• Analysis and solutions for RFID tag and RFID reader deployment in wireless communications applications. Simulation and measurement of linear and circular polarised RFID tag and reader antennas and analysing the tags radiation efficiency when operated close to the human body.

      Rajamani, Haile S.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Al Khambashi, Majid S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2014-05-07)
      The aim of this study is to analysis, investigate and find out the solutions for the problems associated with the implementations of antennas RFID Reader and Tag for various applications. In particular, the efficiency of the RFID reader antenna and the detection range of the RFID tag antenna, subject to a small and compact antenna¿s design configuration have been studied. The present work has been addressed directly to reduce the cost, size and increase the detection range and communication reliability of the RFID framework antennas. Furthermore, the modelling concept of RFID passive tags mounted on various materials including the novel design of RFID reader antenna using Genetic Algorithm (GA) are considered and discussed to maintain reliable and efficient antenna radiation performances. The main benefit of applying GA is to provide fast, accurate and reliable solutions of antenna¿s structure. Therefore, the GA has been successfully employed to design examples: meander-line, two linear cross elements and compact Helical- Spiral antennas. In addition, a hybrid method to model the human body interaction with RFID tag antenna operating at 900MHz has been studied. The near field distribution and the radiation pattern together with the statistical distribution of the radiation efficiency and the absorbed power in terms of cumulative distribution functions for different orientation and location of RFID¿s tag antenna on the human body have been demonstrated. Several tag antennas wi th symmetrical and unsymmetrical structure configurations operating in the European UHF band 850-950 MHz have been fabricated and tested. . The measured and simulated results have been found to be in a good agreement with reasonable impedance matching to the typical input impedance of an RFID integrated circuit chip and nominal power gain and radiation patterns.
    • Analysis of anti-cancer drug penetration through multicell layers in vitro. The development and evaluation of an in vitro model for assessing the impact of convective fluid flow on drug penetration through avascular cancer tissues.

      Phillips, Roger M.; Loadman, Paul M.; Makeen, Hafiz Antar Mohammad (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics (ICT), 2013-11-20)
      High interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumours is recognized as a barrier to drug delivery resulting in reduced efficacy. High IFP impedes the normal process of convective fluid flow (CFF) from blood vessels into the interstitium. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model that could be used to measure CFF and to study its effects on drug delivery. The model consists of a transwell cell culture insert which supports the growth of multicell layers (MCL) on collagen coated membranes. A graduated tube is inserted into the transwell and a pressure gradient is applied across the membrane by raising the volume of medium in the tube above that of the bottom chamber. CFF is determined by measuring the weight of medium in the bottom chamber as a function of time. CFF was inversely proportional to MCL thickness and 41.1±3.6µm thick MCL has completely stopped CFF. Using a physiologically relevant hydrostatic pressure of 28mmHg, a CFF of 21µL/min was recorded using a DLD-1 MCL that was 12.21±3.2µm thick. Under these conditions, the rates of penetration of doxorubicin, imatinib and gefitinib were respectively 42, 26 and 13 folds greater than when no CFF exists. Reversing the CFF so that it opposed the drug diffusion gradient significantly impairs drug penetration. In conclusion, a novel in vitro model for assessing the impact of CFF on drug delivery has been developed. This model could be used to evaluate strategies designed to increase drug delivery to solid tumours by modifying the CFF.
    • Analysis of Cellular Transcriptomic Changes Induced by Merkel Cell Polyomavirus miRNA

      Boyne, James R.; Tobin, Desmond J.; Akhbari, Pouria (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with rising global incidence. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) was discovered in 2008 in 80% of MCC samples and since then a causal link between MCV and the majority of MCC cases has been established. microRNAs (miRNA, miR) are a family of small non-coding RNAs which play a key role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and are considered significant players in disease and development in many species. Whilst the focus of MCV research has thus far been on the oncogenic MCV early proteins, large tumour (LT) and small tumour (sT) antigens, there is a knowledge gap regarding MCV miRNA and its functional significance in MCV pathogenesis. Given the emerging importance of viral miRNAs in virus-host interaction and pathogenesis, the aim of this doctoral research project was to investigate alterations in host cell transcripts induced by MCV miRNA and determine any functional significance these might have on virus-host cell interaction. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in the presence and absence of MCV miRNA uncovered a multitude of downregulated cellular transcripts. Gene ontology analysis revealed that MCV miRNA targets transcripts associated with multiple cellular processes, however, regulation of immune response was overrepresented in our datasets. Validation of RNA-Seq data using MCV miRNA mimics and a synthetic, fully replicative MCV genome (MCVSyn) confirmed RNA-Seq data at mRNA and protein expression level for several targets, including the cytokine stimulating gene, SP100, and the neutrophil stimulator chemokine, CXCL8. Moreover, dual luciferase assays revealed that SP100 and MAPK10 (a member of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) family which is involved in regulation of CXCL8 expression) are directly and specifically targeted and downregulated by MCV miRNA. The MCV miRNA-dependent dysregulation of CXCL8 secretion is associated with impaired neutrophil migration, suggesting that the virus miRNA may be implicated in evasion of the host immune response.
    • An analysis of citizenship defined through dualistic and embodied paradigms. A case study of belonging and exclusion in young people around England in light of the debate on Britishness.

      Not named; Millner, Sophie Caroline (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2015-07-01)
      Embedded in debates concerning Britishness and citizenship, this thesis considers the influence of the dualistic tradition on citizenship theory and highlights the exclusionary nature of citizenship as founded in this paradigm. Working within this dualistic paradigm means that the lives and practices of being a citizen are not captured, creating an exclusionary cycle whereby the concept excludes the lives of many citizens, and many individuals are excluded from being a citizen as defined by the concept. This thesis used participatory, visual and online methods to explore belonging and exclusion with young people around England. Informed strongly by the field research, this thesis analyses citizenship as defined through dualistic and embodied paradigms and considers the potential of an embodied concept of citizenship for engaging young people.
    • An analysis of defence policies. Nuclear and non-nuclear options reviewed.

      Not named; Ramsbotham, Oliver Peter (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Peace Studies., 2010-02-11)
      This thesis is a study of what is said to be at issue in the nuclear weapons debate and constitutes the beginning of an attempt to understand its nature and significance . The technique adopted has been to offer an initial presentation of rival rationales in order to introduce the main concepts and show something of the force of these developed, positions (Vol I pp 7-30) . The two rationales are then related point by point , to give the analytical framework used in the subsequent interviews (pp 31-9) . Each pair of points is expanded and commented upon , and detailed references are given to the books and articles from which the analysis was drawn (pp 40-214) . The next section relates all of this briefly to the main party platforms in Britain , as of June 1987 (pp Zt 1- zt ) Volume II is made up of complete sets of responses to the framework of questions generated in the earlier chapters . The advantages of this method are i that in each case the rationale is laid out verbatim 9 so that premises are explicitly stated and the dependence of subsequent upon prior arguments is clearly seen . This in itself is very rarely done which is why so many proposed policies are so often , and so widely misunderstood . that , because all those consulted have responded to the same set of questions , their alternative sets of answers can be compared with one another point by point . This is the crucial and unique advantage of the approach adopted here . It ensures that what is at issue can be precisely pinpointed. The results as recorded here are in themselves striking and illuminating More important still they open the door to detailed future investigation of a kind which can be done in no other way.
    • The analysis of funerary and ritual practices in Wales between 3600-1200 BC based on osteological and contextual data

      Gibson, Alex M.; Buckberry, Jo; Tellier, Geneviève (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2015)
      This thesis examines the character of Middle Neolithic to Middle Bronze Age (3600-1200 BC) funerary and ritual practices in Wales. This was based on the analysis of chronological (radiocarbon determinations and artefactual evidence), contextual (monument types, burial types, deposit types) and osteological (demographic and pyre technology) data from a comprehensive dataset of excavated human bone deposits from funerary and ritual monuments. Funerary rites in the Middle Neolithic (c. 3600-2900 BC) sometimes involved the deposition of single inhumation or cremation burials in inconspicuous pit graves. After a hiatus in the Late Neolithic (c. 2900-2400 BC), formal burials re-appeared in the Chalcolithic (c. 2500-2200 BC) with Beaker burials. However, formal burials remained relatively rare until the Early Bronze Age (c. 2200-1700 BC) when burial mounds, which often contained multiple burials, became the dominant type of funerary monument. Burial rites for this period most commonly involved the cremation of the dead. Whilst adult males were over-represented in inhumations, no age- or gender-based differences were identified in cremation burials. Patterns in grave good associations suggest that perceived age- and-gender-based identities were sometimes expressed through the selection of objects to be placed in the graves. The tradition of cremation burials carried on into the Middle Bonze Age (c. 1700-1200 BC), although formal burials became less common. Circular enclosures (henges, timber circles, stone circles, pit circles), several of which were associated with cremated human bone deposits, represented the most persistent tradition of ritual monuments, with new structures built from the end of the fourth millennium BC to the middle of the second millennium BC in Wales.
    • Analysis of Information Security Risks and Protection Management Requirements for Enterprise Networks.

      Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Cullen, Andrea J.; Mellor, John E.; Bakry, S.H.; Saleh, Mohamed S.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-04-18)
      With widespread of harmful attacks against enterprises¿ electronic services, information security readiness of these enterprises is becoming of increasing importance for establishing the required safe environment for such services. Various approaches are proposed to manage enterprise information security risks and to assess its information security readiness. These approaches are, however, not adequate to manage information security risks, as all required information security components of its structural and procedural dimensions have not considered. In addition, current assessment approaches lack numerical indicators in assessing enterprise information security readiness. Furthermore, there is no standard approach for analysing cost versus benefit in selecting recommended protection measures. This thesis aims at contributing to the knowledge by developing comprehensive Enterprise Information Security Risk Management (EISRM) framework that integrates typical approaches for information security risk management, and incorporates main components of key risk management methodologies. In addition, for supporting phases of the proposed EISRM framework, analytical models for enterprise information security readiness assessment and cost-benefit analysis are developed. The practical evaluation, using the proposed enterprise information security readiness assessment model has been performed depending on a developed investigation form that used to investigate nine enterprises inside Saudi Arabia. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model in assessing and comparing enterprises information security readiness at all levels of the model, using numerical indicators and graphical representations. The EISRM framework and the analytical models presented in this research can be used by enterprises as single point of reference for assessing and cost effectively improving their information security readiness.
    • Analysis of the behavioural effects of barley and sertraline in two in-vivo models of stress.Anti-depressant and anti-nociceptive effects of barley in mice and sertraline effects on anxiety in the offspring of prenatally-stressed rats

      Fraser, Josie; Britland, Stephen T.; Al-Shehri, M.A.S. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2017-12-08)
      To prove the post-natal depression model, the antidepressant sertraline, was assessed in rat mothers (n=14) divided into Prenatally Stressed (PS) and Non-Stressed (NS) groups. The data failed to support the hypothesis that ‘the progeny of 10mg of sertraline-treated PS mothers displayed less anxiety than the progeny of vehicle-treated PS mothers’. The forced swim test (FST) was used to examine depressive-like behaviour in mice. Barley successfully increased mobility in mice exposed to the FST. Barley was antidepressant at low doses (0.8g/kg and upwards) if used subchronic; and at high doses(6.4g/kg and 12.8g/kg) if used acutely;(n=113,56acute,57 subchronic- treated). Barley (6.4g/kg) was also able to alleviate the depressive-behaviour in mice induced by the Reserpine Test (n=114, 58 reserpinised, 56 non-reserpinised) and Social ‘Defeat’ Test (n=24, 8 vehicle undefeated, 8 barley defeated, 8 vehicle defeated mice). To confirm that the anti-depressant effects of barley(6.4g/kg) were not simply due to increased locomotor activity in the FST, an Open Field Test(OFT) was undertaken (n=14,7 vehicle, 7 barley). Barley had no effect on locomotor activity and also caused no significant changes in weight (n=16, 8vehicle, 8 barley). In mice,Barley(6.4g/kg) significantly delayed the tremorogenic effects of Physostigmine (n=18, 6 control,6 Physostigmine, 6 Physostigmine with barley); reduced bradykinesia induced by reserpine (n=18,6 control, 6 vehicle, 6 barley treated);and was analgesic in nociception tests (n =20, 5 control, 5 barley, 5 pain, 5 pain with barley). Overall, barley was seen to have many useful properties, though its effect in PND remains to be assessed.
    • An analysis of trauma resilience among Hausa young people affected by ethno-religious violence in Jos.

      Kelly, Rhys H.S.; Pankhurst, Donna T.; Fetherston, A. Betts; Dagona, Zubairu K. (University of BradfordDivision of Peace Studies, 2014-05-07)
      This study explored the experiences of Hausa young people in the Jos ethno-religious crisis. It sought to answer the following research question: is there evidence of trauma resilience among the Hausa young people in Jos? If established, further enquiry into the methods employed by the social organisation to make its young people resilient was made. A qualitative study of 32 young people (16 females and 16 males) drawn from the social organisation discussed their experiences during the crisis in a focus group forum. In addition, 16 parents (consisting of 8 males and 8 females) discussed their experiences and observations of the young people¿s behaviours during and after the crisis. Furthermore, focus group discussions were held with some hospital workers (comprising 2 male and 4 female staff) to gain insight into their experiences of working with the young people during the crisis. Five traditional/religious leaders in Jos were also interviewed to share their experiences during and after the crisis. Focus groups, picture drawings and individual interviews were used to capture and illuminate on the young people¿s experiences. The results revealed that there is high level of resilience among the young people. The young people through their discussions and pictures demonstrated that they had faced many difficulties during the crisis, and presented symptoms of trauma, but these symptoms were not severe enough to attract a diagnosis of PTSD and did not require treatment. All the young people reported a great deal of anxiety and fear (100%), and avoiding some parts of Jos (100%); however, none reported increased irritability (0%) and none reported symptoms of hypervigilance or insomnia (0%). However, the pictures drawn by the young people revealed lots of trauma, some dealing directly with crisis and others in different areas of their lives. Girls reported more traumatic incidents than boys. Likewise, the younger age group (7-12 years) reported more traumatic incidents than the older age group (13-18years). Furthermore, all the young people reported engagement with religiosity/spirituality; social support; cultural factors such as the socialisation process; and individual resources to contain the effects of the conflict and to remain healthy. The young people also gave reasons why they used religion/spirituality; most mentioned it gave them confidence, independence and hope. Gender and age differences were revealed. Girls used more emotion-focused channels to cope with the difficulties in addition to religion/spirituality. Boys used problem-solving channels in addition to religion/spirituality. The younger age group also used more of an emotion focus in addition to religiosity, while the older age group used more problem-solving techniques. The results from the parents, hospital workers and traditional/religious leaders further corroborate the findings from the young people. The findings were discussed alongside the literature (Millwood, 1995, Koenig, King, & Carson, 2012, Bracey, 2010). It is recommended that in times of recovery of a post-conflict society, religion and the indigenous methods should be explored and employed to get the young people out of their emotional difficulties.
    • Analytic representation of quantum systems

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Eissa, Hend A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics Department of Computing, 2016)
      Finite quantum systems with d-dimension Hilbert space, where position x and momentum p take values in Zd(the integers modulo d) are studied. An analytic representation of finite quantum systems, using Theta function is considered. The analytic function has exactly d zeros. The d paths of these zeros on the torus describe the time evolution of the systems. The calculation of these paths of zeros, is studied. The concepts of path multiplicity, and path winding number, are introduced. Special cases where two paths join together, are also considered. A periodic system which has the displacement operator to real power t, as time evolution is also studied. The Bargmann analytic representation for infinite dimension systems, with variables in R, is also studied. Mittag-Leffler function are used as examples of Bargmann function with arbitrary order of growth. The zeros of polynomial approximations of the Mittag-Leffler function are studied.
    • An analytic representation of weak mutually unbiased bases

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Ci, Lei; Olupitan, Tominiyi E. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2016)
      Quantum systems in the d-dimensional Hilbert space are considered. The mutually unbiased bases is a deep problem in this area. The problem of finding all mutually unbiased bases for higher (non-prime) dimension is still open. We derive an alternate approach to mutually unbiased bases by studying a weaker concept which we call weak mutually unbiased bases. We then compare three rather different structures. The first is weak mutually unbiased bases, for which the absolute value of the overlap of any two vectors in two different bases is 1/√k (where k∣d) or 0. The second is maximal lines through the origin in the Z(d) × Z(d) phase space. The third is an analytic representation in the complex plane based on Theta functions, and their zeros. The analytic representation of the weak mutually unbiased bases is defined with the zeros examined. It is shown that there is a correspondence (triality) that links strongly these three apparently different structures. We give an explicit breakdown of this triality.
    • Analytic Representations of Finite Quantum Systems on a Torus

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Jabuni, Muna (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2011-03-30)
      Quantum systems with a finite Hilbert space, where position x and momen- tum p take values in Z(d) (integers modulo d), are studied. An analytic representation of finite quantum systems is considered. Quantum states are represented by analytic functions on a torus. This function has exactly d zeros, which define uniquely the quantum state. The analytic function of a state can be constructed using its zeros. As the system evolves in time, the d zeros follow d paths on the torus. Examples of the paths ³n(t) of the zeros, for various Hamiltonians, are given. In addition, for given paths ³n(t) of the d zeros, the Hamiltonian is calculated. Furthermore, periodic finite quantum systems are considered. Special cases where M of the zeros follow the same path are also studied, and general ideas are demonstrated with several ex- amples. Examples of the path with multiplicity M = 1; 2; 3; 4; 5 are given. It is evidenced within the study that a small perturbation of the initial values of the zeros splits a path with multiplicity M into M different paths.
    • Analytic representations of quantum systems with Theta functions

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Lei, Ci; Evangelides, Pavlos (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics Department of Computing, 2015)
      Quantum systems in a d-dimensional Hilbert space are considered, where the phase spase is Z(d) x Z(d). An analytic representation in a cell S in the complex plane using Theta functions, is defined. The analytic functions have exactly d zeros in a cell S. The reproducing kernel plays a central role in this formalism. Wigner and Weyl functions are also studied. Quantum systems with positions in a circle S and momenta in Z are also studied. An analytic representation in a strip A in the complex plane is also defined. Coherent states on a circle are studied. The reproducing kernel is given. Wigner and Weyl functions are considered.
    • Analytical method development for structural studies of pharmaceutical and related materials in solution and solid state. An investigation of the solid forms and mechanisms of formation of cocrystal systems using vibrational spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction techniques

      Edwards, Howell G.M.; Scowen, Ian J.; Elbagerma, Mohamed A. (University of BradfordDivision of Chemical and Forensic Sciences, 2010-11-11)
      Analysis of the molecular speciation of organic compounds in solution is essential for the understanding of ionic complexation. The Raman spectroscopic technique was chosen for this purpose because it allows the identification of compounds in different states and it can give information about the molecular geometry from the analysis of the vibrational spectra. In this research the ionisation steps of relevant pharmaceutical material have been studied by means of potentiometry coupled with Raman spectroscopy; the protonation and deprotonation behaviour of the molecules were studied in different pH regions. The abundance of the different species in the Raman spectra of aqueous salicylic acid, paracetamol, citric acid and salicylaldoxime have been identified, characterised and confirmed by numerical treatment of the observed spectral data using a multiwavelength curve-fitting program. The non-destructive nature of the Raman spectroscopic technique and the success of the application of the multiwavelength curve-fitting program demonstrated in this work have offered a new dimension for the rapid identification and characterisation of pharmaceuticals in solution and have indicated the direction of further research. The work also covers the formation of novel cocrystal systems with pharmaceutically relevant materials. The existence of new cocrystals of salicylic acid-nicotinic acid, DLphenylalanine , 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with oxalic acid have been identified from stoichiometric mixtures using combined techniques of Raman spectroscopy (dispersive and transmission TRS), X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis. Raman spectroscopy has been used to demonstrate a number of important aspects regarding the nature of the molecular interactions in the cocrystal. Cocrystals of II salicylic acid ¿ benzamide, citric acid-paracetamol and citric acid -benzamide have been identified with similar analytical approaches and structurally characterised in detail with single crystal X-ray diffraction. From these studies the high selectivity and direct micro sampling of Raman spectroscopy make it possible to identify spectral contributions from each chemical constituent by a peak wavenumber comparison of single-component spectra (API and guest individually) and the two- component sample material (API/guest), thus allowing a direct assessment of cocrystal formation to be made. Correlation of information from Raman spectra have been made to the X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis results. Transmission Raman Spectroscopy has been applied to the study cocrystals for the first time. Identification of new phases of analysis of the low wavenumber Raman bands is demonstrated to be a key advantage of the TRS technique.
    • Analytical Modelling of Scheduling Schemes under Self-similar Network Traffic. Traffic Modelling and Performance Analysis of Centralized and Distributed Scheduling Schemes.

      Min, Geyong; Liu, Lei (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2011-04-08)
      High-speed transmission over contemporary communication networks has drawn many research efforts. Traffic scheduling schemes which play a critical role in managing network transmission have been pervasively studied and widely implemented in various practical communication networks. In a sophisticated communication system, a variety of applications co-exist and require differentiated Quality-of-Service (QoS). Innovative scheduling schemes and hybrid scheduling disciplines which integrate multiple traditional scheduling mechanisms have emerged for QoS differentiation. This study aims to develop novel analytical models for commonly interested scheduling schemes in communication systems under more realistic network traffic and use the models to investigate the issues of design and development of traffic scheduling schemes. In the open literature, it is commonly recognized that network traffic exhibits self-similar nature, which has serious impact on the performance of communication networks and protocols. To have a deep study of self-similar traffic, the real-world traffic datasets are measured and evaluated in this study. The results reveal that selfsimilar traffic is a ubiquitous phenomenon in high-speed communication networks and highlight the importance of the developed analytical models under self-similar traffic. The original analytical models are then developed for the centralized scheduling schemes including the Deficit Round Robin, the hybrid PQGPS which integrates the traditional Priority Queueing (PQ) and Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) schemes, and the Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) forward error control discipline in the presence of self-similar traffic. Most recently, research on the innovative Cognitive Radio (CR) techniques in wireless networks is popular. However, most of the existing analytical models still employ the traditional Poisson traffic to examine the performance of CR involved systems. In addition, few studies have been reported for estimating the residual service left by primary users. Instead, extensive existing studies use an ON/OFF source to model the residual service regardless of the primary traffic. In this thesis, a PQ theory is adopted to investigate and model the possible service left by selfsimilar primary traffic and derive the queue length distribution of individual secondary users under the distributed spectrum random access protocol.
    • An analytical study of the reintegration experience of the formerly abducted children in Gulu, Northern Uganda: A human security perspective.

      Poku, Nana K.; Porto, Joao Gomes; Maina, Grace Mukami (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2011-04-04)
      The Northern region of Uganda has been plagued by violent conflict for over two decades. The Lord¿s Resistance Army (LRA) has been waging war against the current government of Uganda under the leadership of President Museveni. The Acholi community resident in the North of Uganda has been most affected by this war. In recent years however Northern Uganda has enjoyed relative calm following an agreement for the cessation of hostilities between the LRA and the government to allow for peace talks. Following the anticipated end of this conflict, the international community, the government and local organisations have engaged in a number of interventions and mechanisms that would assist in peace building. A fundamental intervention that has been formulated and administered to this end is the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programme for the ex-LRA combatants. The DDR process has had the sole objective of enabling formerly abducted children to transform their lives from violence into civility and community. It has been the premise that if this transformation were to occur then societies could be made peaceful. There has been growing support for these programmes but there has been very little analysis done of the utility of these programmes and the consequential impacts that these programmes have on the local indigenous communities. Though well intentioned, there is much work to be done to assess the utility and success of reintegration initiatives in granting the formerly abducted children and local populations¿ lifestyles that are reasonably free from fear and want.
    • Androgenetic alopecia: a possible treatment and a relationship with hair greying. Assessment of the herbal mixture Xiantene for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and a relationship between early hair greying and the progression of androgenetic alopecia

      Randall, Valerie A.; Davies, Paul G. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2012-01-11)
      Hair plays an important role in human social and sexual communication. The androgen-stimulated, patterned loss of hair in cases of androgenetic alopecia (or common baldness) in genetically pre-disposed individuals, is associated with ageing and can cause marked phychological distress. However, it is poorly controlled. To investigate the effectiveness of daily topical application of a Chinese medicine-derived herbal mixture, Xiantene, on balding progression, two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (3 and 12 months) were carried out on balding men using the trichogram approach. Xiantene significantly increased both the total number of hairs and those in anagen, improving the ratio of anagen:telogen hairs. This suggests that topical Xiantene increased the length of the anagen phase and may promote a cessation, or partial reversal, of the progression of androgenetic alopecia in men. Canities, loss of scalp hair colour, is another mark of ageing. To investigate whether early greying may protect follicles from androgenetic alopecia, the extent of alopecia, assessed using the Hamilton scale, was compared between men who first became grey before, or after, 30. Both alopecia and greying increased with age in 843 men (217 European, 626 Thai) whenever they first started greying. However, men who showed greying before 30 were significantly less bald, though more grey, in both groups. Hair follicle melanocytes synthesise the pigment melanin, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress; losing melanocyte pigmentary activity, and therefore these toxic factors, appears to enable hair follicles to maintain their full size for longer, despite the androgen drive to miniaturisation.
    • Angled curtain coating: An experimental study. An experimental investigation into the effect of die angle on air entrainment velocity in curtain coating under a range of operating conditions.

      Benkreira, Hadj; Patel, Rajnikant; Elgadafi, Mansour M. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design & Technology, 2010-11-10)
      In all coating applications, a liquid film displaces air in contact with a dry solid substrate. At a low substrate speed a thin uniform wetting line is formed on the substrates surface, but at a high speed the wetting line becomes segmented and unsteady as air becomes entrained between the substrate and the liquid. These air bubbles affect the quality of the coated product and any means to postpone this at higher speeds without changing the specifications of the coating liquid is desirable. This research assesses the validity of a theoretically based concept developed by Blake and Rushack [1] and exploited by Cohu and Benkreira [2] for dip coating. The concept suggests that angling the wetting line by an angle ß would increase the speed at which air is entrained by a factor 1/cos ß. In practice, if achieved this is a significant increase that would result in more economical operation. This concept was tested in a fast coating operation that of curtain coating which is already enhanced by what is known as hydrodynamic assistance [2]. Here we are effectively checking an additional assistance to wetting. The work, performed on a purposed built curtain coater and a rotating die, with a range of fluids showed the concept to hold but provided the data are processed in a way that separate the effect of curtain impingement from the slanting of the wetting line.
    • Animals, Identity and Cosmology: Mortuary Practice in Early Medieval Eastern England

      Bond, Julie M.; Buckberry, Jo; Rainsford, Clare E. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2017)