and contamination issues, great interest has been directed to alternative bottom up technologies. In this study, the hypothesis that microreactors can be used as a simple and cost-effective technique to generate organic nanosized products is tested using three steroids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone and budesonide). Arrested antisolvent nanoprecipitation using ethanol (solvent) and water (antisolvent) was conducted within the microreactors. To enable experimental design for the microreactor studies, solubility profiles in different ethanol-water combinations at 25 °C were explored. All three drugs¿ solubility increased with increasing ethanol concentration showing maxima at 80-90 % v/v ethanol-water mixtures. Because of the complex multivariate microfluidic process, artificial neural network modelling was then employed to identify the dominant relationships between the variables affecting nanoprecipitation (as inputs) and the drug particle size (as output). The antisolvent flow rate was found to have the major role in directing drug particle size. Based on these successful findings, the potential of preparing pharmaceutical nanosuspensions using microfluidic reactors was researched. A hydrocortisone (HC) nanosuspension (NS) was prepared by introducing the generated drug particles into an aqueous solution of stabilizers stirred at high speed with a propeller mixer. A tangential flow filtration system was then used to concentrate the prepared NS. Results showed that a stable narrow sized HC NS of amorphous spherical particles 500 ± 64 nm diameter and zeta potential ¿18 ± 2.84 mV could be produced. The ocular bioavailability of a microfluidic precipitated HC NS (300 nm) was assessed and compared to a similar sized, milled HC NS and HC solution as a control. The precipitated and the milled NS achieved comparable AUC0-9h of 28.06 ± 4.08 and 30.95 ± 2.2, respectively, significantly (P < 0.01) higher than HC solution (15.86 ± 2.7). These results illustrate the opportunity to design sustained release ophthalmic formulations. Going nano via microfluidic precipitation was also exploited to tailor budesonide (BD) NS for pulmonary administration. The in vitro aerosolization by nebulization of a BD NS was studied in comparison with a commercial BD microsuspension. Overall, the fine particle fraction generated from BD NS (56.88 ± 3.37) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the marketed BD (38.04 ± 7.81). The mean mass aerodynamic diameter of BD NS aerosol (3.9 ± 0.48 ¿m) was significantly smaller (P < 0.05) than the microsuspension (6.2 ± 1.09 ¿m) indicating improved performance for BD NS. In conclusion, findings of this study support the hypothesis of using microfluidic nanoprecipitation as a promising and economical technique of drug nanosizing.
    • Drying shrinkage of self-compacting concrete incorporating fly ash

      Ashour, Ashraf F.; Sheehan, Therese; Abdalhmid, Jamila M.A.
      The present research is conducted to investigate long term (more than two years) free and confined drying shrinkage magnitude and behaviour of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and compare with normal concrete (NC). For all SCCs mixes, Portland cement was replaced with 0-60% of fly ash (FA), fine and coarse aggregates were kept constant at 890 kg/m3 and 780 kg/m3, respectively. Two different water binder ratios of 0.44 and 0.33 were examined for both SCCs and NCs. Fresh properties of SCCs such as filling ability, passing ability, viscosity and resistance to segregation and hardened properties such as compressive and flexural strengths, water absorption and density of SCCs and NCs were also determined. Experimental results of free drying shrinkage obtained from this study together with collected comprehensive database from different sources available in the literature were compared to five existing models, namely the ACI 209R-92 model, BSEN-92 model, ACI 209R-92 (Huo) model, B3 model, and GL2000 model. To assess the quality of predictive models, the influence of various parameters (compressive strength, cement content, water content and relative humidity) on the drying shrinkage strain are studied. An artificial neural network models (ANNM) for prediction of drying shrinkage strains of SCC was developed using the same data used in the existing models. Two ANNM sets namely ANNM1 and ANNM2 with different numbers of hidden layer neurones were constructed. Comparison between the results given by the ANNM1 model and the results obtained by the five existing predicted models were presented. The results showed that, using up to 60% of FA as cement replacement can produce SCC with a compressive strength as high as 30 MPa and low drying shrinkage strain. SCCs long-term drying shrinkage from 356 to 1000 days was higher than NCs. Concrete filled elliptical tubes (CFET) with self-compacting concrete containing FA up to 60% are recommended for use in construction in order to prevent confined drying strain. ACI 209R-92 model provided a better prediction of drying shrinkage compared with the other four models. However, a very high predictability with high accuracy was achieved with the ANNM1 model with a mean of 1.004. Moreover, by using ANNM models, it is easy to insert any of factors effecting drying shrinkage to the input parameters to predict drying shrinkage strain of SCC.
    • Dual-Use Science and Bioethics: Governance of Biotechnology in Post-Soviet Russia

      Whitman, Jim R.; Whitby, Simon M.; Novossiolova, Tatyana Andreeva (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2015)
      Throughout the world, systems of life science governance carry historical, cultural, and political legacies, which now confront the revolutionary and pervasive advances of twenty-first century biotechnology. Nations' adaptability to the twin challenges of attempting to secure the benefits while reducing the risks and threats is a large and still burgeoning governance challenge. The legacy of the Soviet Union is particularly important in this regard, since its history of prolonged authoritarian rule and intense development of biological weapons in combination with the continuing scientific and technological prowess of Russia is a governance challenge, unprecedented in its nature and scale. The aim of the dissertation therefore is to examine to what extent and by what means it is possible for Russia to reconcile its on-going expansion in biotechnology with the institutional and normative inertia arising from its Soviet past. The first part of the dissertation (Chapters 1-4) seeks to uncover and analyse both the growth and consolidation of the governance of biotechnology and the multifaceted governance challenges brought about by the rapid advancement of the life sciences in the twenty-first century. The second part (Chapters 5-8) examines the extent to which the Soviet institutional and infrastructural legacies in the culture of life science research still persist in Russia and impact the governance of biotechnology in that country. The concluding chapter offers an assessment of the current state of the governance of biotechnology in Russia and outlines a scope for further research.
    • Dynamic Modelling and Optimization of Polymerization Processes in Batch and Semi-batch Reactors. Dynamic Modelling and Optimization of Bulk Polymerization of Styrene, Solution Polymerization of MMA and Emulsion Copolymerization of Styrene and MMA in Batch and Semi-batch Reactors using Control Vector Parameterization Techniques.

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Ibrahim, W.H.B.W. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design & Technology, 2012-02-29)
      Dynamic modelling and optimization of three different processes namely (a) bulk polymerization of styrene, (b) solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and (c) emulsion copolymerization of Styrene and MMA in batch and semi-batch reactors are the focus of this work. In this work, models are presented as sets of differential-algebraic equations describing the process. Different optimization problems such as (a) maximum conversion (Xn), (b) maximum number average molecular weight (Mn) and (c) minimum time to achieve the desired polymer molecular properties (defined as pre-specified values of monomer conversion and number average molecular weight) are formulated. Reactor temperature, jacket temperature, initial initiator concentration, monomer feed rate, initiator feed rate and surfactant feed rate are used as optimization variables in the optimization formulations. The dynamic optimization problems were converted into nonlinear programming problem using the CVP techniques which were solved using efficient SQP (Successive Quadratic Programming) method available within the gPROMS (general PROcess Modelling System) software. The process model used for bulk polystyrene polymerization in batch reactors, using 2, 2 azobisisobutyronitrile catalyst (AIBN) as initiator was improved by including the gel and glass effects. The results obtained from this work when compared with the previous study by other researcher which disregarded the gel and glass effect in their study which show that the batch time operation are significantly reduced while the amount of the initial initiator concentration required increases. Also, the termination rate constant decreases as the concentration of the mixture increases, resulting rapid monomer conversion. The process model used for solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in batch reactors, using AIBN as the initiator and Toluene as the solvent was improved by including the free volume theory to calculate the initiator efficiency, f. The effects of different f was examined and compared with previous work which used a constant value of f 0.53. The results of these studies show that initiator efficiency, f is not constant but decreases with the increase of monomer conversion along the process. The determination of optimal control trajectories for emulsion copolymerization of Styrene and MMA with the objective of maximizing the number average molecular weight (Mn) and overall conversion (Xn) were carried out in batch and semi-batch reactors. The initiator used in this work is Persulfate K2S2O8 and the surfactant is Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). Reduction of the pre-batch time increases the Mn but decreases the conversion (Xn). The sooner the addition of monomer into the reactor, the earlier the growth of the polymer chain leading to higher Mn. Besides that, Mn also can be increased by decreasing the initial initiator concentration (Ci0). Less oligomeric radicals will be produced with low Ci0, leading to reduced polymerization loci thus lowering the overall conversion. On the other hand, increases of reaction temperature (Tr) will decrease the Mn since transfer coefficient is increased at higher Tr leading to increase of the monomeric radicals resulting in an increase in termination reaction.
    • Dynamic optimisation and control of batch reactors. Development of a general model for batch reactors, dynamic optimisation of batch reactors under a variety of objectives and constraints and on-line tracking of optimal policies using different types of advanced control strategies.

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Aziz, Norashid (University of BradfordDepartment of Chemical Engineering, 2010-07-27)
      Batch reactor is an essential unit operation in almost all batch-processing industries. Different types of reaction schemes (such as series, parallel and complex) and different order of model complexity (short-cut, detailed, etc. ) result in different sets of model equations and computer coding of all possible sets of model equations is cumbersome and time consuming. In this work, therefore, a general computer program (GBRM - General Batch Reactor Model) is developed to generate all possible sets of equations automatically and as required. GBRM is tested for different types of reaction schemes and for different order of model complexity and its flexibility is demonstrated. The above GBRM computer program is lodged with Dr. I. M. Mujtaba. One of the challenges in batch reactors is to ensure desired performance of individual batch reactor operations. Depending on the requirement and the objective of the process, optimisation in batch reactors leads to different types of optimisation problems such as maximum conversion, minimum time and maximum profit problem. The reactor temperature, jacket temperature and jacket flow rate are the main control variables governing the process and these are optimised to ensure maximum benefit. In this work, an extensive study on mainly conventional batch reactor optimisation is carried out using GBRM coupled with efficient DAEs (Differential and Algebraic Equations) solver, CVP (Control Vector Parameterisation) technique and SQP (Successive Quadratic Programming) based optimisation technique. The safety, environment and product quality issues are embedded in the optimisation problem formulations in terms of constraints. A new approach for solving optimisation problem with safety constraint is introduced. All types of optimisation problems mentioned above are solved off-line, which results to optimal operating policies. The off-line optimal operating policies obtained above are then implemented as set points to be tracked on-line and various types of advanced controllers are designed for this purpose. Both constant and dynamic set points tracking are considered in designing the controllers. Here, neural networks are used in designing Direct Inverse and Inverse-Model-Based Control (IMBC) strategies. In addition, the Generic Model Control (GMC) coupled with on-line neural network heat release estimator (GMC-NN) is also designed to track the optimal set points. For comparison purpose, conventional Dual Mode (DM) strategy with PI and PID controllers is also designed. Robustness tests for all types of controllers are carried out to find the best controller. The results demonstrate the robustness of GMC-NN controller and promise neural controllers as potential robust controllers for future. Finally, an integrated framework (BATCH REACT) for modelling, simulation, optimisation and control of batch reactors is proposed.
    • Dynamic web forms development using RuleML. Building a framework using metadata driven rules to control Web forms generation and appearance.

      Ridley, Mick J.; Albhbah, Atia M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2013-11-27)
      Web forms development for Web based applications is often expensive, laborious, error-prone, time consuming and requires a lot of effort. Web forms are used by many different people with different backgrounds and a lot of demands. There is a very high cost associated with the need to update the Web application systems to achieve these demands. A wide range of techniques and ideas to automate the generation of Web forms exist. These techniques and ideas however, are not capable of generating the most dynamic behaviour of form elements, and make Insufficient use of database metadata to control Web forms¿ generation and appearance. In this thesis different techniques are proposed that use RuleML and database metadata to build rulebases to improve the automatic and dynamic generation of Web forms. First this thesis proposes the use of a RuleML format rulebase using Reaction RuleML that can be used to support the development of automated Web interfaces. Database metadata can be extracted from system catalogue tables in typical relational database systems, and used in conjunction with the rulebase to produce appropriate Web form elements. Results show that this mechanism successfully insulates application logic from code and suggests that Abstract iii the method can be extended from generic metadata rules to more domain specific rules. Second it proposes the use of common sense rules and domain specific rules rulebases using Reaction RuleML format in conjunction with database metadata rules to extend support for the development of automated Web forms. Third it proposes the use of rules that involve code to implement more semantics for Web forms. Separation between content, logic and presentation of Web applications has become an important issue for faster development and easy maintenance. Just as CSS applied on the client side to control the overall presentation of Web applications, a set of rules can give a similar consistency to the appearance and operation of any set of forms that interact with the same database. We develop rules to order Web form elements and query forms using Reaction RuleML format in conjunction with database metadata rules. The results show the potential of RuleML formats for representing database structural and active semantics. Fourth it proposes the use of a RuleML based approach to provide more support for greater semantics for example advanced domain support even when this is not a DBMS feature. The approach is to specify most of the semantics associated with data stored in RDBMS, to overcome some RDBMSs limitations. RuleML could be used to represent database metadata as an external format.
    • A dynamic web interface to a remote robot evaluated with a robotic telescope.

      Not named; Tallon, Christopher John (University of BradfordSchool of Informatics, 2010-11-23)
      This thesis investigates the issues of creating a publicly accessible Web interface to a remote autonomous robot: the Bradford Robotic Telescope. The robot is situated on Mount Teide, on the island of Tenerife, Spain. Its mission is to provide interactive access to the stars to people who would otherwise not be able to appreciate the wonders of the night sky due to light pollution. Whenever weather and darkness permits, the robot processes the observation requests submitted by users via the Internet, operating all the hardware including the dome, telescope mount and cameras. The question of how to enable a content rich high quality dialogue between one robot and thousands of users is explored and divided into seven areas of research. How to design a Web site enabling high quality interaction with the user, how to enable users to request service from a robot, how to store and manage all the user and robot generated data, how to enable communication between the Web interface and the robot, how to schedule many observation requests in the best order, how to support a constant dialogue between the robot and users to engage users in the robot's work, and how to present and display users' completed observations. These seven areas of research are investigated; solutions are presented and their implementations examined and evaluated for their suitability and performance with the Bradford Robotic Telescope, and for how they might perform for any job-based remote robot.
    • The dynamics of corporate diversification. A System Dynamics study of the effectiveness of diversification as a corporate growth strategy for leading firm in the U. K. Cement Industry.

      Coyle, R.G.; Moslehshirazi, Ali Naghi (University of Bradford[School of Management], 2009-11-09)
      This thesis describes and discusses the application of System Dynamics methodology as a basis for formulating diversification strategy and control policies of the largest diversifying cement company in the 'United Kingdom. The problems of the industry such as stagnant growth, cyclic and seasonal variations in cement demand, and overcapacity are described. The formulation of a SD model of the situation which captures these problems together with its equations system are presented. The model also simulates the planning and control processes for the selection, initiation and completion of both expansion and diversification investment projects. It is argued and demonstrated that the fact that these processes consist of feedback loops should and could be utilized for understanding these processes, advancing complementary theoretical concepts, and designing and formulating more 'effective systems and decision rules. An intensive analysis of the model in SD frameworks further supports these arguments. These analyses reveal the nature of the system's dynamic properties and its likely developments, the dynamic and situational nature of diversification effectiveness, and the importance of several diversification decision factors. These analyses also show how complex the formulation of a thorough and effective diversification strategy may become together with the ways and means of dealing with these complexities.. It is concluded that the thrust of an effective diversification lies with the broadening of the conventional theoretical concepts and analysis to include the dynamic characteristics of the system. It is also concluded and shown that System Dynamics methodology can provide a strong analytical basis for achieving these ends.
    • The Dynamics of Livelihood and Gender Relations in Sudan: The Case of Displacement Camps in Khartoum.

      Bujra, Janet M.; Pankhurst, Donna T.; Osman, Amira A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2012)
    • The dynamics of the serum concentration of CEA, CA15-3 and CA19-9 and survival in patients treated for advanced breast and colorectal cancer. The determination of the prognostic correlates of changes in tumour markers CEA, CA15-3 and CA19-9 during chemotherapy treatment for advanced breast and colorectal cancer.

      Loadman, Paul M.; Barker, Laura C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Life Sciences, 2010-10-07)
      There is evidence that kinetics of tumour markers (TMs) CEA, CA15-3 and CA19-9 provide valuable information about disease state over time in patients with advanced breast and colorectal cancer but the literature contains differences in methodology so comparing findings is difficult. By modifying criteria developed by Rustin and colleagues [1-5] in ovarian carcinoma we have retrospectively identified a subset of patients (those with progressive (P) TMs) where survival is significantly reduced compared with those with responsive (R) TMs. This is true for CEA, CA15-3 and CA19-9 at the first chemotherapy given in advanced disease (chem1) (Hazard ratios (HR) = 9.99, 8.89, 5.75, P ¿ 0.001 in all cases) and CEA and CA19-9 at the second chemotherapy (chem2) (HR = 7.95, 9.00, P = 0.001 and 0.002 respectively) in patients with breast cancer. It is also true for CEA at chem1 in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 2.51, P <0.001). Further studies are necessary to see if treatment directed by these criteria can influence survival. CEA and CA19-9 Rustin category in colorectal patients and CA15-3 Rustin category in breast patients correlated significantly with radiological category at chem1 and chem2 (CEA rs = 0.45 and 0.43, CA19-9 rs = 0.26 and 0.35, CA15-3 rs = 0.28 and 0.44). CA19-9 also correlates with radiological category at chem2 (rs = 0.38) in breast patients. This provides valuable information because RECIST criteria can delay radiological identification of disease progression compared with WHO criteria [6, 7] and new therapies may act to stabilise tumour growth rather than reduce it [8].