• Development of a System Based Approach for Strategic Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Practices in Health Care Organizations.

      Dennis, John; Ali, Mohammed H.; Al Hassani, Mattar S.S. (University of BradfordDepartment of Geography and Environmental Sciences, 2011-05-13)
      This thesis aims at investigating the importance of effective implementation of health safety and hygiene legislations and practices in Health Care delivery systems. A new System Based Approach for Strategic Implementation of Occupational Health & Safety Practices is proposed in this thesis. The underlying principle of the approach is based on involvement and inputs from staff and management rather than by pre-specified requirements and objectives. Furthermore, the development process is a closed loop process that provides a mechanism for continuously evaluating system performance and monitoring activities that have considerable impact on health and safety practices. A case study was conducted in the medical laboratories of five major hospitals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Data were collected through questionnaires, staff interviews, and reviewing laboratory safety reports compiled over a three years period. The main conclusions from this study are: 1. The proposed approach has proven to be useful in analyzing existing health and safety systems. The methodology and tools proved to be instrumental in defining inefficiencies and determining the status of the Health & Safety policies & practices in the selected medical laboratories. 2. Effective implementation of the proposed approach has shown improvements in productivity, operational cost, service quality, staff and management satisfaction. 3. The case study has demonstrated that a developing country such the UAE, with no previously existing Health & Safety legislation and little risk prevention culture, can rapidly and effectively introduce effective industry specific H&S by adopting an integrated systems based approach. 4. UAE has highly advanced and economically developing base, there is a general willingness at senior level within the UAE to achieve high levels of competence and standards in all industrial sectors. 5. CAP is a system based management tool which has been implemented globally, but only limited in the gulf region; CAP has been implemented by the author and colleges within Zayed Military Hospital between 2003-2007.
    • Development of acoustic sensor and signal processing technique.

      Horoshenkov, Kirill V.; Bin Ali, Muhammad T. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2011-06-22)
      Sewer flooding incidents in the UK are being increasingly associated with the presence of blockages. Blockages are difficult to deal with as although there are locations where they are more likely to occur, they do occur intermittently. In order to manage sewer blockage pro-actively sewer managers need to be able to identify the location of blockages promptly. Traditional CCTV inspection technologies are slow and relatively expensive so are not well suited to the rapid inspection of a network. This is needed if managers are to be able to address sewer blockages pro-actively. This thesis reports on the development of low-cost, rapidly deployable acoustic base sensor that will be able to survey live sewer pipes. The sensor emits short coded acoustic signals which are reflected from any defects of the wall of the underground pipes and recorded for future processing. The processing algorithms are based on the temporal windowing, deconvolution, Fourier, and intensity analysis so that the response can be linked directly to the location and property of the of the pipe deformation. The sensor was tested in a full scale sewer pipe in the laboratory and in few sites in UK, Austria and Netherlands and it was shown that it is able to discriminate between blockages and structural aspects of a sewer pipe such as a manhole and lateral connection. The anticipated cost is orders of magnitude lower than any current technique.
    • Development of active integrated antennas and optimization for harmonic suppression antennas. Simulation and measurement of active antennas for amplifiers and oscillators and numerical solution on design and optimization of active patch antennas for harmonic suppression with adaptive meshing using genetic algorithms.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Zhou, Dawei (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007-07-10)
      The objectives of this research work are to investigate, design and implement active integrated antennas comprising active devices connected directly to the patch radiators, for various applications in high efficiency RF front-ends, integrated oscillator antennas, design and optimization of harmonic suppression antennas using a genetic algorithm (GA). A computer-aided design approach to obtain a class F operation to optimizing the optimal fundamental load impedance and designing the input matching circuits for an active integrated antenna of the transmitting type is proposed and a case study of a design for 1.6 GHz is used to confirm the design principle. A study of active integrated oscillator antennas with a series feed back using a pseudomorphic high electronmobility transistor (PHEMT) confirms the design procedure in simulation and measurement for the oscillator circuit connected directly to the active antenna. Subsequently, another design of active oscillator antenna using bipolar junction transistor (BJT) improves the phase noise of the oscillation and in addition to achieve amplitude shift keying (ASK) and amplitude modulation (AM) modulation using the proposed design circuit. Moreover, the possibility of using a sensor patch technique to find the power accepted by the antenna at harmonic frequencies is studied. A novel numerical solution, for designing and optimizing active patch antennas for harmonic suppression using GA in collaboration with numerical electromagnetic computation (NEC), is presented. A new FORTRAN program is developed and used for adaptively meshing any planar antenna structure in terms of wire grid surface structures. The program is subsequently implemented in harmonic suppression antenna design and optimization using GA. The simulation and measurement results for several surface structures show a good agreement.
    • Development of an antenna system for a relay-based wireless network. Simulation and measurement of antenna systems for relay-based wireless network, covering the backhaul and access links and applying beam forming technology.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Voudouris, Konstantinos N.; Petropoulos, Ioannis (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-18)
      The proliferation of modern wireless networks increases demand for high capacity and throughput in order to provide faster, more robust, efficient and broadband services to end users. Mobile WiMAX and LTE are examples of such networks in which for some cases they have exposed limited connectivity due to harsh environment. Relay stations are preferred to overcome problems of weak or no access for such network devices, that are placed in specific positions to maintain high quality of data transfer at low cost and provide the required connectivity anywhere anytime. These stations should be equipped with an antenna system capable of establishing communication between base station (backhaul link) and end users (access link). This thesis focuses on the design and development of a new antenna system that is suitable for a relay-based wireless network. Planar geometries of microstrip patch antennas are utilized. The antenna system comprises two antenna modules: a new design of a single antenna for access link and a new design of an antenna array for backhaul link realization. Both antenna specifications are compatible with the IEEE802.16j protocol standard. Hence, relay station should be capable of pointing its radiation pattern to the base station antenna, thus to achieve the desired radiation pattern of the relay station, a new beam-forming module is proposed, designed and developed to generate the proper radiation pattern. The beam-forming module incorporating digital phase shifters and attenuator chips is fabricated and tested. The optimization process using the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is considered in this study to assign the proper phase and amplitude that is necessary to each radiation element excitation current, to produce the desired steered radiation pattern. A comprehensive study on the coupling effects for several relative positions between two new backhaul and access link antenna elements is performed. Two new antenna configurations for coupling reduction are tested and the simulated and measured results in terms of antenna radiation performances were compared and commented.
    • Development of an Integrated Interface Modelling Methodology to Support System Architecture Analysis

      Campean, I. Felician; Khan, M. Khurshid; Uddin, Amad (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      This thesis presents the development and validation of a novel interface modelling methodology integrated with a system architectural analysis framework that emphasises the need to manage the integrity of deriving and allocating requirements across multiple levels of abstraction in a structured manner. The state of the art review in this research shows that there is no shared or complete interface definition model that could integrate diverse interaction viewpoints for defining system requirements with complete information. Furthermore, while existing system modelling approaches define system architecture with functions and their allocation to subsystems to meet system requirements, they do not robustly address the importance of considering well-defined interfaces in an integrated manner at each level of systems hierarchy. This results in decomposition and integration issues across the multiple levels of systems hierarchy. Therefore, this thesis develops and validates following: -Interface Analysis Template as a systematic tool that integrates diverse interaction viewpoints for modelling system interfaces with intensive information for deriving requirements. -Coupling Matrix as an architecture analysis framework that not only allocates functions to subsystems to meet requirements but also promotes consistent consideration of well-defined interfaces at each level of design hierarchy. Insights from the validation of developed approach with engineering case studies within an automotive OEM are discussed, reflecting on the effectiveness, efficiency and usability of the methods.
    • Development of Artificial Intelligence-based In-Silico Toxicity Models. Data Quality Analysis and Model Performance Enhancement through Data Generation.

      Neagu, Daniel; Graves-Morris, Peter R.; Malazizi, Ladan (University of BradfordSchool of Informatics, 2010-03-16)
      Toxic compounds, such as pesticides, are routinely tested against a range of aquatic, avian and mammalian species as part of the registration process. The need for reducing dependence on animal testing has led to an increasing interest in alternative methods such as in silico modelling. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship)-based models are already in use for predicting physicochemical properties, environmental fate, eco-toxicological effects, and specific biological endpoints for a wide range of chemicals. Data plays an important role in modelling QSARs and also in result analysis for toxicity testing processes. This research addresses number of issues in predictive toxicology. One issue is the problem of data quality. Although large amount of toxicity data is available from online sources, this data may contain some unreliable samples and may be defined as of low quality. Its presentation also might not be consistent throughout different sources and that makes the access, interpretation and comparison of the information difficult. To address this issue we started with detailed investigation and experimental work on DEMETRA data. The DEMETRA datasets have been produced by the EC-funded project DEMETRA. Based on the investigation, experiments and the results obtained, the author identified a number of data quality criteria in order to provide a solution for data evaluation in toxicology domain. An algorithm has also been proposed to assess data quality before modelling. Another issue considered in the thesis was the missing values in datasets for toxicology domain. Least Square Method for a paired dataset and Serial Correlation for single version dataset provided the solution for the problem in two different situations. A procedural algorithm using these two methods has been proposed in order to overcome the problem of missing values. Another issue we paid attention to in this thesis was modelling of multi-class data sets in which the severe imbalance class samples distribution exists. The imbalanced data affect the performance of classifiers during the classification process. We have shown that as long as we understand how class members are constructed in dimensional space in each cluster we can reform the distribution and provide more knowledge domain for the classifier.
    • The development of automatic and solar imaging techniques for the accurate detection, merging, verification and tracking of solar filaments.

      Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ali, M.; Atoum, Ibrahim A.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2013-12-18)
      Based on a study of existing solar filament and tracking methods, a fully automated solar filament detection and tracking method is presented. An adaptive thresholding technique is used in a segmentation phase to identify candidate filament pixels. This phase is followed by retrieving the actual filament area from a region grown filament by using statistical parameters and morphological operations. This detection technique gives the opportunity to develop an accurate spine extraction algorithm. Features including separation distance, orientation and average intensities are extracted and fed to a Neural Network (NN) classifier to merge broken filament components. Finally, the results for two consecutive images are compared to detect filament disappearance events, taking advantage of the maps resulting from converting solar images to Heliographic Carrington co-ordinates. The study has demonstrated the novelty of the algorithms developed in terms of them now all being fully automated; significantly the algorithms do not require any empirical values to be used whatsoever unlike previous techniques. This combination of features gives the opportunity for these methods to work in real-time. Comparisons with other researchers shows that the present algorithms represent the filaments more accurately and evaluate computationally faster - which could lead to a more precise tracking practice in real-time. An additional development phase developed in this dissertation in the process of detecting solar filaments is the detection of filament disappearances. Some filaments and prominences end their life with eruptions. When this occurs, they disappear from the surface of the Sun within a few hours. Such events are known as disappearing filaments and it is thought that they are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Filament disappearances are generally monitored by observing and analysing successive solar H-alpha images. After filament regions are obtained from individual H-alpha images, a NN classifier is used to categorize the detected filaments as Disappeared Filaments (DFs) or Miss-Detected Filaments (MDFs). Features such as Area, Length, Mean, Standard Deviation, Skewness and Kurtosis are extracted and fed to this neural network which achieves a confidence level of at least 80%. Comparing the results with other researchers shows high divergence between the results. The NN method shows better convergence with the results of the National Geophysical Data Centre (NGDC) than the results of the others researchers.
    • The Development of Body Image in Young Children: The Role of Muscularity and Adiposity

      Bryant, Eleanor J.; Waters, Gillian M.; Pepper, Lisa B.
      Negative body image can cause serious psychological problems. In some Western societies, body image concerns can develop at a young age, with early preadolescents preferring thinner bodies and reporting body dissatisfaction. The aims here were to clarify the significant gaps in published research, and to challenge existing assumptions around weight, muscularity, and body satisfaction in children. In addition, this novel research focused on young children’s body dissatisfaction, particularly young boys (aged 4-11 years). Traditional measures of body satisfaction are limited and do not incorporate muscularity, assess individual body parts, or indicate the direction of dissatisfaction. Here, new visual measures were developed along with a prototype application for a touch-screen tablet to measure body satisfaction in children. Through 4 innovative experimental studies the current research explored factors influencing body image: including gender, age, ethnicity, BMI, perceived body size, and sociocultural factors (e.g. cultural ideals and body size stereotypes). Results consistently supported the findings of study 1 which showed gender differences in body satisfaction: boys were more dissatisfied with their bodies than girls, and their dissatisfaction varied over the different body parts (torso, arms and legs). Stereotypical idealised body perception was evident: boys wanted to be muscular and girls desired to be lean. In study 2, ideal body choices saw boys choosing more muscular figures and girls more lean figures for the self, than the ones they choose for another boy or girl. Boys desired more muscular ideal figures than what they perceived the opposite sex would choose. Study 3 revealed the pattern of assigning positive attributes was gendered. Boys viewed the hypermuscular figure the most positively and girls the normal weight and lean figures the most positively. However, both sexes did not want to look like the overweight figure as a child or adult. Study 4 showed parent’s body satisfaction and their perception of their child’s current body size predicted child’s body satisfaction, and exposure to media predicted the child’s ideal and future ideal adult figure choices. Overall, a combination of factors involved in the development of children’s body image were revealed, including sociocultural influences, age, ethnicity, and perceived body size. The research carried out within this thesis has extended our knowledge of pre-adolescent’s body dissatisfaction, has developed innovative measures for use with younger children, and revealed fascinating findings around young boys’ body image.
    • The Development of Facial Prosthetics and Adhesives in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. A study in the application of prosthetic materials and devices used in plastic and reconstructive surgery together with tissue adhesives as an alternative to conventional ligation.

      Baker, T. G.; Roberts, Alan Clive (University of BradfordPostgraduate School in Biomedical Sciences, 2011-09-22)
      Various silicone elastomers have been evaluated for use in the prosthetic reconstruction of facial defects. Their strength, texture, flexibility, hardness, ease of preparation, pigment receptivity and retention, and their resistance to cleaning were compared and the data consulted when an elastomer was chosen to restore defects, improve aesthetics and reestablish the confidence of a selection of patients. Detailed case reports are provided, together with information on the adhesives or mechanical methods available for retaining the facial prosetheses. Cyanoacrylate adhesives for use on skin surfaces and as tissue adhesives have been studied in detail. A novel n-butyl 413 cyanoacrylate has been developed with a viscosity, haemostatic property and stability to make it particularly suitable for use in skin grafting and tissue repair. It has already been used with good results on patients with severe burns. An improved formulation, containing a fluorescent dye, can be precisely applied through a specially constructed foot-controlled dispenser illuminated by a fibre-optic supplying UV-light. Cyanoacrylates are already being used as tissue adhesives in place of the conventional but potentially disfiguring suture. The availability of improved, imperceptible adhesives and a precision applicator, which can be used in a modern operating theatre, will extend their effectiveness and satisfy some of the needs of Plastic, and Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgeons. Portable applicators have potential use in battlefield and in veterinary surgery and overcome the imprecision characteristic of earlier methods.
    • Development of geochemical identification and discrimination by Raman spectroscopy. The development of Raman spectroscopic methods for application to whole soil analysis and the separation of volcanic ashes for tephrachronology

      Edwards, Howell G.M.; Scowen, Ian J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Munshi, Tasnim; Seaton, Colin C.; Surtees, Alexander P.H. (University of BradfordChemical and Forensic Sciences, 2015)
      Geochemistry plays a vital role in our understanding mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans (Albarède, F. 2003). More recently, geo-chemistry has played a vital role in the field of forensic investigation and in period dating. Forensic soil samples have been traditionally analysed via examinations of colour, texture and mineral content by physical or chemical methods. However, these methods leave any organic or water-soluble fractions unexamined. Tephrochronology (the dating of sedimentary sequences using volcanic ash layers) is an important tool for the dating and correlation of sedimentary sequences containing archives and proxies of past environmental change. Its importance in this area has increased since the increased free carbon in out atmosphere has made radio-carbon dating unreliable. Tephrochronology requires successful geo-chemical identification of the tephras, a method reliant on electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) to analyse major element composition. However, it is often impossible to differentiate key tephra layers using EPMA alone. Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry, since vibrational information is specific to the chemical bonds and symmetry of molecules, and can provide a fingerprint by which these can be identified. Here, we demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be used for the successful discrimination of mineral species in tephra through the analysis of individual glass shards. We further demonstrate how, with the use of oxidative preparation methods, Raman spectroscopy can be used to successfully discriminate between soil types using mineralogy as well as the organic and water-soluble fractions of soils.
    • Development of in vitro models of invasion for the pharmacological investigation of small molecule inhibitors of tumour progression. Development and validation of a 3-dimensional tumour spheroid invasion model to evaluate the pharmacological effects of novel small molecule β3 integrin antagonists.

      Shnyder, Steven D.; Phillips, Roger M.; Zraikat, Manar Saleh Ali (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, 2015-12-08)
      Tumour dissemination is a major reason for failure of therapy for many tumour types therefore there is a requirement for novel targets & therapies. The αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrins have been demonstrated to have significant involvement at many stages of the tumour dissemination process including, tumour cell adhesion, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis, and thus the β3 integrins are a potential target for therapeutic antagonism with small molecules. Because of the clear interaction between the different integrin types, targeting integrins as a therapeutic strategy requires targeting more than one integrin type. Consequently, the ICT is developing a group of novel new αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrin dual antagonists. One of the main challenges is having a relevant, validated experimental model that expresses these integrins. The aim of the work presented here is to develop and validate an in vitro αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrin expressing assay of tumour cell invasion. The spheroid invasion assay has the advantage over standard monolayer transwell chamber invasion assays of being a 3-dimensional assay, and thus mimics better the cell-cell interactions and architecture that are present in a tumour compared to the monolayer-based assay. A panel of human cancer cell lines known to express one of the molecular targets of interest, αvβ3 integrin was evaluated for the ability to form spheroids and to invade through collagen matrices. One glioma cell line, U87-MG, demonstrated consistent spheroid formation and invasion and was thus selected for further studies. Optimum conditions were established for use of U87-MG in the invasion assay, and the assay was validated using a known inhibitor of invasion, LiCl and known β3 antagonist, cRGDfV. Subsequently a group of novel small molecule β3 antagonists were evaluated at nontoxic concentrations using the assay. Both LiCl and cRGDfV inhibited spheroid invasion through the gel in a dose-dependent manner, thus validating the assay. Furthermore, when the novel small molecule β3 antagonists were evaluated using the model, a dose and time dependent reduction in U87-MG spheroids invasion in collagen was observed. In further work initial steps were taken to construct a cell line which expresses both αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrin to use in the model to assess for dual integrin antagonism. In conclusion, this work has established a validated assay which has been utilised for some compounds to evaluate a group of novel small molecule β3 integrin antagonists with encouraging results.
    • Development of in vivo tumour models for non-invasive proof-of-principle investigation of novel therapeutic agents. Engineering and characterisation of bioluminescent cell reporter systems for in vivo analysis of anti-cancer therapy pharmacodynamics.

      Shnyder, Steven D.; Gill, Jason H.; Bibby, Michael C.; O'Farrell, Alice C. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, 2012-02-21)
      Despite significant advances in cancer treatment, clinical response remains suboptimal and there is a continued requirement for improved chemotherapeutics. The attrition rate for new therapies is high, due principally to lack of in vivo efficacy and poor pharmacodynamics. Consequently better systems are required to determine in vivo preclinical efficiency and drug-target interactions. Engineering of cancer cells to express fluorescent or bioluminescent proteins, either endogenously or under the control of specific gene promoters, and their detection by noninvasive optical imaging has the potential to improve preclinical drug development. In this study, a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines were engineered to express fluorescent and luminescent proteins either constitutively or under control of gene-promoters for the DNA damage response gene p53 or the cell cycle regulator p21, both important pharmacodynamic sensors. These cell lines were characterised for their potential as in vivo models of primary and metastatic tumour therapy response, several showing significant potential. In addition to the development of these models, this study also addressed the pharmacokinetics of different luciferase substrates and identified optimal temporal and dose characteristics for each. Furthermore, a new application for bioluminescent imaging was developed and validated for use in preclinical evaluation of vascular disrupting agents, a new generation of cancer therapeutic. This study demonstrates that despite the dynamic and variable nature of fluorescent and bioluminescent imaging, reproducible results can be obtained if appropriate precautions are taken. The models developed herein will expedite cancer drug development whilst reducing and refining the use of animals in research.
    • Development of National Drug Policy in the State of Kuwait

      Clark, Brian J.; Alali, Khaled Y.A.A (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2016)
      This Thesis examines the benefits and usefulness of a National Drug Policy (NDP) for the developing of the Health Care System in Kuwait. The NDP is one of the most important structures of the Health System which can lead to improved health services by establishing guidelines, proposals and directives to organize, structure and regulate health legislation; it is of help to ensure the availability of quality, safety and efficacy in using medicines and it can reduce the irrational use of medicines. The NDP is a frame work between the government, schools and universities, media, health professionals, pharmaceutical industries and companies and public. It is cooperation between the public and private sectors to achieve the goal of access to good quality medicines for all. However there are many key factors which need to be examined before the National Drug Policy is introduced and these are considered the baseline for establishing a good policy, and includes; selection of essential drugs, affordability of drugs, drug financing, supply management, drug regulation, rational use of drugs, drugs registration, purchasing of drugs, health research and human resource development. During this research study from 2012 – 2015 several visits to the public and private health areas, were undertaken. At this time there were discussions with 121 health professionals and data was collected and this indicated that in Kuwait there are no such policies. This is despite the availability of financial means, specialized human resources and the existence of the ministerial decisions and regulations governing the health sector in both public and private, whether hospitals, health centers, pharmacies and health departments. In addition it is suggested that the process of a good NDP should be built around 3 main components which includes: 1.Development, 2. Implementation and 3. Monitoring and Evaluation. Therefore the establishing of a NDP without implementation and monitoring is not enough and does not achieve the desired results. The aim of this Thesis is to establish a NDP in the State of Kuwait. This policy is necessary for the State of Kuwait to ensure development an improvement of the Health Care System and ensure better health for population.
    • The development of new services. New product development practices in the financial services industry: A model of successful determinants for NPD.

      Parkinson, Stephen; Edgett, Scott J. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Management & Administration., 2009-10-28)
      The combined environmental effects of technological change, increasing competition, new legislation and increasingly demanding consumers have created pressure within the financial services industry for change. One outcome has been a proliferation of new products in the marketplace. This research explores new product development within one subset of this industry -- building societies. By combining the new product development, service marketing and financial services literature, a foundation has been developed for an empirical study into the development practices and the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful new products. The determinants of success and failure for new product development have been examined utilizing a comparative methodology, and subsequently a discriminant model has been developed that successfully classifies successful and unsuccessful new products. By determining how new products are actually developed, the findings support previous claims that intangibility, inseparability, heterogeneity and perishability do have an effect on the development process. Further, the level of sophistication of the development activities is lower than in previously reported research. Notable variations from the development process for tangible new products are the inclusion of system design, system testing and personnel training stages. The majority of societies have been found to lack strategic integration of the development process, to apply different measures of success and to prefer qualitative market research techniques over quantitative approaches. As well, considerable variation exists in the organizational approaches used to manage the process, although organizational related variables were found to have a strong impact upon the predictability of a successful outcome for a new product.
    • Development of the radiography evidence base: An examination of advancing practice.

      Small, Neil A.; Snaith, Beverly (University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies, 2014-05-07)
      Radiography has seen most development over the last 30 years with the evolution of new technologies, but perhaps more significantly changes in education models and radiographer roles. The development of advanced and consultant posts has facilitated the growth of the profession, although the evidence base is still evolving. Through a number of research projects this thesis will explore the growth in the radiography evidence base with specific reference to the extending role of the radiographer in image interpretation. Parallel clinical and academic developments have provided evidence of a scholarly profession which is slowly establishing its place through publication and a growing research base.
    • The Development of Theory of Mind and Social Competence in Young Pakistani Children

      Waters, Gillian M.; Johnson, Sally E.; Sireer, Nafeesa (University of BradfordDivision of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
      Theory of mind (ToM) refers to a cognitive ability that enables one to attribute mental states (such as desires, emotions, beliefs) to self and others. In recent years researchers have identified cultural variations in the onset of ToM understanding in collectivist and individualist cultures. However, the findings of cross-cultural studies regarding these variations are inconsistent. The major aim of this innovative research was to investigate differences in the acquisition of ToM in children from a collectivist culture (Pakistan) and an individualist culture (UK). The second aim of the study was to assess the specific association between ToM and social competence in a culturally diverse sample. An additional aim of the study was to investigate the universality of various correlates of ToM such as executive functioning (EF), parenting styles, and maternal mental state talk. The findings of the studies demonstrated a significant delay in the acquisition of ToM in Pakistani children, when compared with Western children from individualist societies. These findings were corroborated by the results of novel cross-cultural study that compared the performance of White British, British Pakistani, and Pakistani children on a ToM scale. White British children outperformed both Pakistani and British Pakistani children on measures of ToM, EF, and social competence. The current findings also provide support for the association of mental state understanding with EF, social competence, parenting styles, and maternal mental state talk. These findings have important implications for the role of general (collectivist vs. individualist cultures) as well as specific cultural practices (such as parenting and education) in the acquisition of mental state understanding.
    • Diabetes in Kuwait - current patients' experiences of their medical treatment(s) with emphasis on renal complications as compared with worldwide guidelines

      Naylor, Ian; Buhajeeh, Eman A.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2015)
      Introduction: The studies reported in this thesis investigated a number of patient orientated aspects of its current diagnosis, management and treatment in Kuwait. A comprehensive literature survey is presented with a detailed critical analysis of the very limited number of published material relevant to type 2 diabetes in Kuwait is also provided. A concise list of aims and objectives is also provided. Methodology: The methodology used to derive knowledge of the present situation from the patient perspective, was a series of relevant questions, devised based on the internationally used diabetes Michigan questionnaire. Face to face interviews were used throughout for both patients and medical staff. Suitable data analysis was performed. Results: A pilot study consulted 10 Kuwaiti and 10 non-Kuwaiti patients, and after analysis of their data it was found to be reliable, appropriate and capable of being analysed and so was extended to a larger study of 109 diabetic patients. These 109 diabetic patients were studied in thirteen clinics distributed throughout Kuwait. Two groups of patients were studied – Kuwaiti nationals and non-Kuwaitis both of whom were treated at these clinics during their residency in Kuwait. 38 questions were asked including demographics, medical treatment, monitoring of their disease, physiological consequences and dietary aspects. The major findings were that patients considered two major areas could be improved to enhance the treatment of their disease. The first was to improve the degree of empathy shown to them by the medical/nursing staff and secondly to provide simple practical advice on exercise, dietary considerations and renal aspects of their disease. More comprehensive findings are presented in the thesis but many of these were minor compared with these two major aspects. Also presented are interviews with the medical staff in Kuwait who treat diabetic patients and the problems they face when treating their disease. The opinions and views of selected ophthalmologists and renal specialists are also presented. Medical views were also sought in the UK- Ascot Rehabilitation above their experiences treating diabetic patients from Kuwait. Another aspect of the study was to interview Kuwaiti nationals who had been sent to a clinic in Ascot, UK for the treatment of the serious consequences of their conditions. Many of these were had type 2 diabetes and their views and perspectives of their treatment in Kuwait were gathered as being representative of the long term treatment of this condition. Discussions and Conclusions: The thesis discusses in some detail all the results which were obtained and concludes with a series of recommendations which could be taken to improve the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Kuwait.
    • Diachronic effects of bio-cultural factors on stature and body proportions in British archaeological populations. The impact of living conditions, socio-economic, nutritional and health status on growth, development, maximum attained stature and physical shape in archaeological skeletal population samples.

      Knüsel, Christopher J.; Schweich, Marianne (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2010-06-30)
      Humans, like all animal species, are subject to Bergmann's (1847) and Allen's (1877) environmental rules which summarize physical adaptations to the natural environment. However, humans are in addition cultural animals and other bio-cultural factors such as social, economic and political status, general health, and nutrition, have a noticeable influence on stature and body proportions. Importantly, socio-economic status has a powerful influence on stature, which has been used to elucidate status differences in past societies (Bogin and Loucky, 1997; Floud et al., 1990; Schutkowski, 2000a). Furthermore, bio-cultural factors influence all dimensions of the human body, including weight, relative limb length, and relative length of the different limb segments. Given minimal migration and shared natural environments, all populations in this study, coming as they do from the last 2000 years of English history, should demonstrate similar morphology (c. f Ruff, 1994) if climatic variables were the only influence on stature and body proportions. In order to assess such bio-cultural factors in individuals from archaeological populations, skeletal populations from sites such as known leprosaria and medieval hospitals, rural and urban parish cemeteries, victims from the battle of Towton in A. D. 1461, and individuals from monastic cemeteries were analysed. The osteometric data from these populations were assessedfo r within and between population variability and indicate effects of bio-cultural factors on attained body proportions and stature. The results indicate a strong relationship between bio-cultural factors and body proportions, body mass index, prevalence of pathologies, sexual dimorphism, secular trend, and general stature from Roman times to the post-medieval period. The usefulness of stature, weight, and physical indices as markers of the bio-cultural environment is demonstrated. The main findings include: a greater sensitivity to external stressors in the males rather than the females of the analysed populations, rendering male statures more susceptible to varying bio-cultural conditions; a potential for very tall stature has existed in the analysed populations but was only realised. in very high status individuals in medieval times, and from the beginning 20'h century with better socio-economic conditions for the population at large; a less stratified socio-political environment, as in the late Anglo-Saxon period resulted in taller average male statures that a more stratified one, such as the medieval Nation-States; and medieval monastic institutions could have high status, e.g., the Gilbertines, or lower status, such as the mendicant orders, while leprosaria had the lowest status of all.
    • Did Dutch company pension fund decision-makers step up to the plate? A retrospective reconstruction of decision-making processes during a financial crisis situation within a number of Dutch company pension funds.

      Benders, J.G.J.M.; Slottje, Arie (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012)
      This study provides a view of the decision-making process of Dutch company pension funds. The success of this research was the exceptional granting of access to four cases. Lack of such access could very well be the reason why research of this nature has not been previously achieved. The financial health of pension funds, expressed by the coverage ratio, showed a decline in 2008. Research has shown that there is a relationship between decision-making processes and outcome. Were the processes appropriate to set up and maintain a sufficient coverage ratio? A tailor-made conceptual research model has been developed and used as an analysis aid to research the TO BE situation based on legal requirements and factional documents and the AS IS situation based on empirical data. The model made it feasible to shed light on the implementation of good pension fund governance principles and decision-making process, which is a contribution to the current gap in research. The research showed that there is a relationship between the implementation of pension fund governance principles and appropriate decision-making processes. It also showed that there is a relationship between an appropriate decision-making process and coverage ratio. Both conclusions are not statistically proven due to the lack of the statistical significance, but are qualitative analysed and confirmed in the conducted case studies. It is suggested to use the research model by supervisor or pension funds to establish the mismatch between the implementation of pension fund governance principles and decision-making processes to enhance the quality of decision-making processes and outcome.
    • Differential membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase expression in phenotypically defined breast cancer cell lines: Comparison of MT-MMP expression in environmentally-challenged 2D monolayer cultures and 3D multicellular tumour spheroids

      Sutton, Chris W.; Loadman, Paul M.; Shnyder, Steven D.; Kashtl, Ghasaq J.
      Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc endopeptidases capable of digesting the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is essential for tissue structure and transmitting messages between cells. MMPs play an important role in cancer, controlling cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis, regulation of tumour expansion, angiogenesis and invasion. Previous research has indicated high expression of MT1-MMP in breast cancers suggesting a potential role in tumour progression. Our results confirm that 3D multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTS) using phenotype-specific breast cancer cell lines are a valuable experimental model of the tumour microenvironment. Optimisation of MCTS culture growth conditions using different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231) was performed. Unexpected detection of MT1-MMP in MCF-7 MCTS warranted further investigation. MT1-MMP expression in different micro-environmental conditions, including hypoxia and nutrient deprivation (serum-free induced autophagy) were measured in MCF-7 monolayer cultures and MCTS models using immunofluorescence (IF), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). MT1-MMP expression was rapidly and irreversibly up-regulated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells under conditions of stress (hypoxia and autophagy) compared to normal conditions suggesting an important role of the culture environment on cells behaviour and protein expression. We employed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology to correlate MT1-MMP increase with proteomic profiles in MCF-7 breast cancer cell grown under hypoxic, serum-free and 3D MCTS conditions. More than 3500 proteins were identified, which were clustered into groups based on response to unique or shared microenvironment changes. Hypoxic monolayer and spheroid cells exhibited changes in anaerobic metabolism and lipid synthesis, respectively, whereas autophagy resulted in up-regulation of cellular component disassembly. The result indicated multiple drivers of MT1-MMP expression in MCF-7 cells.