• A comparative microscopic study of human and non-human long bone histology.

      Schutkowski, Holger; Buckberry, Jo; Nor, Faridah M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2010-11-05)
      Identification of human or nonhuman skeletal remains is important in assisting the police and law enforcement officers for the investigation of forensic cases. Identification of bone can be difficult, especially in fragmented remains. It has been reported that 25 to 30% of medicolegal cases, which involved nonhuman skeletal remains have been mistaken for human. In such cases, histomorphometric method was used to identify human and nonhuman skeletal remains. However, literature has shown that histomorphometric data for human and nonhuman bone were insufficient. Additionally, age estimation in bone may help in the identification of human individual, which can be done by using a histomorphometric method. Age estimation is based on bone remodeling process, where microstructural parameters have strong correlations with age. Literature showed that age estimation has been done on the American and European populations. However, little work has been done in the Asian population. The aims of this project were thus, to identify human and nonhuman bone, and to estimate age in human bones by using histomorphometric analysis. In this project, 64 human bones and 65 animal bones were collected from the mortuary of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and the Zoos in Malaysia, respectively. A standard bone preparation was used to prepare human and nonhuman bone thin sections for histomorphometric assessment. Assessments were made on the microstructural parameters such as cortical thickness, medullary cavity diameter, osteon count, osteon diameter, osteon area, osteon perimeter, Haversian canal diameter, Haversian canal area, Haversian canal perimeter, and Haversian lamella count per osteon by using image analysis, and viewed under a transmitted light microscope. The microstructural measurements showed significant differences between human and nonhuman samples. The discriminant functions showed correct classification rates for 81.4% of cases, and the accuracy of identification was 96.9% for human and 66.2% for animal. Human age estimation showed a standard error of estimate of 10.41 years, comparable with those in the literature. This study project offers distinct advantages over currently available histomorphometric methods for human and nonhuman identification and human age estimation. This will have significant implications in the assessment of fragmentary skeletal and forensic population samples for identification purposes.
    • A Comparative Study of Data Transformations for Efficient XML and JSON Data Compression. An In-Depth Analysis of Data Transformation Techniques, including Tag and Capital Conversions, Character and Word N-Gram Transformations, and Domain-Specific Data Transforms using SMILES Data as a Case Study

      Ridley, Mick J.; Cullen, Andrea J.; Scanlon, Shagufta A. (University of BradfordSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2017-12-13)
      XML is a widely used data exchange format. The verbose nature of XML leads to the requirement to efficiently store and process this type of data using compression. Various general-purpose transforms and compression techniques exist that can be used to transform and compress XML data. More compact alternatives to XML data have been developed, namely JSON due to the verbosity of XML data. Similarly, there is a requirement to efficiently store and process SMILES data used in Chemoinformatics. General-purpose transforms and compressors can be used to compress this type of data to a certain extent, however, these techniques are not specific to SMILES data. The primary contribution of this research is to provide developers that use XML, JSON or SMILES data, with key knowledge of the best transformation techniques to use with certain types of data, and which compression techniques would provide the best compressed output size and processing times, depending on their requirements. The main study in this thesis, investigates the extent of which using data transforms prior to data compression can further improve the compression of XML and JSON data. It provides a comparative analysis of applying a variety of data transform and data transform variations, to a number of different types of XML and JSON equivalent datasets of various sizes, and applying different general-purpose compression techniques over the transformed data. A case study is also conducted, to investigate data transforms prior to compression to improve the compression of data within a data-specific domain.
    • Comparison of coping, quality of life and psychosocial well-being in children and adult patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with pseudocatalase PC-KUS. A questionnaire-based investigation into social anxiety, helplessness, anxious-depressive mood, quality of life and depression before and after treatment with pseudocatalase PC-KUS depending on demographic characteristics and experiences.

      Schallreuter, Karin U.; Krüger, Christian (University of BradfordDivision of Biomedical Sciences, School of Life Sciences., 2010-05-25)
      Vitiligo is an idiopathic, non-contagious and often familial depigmentation disorder affecting both sexes equally. The mostly progressive and patchy loss of the inherited skin colour is not only a cosmetical problem, it has a profound impact on the patient¿s well-being. Stigmatisation and rejection often causes depression, self-consciousness, sexual problems and an impaired quality of life. To further substantiate earlier investigations and to introduce new aspects, we utilised the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire (ACS) with its sub-scales on Social anxiety / avoidance, Helplessness and Anxious-depressive Mood in 422 patients and 55 healthy controls. We also included 103 children, their parents and 18 controls by using the Children¿s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and an adapted version of the ACS. We found that patients with vitiligo experience high levels of stigmatisation. They have an impaired quality of life and are more socially anxious / avoidant, helpless and (anxious-) depressive compared to healthy controls. The results correlate with disease severity, avoidant behaviour / hiding of vitiligo and the belief that psychological stress influences the disease. Female patients are generally more affected. Treatment with pseudocatalase PC-KUS improves quality of life and reduces anxious-depressive mood. Children also suffer from stigmatisation and an impaired quality of life. Parents are more socially anxious and helpless compared to the control group.
    • A Comparison of Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts Derived from Terminal and Vellus Hair Bearing Skin. Differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, oestrogen receptors, and responses to oestradiol under normal and wound induced conditions

      Thornton, M. Julie; Graham, Anne M.; Kamala, Ola (University of BradfordCentre for Skin Sciences. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2014)
      Wounds heal better in skin with terminal hair follicles (large and pigmented) as opposed to those with vellus hair follicles (small and unpigmented), while dermal fibroblasts from different anatomical regions also exhibit phenotypical differences. Tissue repair requires a tight control of cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis, and recent studies have shown the importance of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), which are proteins that prevent the process of apoptosis via their interaction with caspase molecules in wound healing. Oestrogens improve the rate and quality of wound healing, but their relationship with IAPs in human skin has not been studied. Therefore, terminal (scalp) and vellus (facial) hair bearing skin from the same donor was compared in situ and matching primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts were established from terminal (DF(T)) and vellus (DF(V)) hair bearing skin. Using immunofluorescent staining, the expression of IAPs and their antagonists was compared at different stages of the hair cycle following depilation using a murine model and then in terminal and vellus hair bearing human skin. The size and granularity of matching DF(T) and DF(V) cultures was compared by FACS analysis and mRNA and protein expression of Apollon, cIAP2, NAIP and XIAP and their antagonists DIABLO and Xaf1 analysed by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in unwounded and mechanically wounded fibroblast cultures. Differences in proliferation, migration, viability and caspase 3 activity in the presence of 17β-oestradiol and changes in mRNA expression of the oestrogen receptors (GPR30, ERα and ERβ) were compared between the two cell types. IAP protein expression was generally found higher during mid anagen of the hair cycle in murine skin and hair follicles. Overall, expression was slightly higher in human terminal hair bearing skin compared to corresponding vellus hair bearing skin. IAP protein expression was similar in unwounded DF(T) and DF(V) cells with the exception of Apollon which was higher in DF(V) cells. With the exception of XIAP and its direct antagonist Xaf1, mRNA expression was higher in DF(V) cells compared to corresponding DF(T) cells. FACS analysis demonstrated that DF(V) cells were more granular than matching DF(T) cells and proliferated faster. 17β-oestradiol accelerated migration of DF(T) cells only. Mechanical wounding decreased XIAP mRNA in DF(T) and increased it in DF(V) cells, while simultaneously decreasing Xaf1 expression. In unwounded cells, 17β-oestradiol stimulated the expression of XIAP mRNA in both DF(T) and DF(V) cells, but in scratched monolayers, while it also increased expression in DF(T) cells it decreased it in DF(V) cells. A XIAP inhibitor reduced cell viability in both DF(T) and DF(V) cells, which was rescued by 17β-oestradiol in unwounded and mechanically wounded DF(T) cells, but only in unwounded DF(V) cells. 17β-oestradiol decreased caspase 3 activity in the presence of a XIAP inhibitor only in DF(T) cells. These results demonstrate significant differences between dermal fibroblasts cultured from terminal and vellus hair bearing skin of the same individual. The correlation between an increase in XIAP in response to 17β-oestradiol and a higher number of viable cells, along with a reduction in caspase 3 activity suggests that the protective effect of 17β-oestradiol may be modulated via the regulation of XIAP. Further elucidation of these different signalling pathways in dermal fibroblasts from hair bearing skin may lead to improved therapies for chronic non-healing wounds, particularly in postmenopausal females.
    • A compositional analysis of Roman and early post-Roman glass and glassworking waste from selected British sites. Towards an understanding of the technology of glass-making through analysis by inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry of glass and glass production debris from the Roman/Saxon sites at York, Leicester, Mancetter and Worcester.

      Not named; Jackson, Caroline Mary (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2010-07-16)
      This study is concerned with the compositional analysis of Roman and early post-Roman glass from both domestic assemblages and the remains derived from glass working and producing sites in Britain, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICPS). Samples analysed were from glassworking waste from Mancetter (midsecond century), Leicester (third century) and Worcester (first to third centuries), glass production debris, probably manufactured from the raw materials, in conjuncton with a domestic assemblage, from Coppergate (first to fourth centuries, or possibly later), and a domestic assemblage from Fishergate (spanning both the Roman and immediate post- Roman periods). All the glass analysed was shown to be of a typical and uniform soda-limesilica composition, except for a small number of vessel fragments from York which were higher in calcium. Any compositional differences between blue-green glasses typologically dated either to the Roman or Saxon periods, were found not to be consistent. Analysis of the colourless glass showed that the majority appeared to be actively decolorized using antimony, in conjunction with apparent differences In the compositions of the raw materials, when compared to glass of the same date in other 0 colours. Compositional differences between melted waste from Mancetter, Leicester and Worcester, were apparent, but not to an extent which allowed characterization to be successful. Analysis of glassmelting pots from Coppergate showed some high temperature glassworking (and possibly glassmaking) could have occurred. Other debris, thought to be indicative of glassmaking was also analysed and compared to the composition of the Roman domestic assemblage.
    • Computation of electromagnetic fields in assemblages of biological cells using a modified finite difference time domain scheme. Computational electromagnetic methods using quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, modified Berenger absorbing boundary and Floquet periodic boundary conditions to investigate the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems.

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007-07-10)
      There is an increasing need for accurate models describing the electrical behaviour of individual biological cells exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this area of solving linear problem, the most frequently used technique for computing the EM field is the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. When modelling objects that are small compared with the wavelength, for example biological cells at radio frequencies, the standard Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method requires extremely small time-step sizes, which may lead to excessive computation times. The problem can be overcome by implementing a quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, based on transferring the working frequency to a higher frequency and scaling back to the frequency of interest after the field has been computed. An approach to modeling and analysis of biological cells, incorporating the Hodgkin and Huxley membrane model, is presented here. Since the external medium of the biological cell is lossy material, a modified Berenger absorbing boundary condition is used to truncate the computation grid. Linear assemblages of cells are investigated and then Floquet periodic boundary conditions are imposed to imitate the effect of periodic replication of the assemblages. Thus, the analysis of a large structure of cells is made more computationally efficient than the modeling of the entire structure. The total fields of the simulated structures are shown to give reasonable and stable results at 900MHz, 1800MHz and 2450MHz. This method will facilitate deeper investigation of the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems. Moreover, the nonlinear response of biological cell exposed to a 0.9GHz signal was discussed on observing the second harmonic at 1.8GHz. In this, an electrical circuit model has been proposed to calibrate the performance of nonlinear RF energy conversion inside a high quality factor resonant cavity with known nonlinear device. Meanwhile, the first and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to the loading of the cavity with the lossy material will also be demonstrated. The results from proposed mathematical model, give good indication of the input power required to detect the weakly effects of the second harmonic signal prior to perform the measurement. Hence, this proposed mathematical model will assist to determine how sensitivity of the second harmonic signal can be detected by placing the required specific input power.
    • Computational Approaches for Time Series Analysis and Prediction. Data-Driven Methods for Pseudo-Periodical Sequences.

      Neagu, Daniel; Lan, Yang (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics & Media, 2010-05-28)
      Time series data mining is one branch of data mining. Time series analysis and prediction have always played an important role in human activities and natural sciences. A Pseudo-Periodical time series has a complex structure, with fluctuations and frequencies of the times series changing over time. Currently, Pseudo-Periodicity of time series brings new properties and challenges to time series analysis and prediction. This thesis proposes two original computational approaches for time series analysis and prediction: Moving Average of nth-order Difference (MANoD) and Series Features Extraction (SFE). Based on data-driven methods, the two original approaches open new insights in time series analysis and prediction contributing with new feature detection techniques. The proposed algorithms can reveal hidden patterns based on the characteristics of time series, and they can be applied for predicting forthcoming events. This thesis also presents the evaluation results of proposed algorithms on various pseudo-periodical time series, and compares the predicting results with classical time series prediction methods. The results of the original approaches applied to real world and synthetic time series are very good and show that the contributions open promising research directions.
    • The computational face for facial emotion analysis: Computer based emotion analysis from the face

      Ugail, Hassan; Al-Dahoud, Ahmad
      Facial expressions are considered to be the most revealing way of understanding the human psychological state during face-to-face communication. It is believed that a more natural interaction between humans and machines can be undertaken through the detailed understanding of the different facial expressions which imitate the manner by which humans communicate with each other. In this research, we study the different aspects of facial emotion detection, analysis and investigate possible hidden identity clues within the facial expressions. We study a deeper aspect of facial expressions whereby we try to identify gender and human identity - which can be considered as a form of emotional biometric - using only the dynamic characteristics of the smile expressions. Further, we present a statistical model for analysing the relationship between facial features and Duchenne (real) and non-Duchenne (posed) smiles. Thus, we identify that the expressions in the eyes contain discriminating features between Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles. Our results indicate that facial expressions can be identified through facial movement analysis models where we get an accuracy rate of 86% for classifying the six universal facial expressions and 94% for classifying the common 18 facial action units. Further, we successfully identify the gender using only the dynamic characteristics of the smile expression whereby we obtain an 86% classification rate. Likewise, we present a framework to study the possibility of using the smile as a biometric whereby we show that the human smile is unique and stable.
    • Computational models of trust for cooperative evolution. Reputation based game theoretic models of trust for cooperative evolution in online business games.

      Dahal, Keshav P.; Cowling, Peter I.; Bista, Sanat K. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2010-09-01)
      Online services such as e-marketplaces, social networking sites, online gaming environments etc have grown in popularity in the recent years. These services represent situation where participants do not get to negotiate face to face before interaction and most of the time parties to transaction remain anonymous. It is thus necessary to have a system that rightly assesses trustworthiness of the other party in order to maintain quality assurance in such systems. Recent works on Trust and Reputation in online communities have focused on identifying probable defaulters, but less effort has been put to come up with system that make cooperation attractive over defection in order to achieve cooperation without enforcement. Our work in this regard concerns design and investigation of trust assessment systems that not only filter defaulters but also promote evolution of cooperativeness in player society. Based on the concept of game theory and prisoner¿s dilemma, we model business games and design incentive method, compensation method, acquaintance based assessment method and decision theoretic assessment method as mechanisms to assure trustworthiness in online business environments. Effectiveness of each of these methods in promoting the evolution of cooperation in player society has been investigated. Our results show that these methods contribute positively in promoting cooperative evolution. We have further extended our trust assessment model to suit the needs of a mobile ad-hoc network setting. The effectiveness of this model has been tested against its capability to reduce packet drop rate and energy conservation. In both of these the results show promise.
    • Computer colour matching with fluorescent dyes : The influence of fluorescence on reflectance - concentration relationships for fluorescent dyes, singly and in mixtures, and the effects on the prediction of recipes for use in colour matching.

      Rigg, B.; Coates, E.; Chan, K.K.; Man, Tak-ming (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Colour Chemistry and Colour Technology., 2009-09-01)
      A simple and feasible method of computer colour matching involving fluorescent dyes was developed. An ordinary abridged-spectroreflectometer with polychomatic illumination and a simulated D65 xenon light source was employed for all measurements. In addition to the normal K/S constants for non-fluorescent dyes and the non-fluorescent portion of the fluorescent dye'.. constants responsible for the fluorescent portion were necessary. Two sets of equations to relate the total radiance factors of dyeings with a fluorescent dye and its concentration were developed respectively for self and compound shades where a non-fluorescent dye is admixed. Finding constants responsible for the compound shades required a number of calibration mixture dyeings. Negative K/S constants were found useful when the total radiance factor was above that for the substrate but below one hundred. Three computer programs? s were developed to deal with calibration constants for self and compound shade and also for match prediction. Optimization was used in all cases to minimize errors in total radiance factors or colour differences. Half of the actual dyeingq formulations from the predicted were visually passed by a panel of five dyers. In this study, disperse dyes on polyester were used. Moreover, a commercial matching package was studied using non-fluorescent dyes. The dyeing system affected its accuracy. The polyester/disperse dye system was better than the cotton/reactive dye system. The sample size and luminancefactor of target colours; were also studied. The accuracy was affected slightly by the latter but not the former.
    • Computer simulation studies of dense suspension rheology. Computational studies of model sheared fluids; elucidation, interpretation and description of the observed rheological behaviour of simple colloidal suspensions in the granulo-viscous domain by Non-Equilibrium Particulate Dynamics.

      Woodcock, L.V.; Hopkins , Alan John (University of BradfordDepartment of Chemical Engineering, 2010-08-04)
      Rheological properties of idealised models which exhibit all the non-Newtonian flow phenomenology commonly seen in dense suspensions are investigated by particulate-dynamics computer-simulations. The objectives of these investigations are: (i) to establish the origins of various aspects of dense suspension rheology such as shear-thinning, shear thickening and dilatancy; (ii) to elucidate the different regions of a typical dense suspension rheogram by examining underlying structures and shear induced anisotropies in kinetic energy, diffusivity and pressure; (iii) to investigate the scaling of the simplest idealised model suspension; i.e. the hard-sphere model in Newtonian media and its relationship to the isokinetic flow curves obtained through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations; (iv) to preliminarily determine the effect of perturbations present in all real colloidal suspensions, namely particle size polydispersity and a slight 'softness' of the interparticle potential. Non-equilibrium isokinetic simulations have been performed upon ;systems of particles interacting through the classical hard-sphere potential and a perturbation thereof, in which the hard-core is surrounded by a 'slightly soft' repulsive skin. The decision to base the present work upon isokinetic studies was made in order to obtain a better under- standing of suspension rheology by making a direct connection with previous NEMD studies of thermal systemst(93). These studies have shown that the non-linear behaviour exhibited by these systems under shear is atttributable to a shear-induced perturbation of the equilibrium phase behaviour. The present study shows this behaviour to correspond to the high shear region of the generalised suspension flow curve.
    • Conceptualizing of value offerings from a customer perspective. Understanding the elements of value and their relationship with customer satisfaction

      Wright, Gillian H.; Mehraramolan, Amirreza (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2016)
      The initial idea for this research is based on the gap that I found in my company performance and specifically in the process of value offering and the relationship with customers. The company has recently faced the challenges of a loss of market share and competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to provide a validated value offering constructs for the company. That is, knowing the customers’ needs, value and preferences better; identifying what kind of value the customers are looking for and improving the value offerings of the company in order to raise customers´ satisfaction. Understanding the priority of value offering elements from customers’ perspective, the nature of customer satisfaction and the relationship between the elements of value offering and customers´ satisfaction are the main objectives. The relevant literature and research related to value offering including its elements, value, perceived value and customer satisfaction are reviewed comprehensively. The methodology used is a case study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used for collecting and analysing the data. In qualitative phase, 16 customers were selected for in-depth interviews and for quantitative phase 268 customers who all are dentists responded a survey made up of 24 scales. The result showed that the highest significant element is Price value and also it was revealed in which important parts related to value offering and customer satisfaction the company is performing poorly.
    • Condition Classification in Underground Pipes Based on Acoustical Characteristics. Acoustical characteristics are used to classify the structural and operational conditions in underground pipes with advanced signal classification methods

      Horoshenkov, Kirill V.; Tait, Simon J.; Feng, Zao (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013)
      This thesis is concerned with the development and study of a pattern recognition system for siphon and sewer condition/defect analysis based on acoustic characteristics. Pattern recognition has been studied and used widely in many fields including: identification and authentication; medical diagnosis and musical modelling. Audio based classification and research has been mainly focusing on speech recognition and music retrieval, but few applications have attempted to use acoustic characteristics for underground pipe condition classification. Traditional CCTV inspection methods are relatively expensive and subjective so remote techniques have been developed to overcome this concern and increase the inspection efficiency. The acoustic environment provides a rich source of information about the internal conditions of a pipe. This thesis reports on a classification system based on measuring the direct and reflected acoustic signals and describing the energy spectrum for each condition/pipe defect. A K-nearest neighbour classifier (KNN) and Support vector machines (SVMs) classifier have been adopted to train the classification system to identify sediment and pipe surface defects by comparing the measured acoustic signals with a database containing a range of typical conditions. Laboratory generated data and field collected data were used to train the proposed system and evaluate its ability. The overall accuracy of the system recognizing blockage and structural aspects in each of the series of experiments varies between 70% and 95%.
    • Conflict Complexity in Ethiopia: Case Study of Gambella Regional State

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Adeto, Yonas A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2016-08-30)
      The causes of violent conflicts in Ethiopia in general, and in Gambella in particular, are complex. Critically examining and explaining the causes entails going beyond labelling them solely in terms of one variable, such as 'ethnic conflict‘. The contestation of the study is that contemporary conflicts in Ethiopia have remained protracted, untransformed and recurring. This is largely because the past processes which gave rise to them were not properly taken into account and not properly comprehended, thereby giving rise to much superficiality in their explanations, inappropriate policies and a failure of efforts at apprehending them. The thesis identifies four major factors and two contrasting narratives which have framed the analysis of conflict complexity in Gambella. Qualitatively designed, the study focuses mainly on the structural causes of violent conflicts since 1991 and how their constituent elements were conceived and explained by different actors. First, asymmetrical centre-periphery relations entrenched in the state building processes of the imperial and military regimes, continued under the present regime rendering Gambella an object of extraction and repression. Consequently, competing claims of ownership of Gambella between the Anywaa and the Nuer ethnic groups evolved entailing shifting allegiances to the central government. Second, ethnic politics of the new social contract ushered in a new thinking of ‗each ethnic group for itself‘; it made ethnic federalism a means of consolidating the regime‘s political philosophy, depriving the local community of a genuine political representation, leading to broader, deeper and more serious violence. Third, land policy of the incumbent favoured its political party affiliates and foreign investors, thus inducing more violence. Finally, external dynamics impacted on internal conflict complexity. The study has argued that single factor approaches are inadequate to explain what has constituted violent conflicts in Gambella since 1991; it has concluded that internal conflicts are complex, and their constituent elements are conceived of, and explained, differently by the local peoples and different levels of government. Nevertheless, given commitment and a political will, the local and national governments, as well as peoples at grassroots level, have the capacity to transform the present, and to prevent future violent conflicts in the region.
    • Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation in Sudan: Inter-Tribal Reconciliation Conferences in South Darfur State up to 2009.

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Bashar Gado, Zuhair M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2014-05-07)
      This study explores and critically examines the role of indigenous mechanisms (the Inter-Tribal Reconciliation Conferences-ITRCs) in resolving tribal conflicts in South Darfur State of Western Sudan. The fundamental question raised by this study is: have these reconciliation conferences- 1989-2009- been able to address the root causes of the tribal conflicts and are they capable of serving the same role that they once did? Tribal leadership structures, such as Native Administration (NA) and their mechanisms of conflict resolution/management in Darfur, have been subjected to highly significant changes over time. The question is to what extent these changes further fuelled tribal conflicts and/or have negatively affected the capability of the NA and the ITRCs to deal with these conflicts? This thesis relies on archive records and reports of the ITRCs and data generated through interviews conducted with key informants. Through a detailed analysis the study: 1) presents a detailed account of the major conflicts and their causes in South Darfur; 2) identifies the changing identities of the protagonists and of the perceived causes; 3) assesses the effectiveness of the agreements reached by these conferences when considered alongside the causes identified. Analysis of the ITRCs shows that tribal conflicts in Darfur (from1980s), and South Darfur in particular, were connected to the wider political conflict in the Sudan and the region respectively. The analysis suggests that the history of neglect/marginalisation of the region by successive governments, and the political manipulation of the NA and local government, have negatively affected the performance of these institutions. The experience of the ITRCs indicates that they were unable to address the underlying causes of the tribal conflicts, such as land disputes, the manipulation of the NA and local government, rape and mass killings.
    • Conformal symmetries in special and general relativity.The derivation and interpretation of conformal symmetries and asymptotic conformal symmetries in Minkowski space-time and in some space-times of general relativity.

      Robinson, W.J.; Griffin, G.K. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Mathematics., 2009-10-28)
      The central objective of this work is to present an analysis of the asymptotic conformal Killing vectors in asymptotically-flat space-times of general relativity. This problem has been examined by two different methods; in Chapter 5 the asymptotic expansion technique originated by Newman and Unti [31] leads to a solution for asymptotically-flat spacetimes which admit an asymptotically shear-free congruence of null geodesics, and in Chapter 6 the conformal rescaling technique of Penrose [54] is used both to support the findings of the previous chapter and to set out a procedure for solution in the general case. It is pointed out that Penrose's conformal technique is preferable to the use of asymptotic expansion methods, since it can be established in a rigorous manner without leading to the possible convergence difficulties associated with asymptotic expansions. Since the asymptotic conformal symmetry groups of asymptotically flat space-times Are generalisations of the conformal group of Minkowski space-time we devote Chapters 3 and 4 to a study of the flat space case so that the results of later chapters may receive an interpretation in terms of familiar concepts. These chapters fulfil a second, equally important, role in establishing local isomorphisms between the Minkowski-space conformal group, 90(2,4) and SU(2,2). The SO(2,4) representation has been used by Kastrup [61] to give a physical interpretation using space-time gauge transformations. This appears as part of the survey of interpretative work in Chapter 7. The SU(2,2) representation of the conformal group has assumed a theoretical prominence in recent years. through the work of Penrose [9-11] on twistors. In Chapter 4 we establish contact with twistor ideas by showing that points in Minkowski space-time correspond to certain complex skew-symmetric rank two tensors on the SU(2,2) carrier space. These objects are, in Penrose's terminology [91, simple skew-symmetric twistors of valence [J. A particularly interesting aspect of conformal objects in space-time is explored in Chapter 8, where we extend the work of Geroch [16] on multipole moments of the Laplace equation in 3-space to the consideration. of Q tý =0 in Minkowski space-time. This development hinges upon the fact that multipole moment fields are also conformal Killing tensors. In the final chapter some elementary applications of the results of Chapters 3 and 5 are made to cosmological models which have conformal flatness or asymptotic conformal flatness. In the first class here we have 'models of the Robertson-Walker type and in the second class we have the asymptotically-Friedmann universes considered by Hawking [73].
    • A Connection Admission Control Framework for UMTS based Satellite Systems.An Adaptive Admission Control algorithm with pre-emption control mechanism for unicast and multicast communications in satellite UMTS.

      Hu, Yim Fun; Halliwell, Rosemary A.; Pillai, Anju (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-11-02)
      In recent years, there has been an exponential growth in the use of multimedia applications. A satellite system offers great potential for multimedia applications with its ability to broadcast and multicast a large amount of data over a very large area as compared to a terrestrial system. However, the limited transmission capacity along with the dynamically varying channel conditions impedes the delivery of good quality multimedia service in a satellite system which has resulted in research efforts for deriving efficient radio resource management techniques. This issue is addressed in this thesis, where the main emphasis is to design a CAC framework which maximizes the utilization of the scarce radio resources available in the satellite and at the same time increases the performance of the system for a UMTS based satellite system supporting unicast and multicast traffic. The design of the system architecture for a UMTS based satellite system is presented. Based on this architecture, a CAC framework is designed consisting of three different functionalities: the admission control procedure, the retune procedure and the pre-emption procedure. The joint use of these functionalities is proposed to allow the performance of the system to be maintained under congestion. Different algorithms are proposed for different functionalities; an adaptive admission control algorithm, a greedy retune algorithm and three pre-emption algorithms (Greedy, SubSetSum, and Fuzzy). A MATLAB simulation model is developed to study the performance of the proposed CAC framework. A GUI is created to provide the user with the flexibility to configure the system settings before starting a simulation. The configuration settings allow the system to be analysed under different conditions. The performance of the system is measured under different simulation settings such as enabling and disabling of the two functionalities of the CAC framework; retune procedure and the pre-emption procedure. The simulation results indicate the CAC framework as a whole with all the functionalities performs better than the other simulation settings.
    • Constraints on the adoption of Adaptive Water Management principles: the case of Greater Tehran.

      Sharp, Liz; Franks, Tom R.; Delavari Edalat, Farideh (University of BradfordDepartment of Geography and Environmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences, 2015-07-01)
      Continued water scarcity, flooding, pollution and urbanisation, especially in developing countries, have signified the necessity of renewed exploration of the most appropriate approach to water management. This approach should aim to meet the water requirements in the changing world in a sustainable way. Reviewing the different water approaches that have emerged in the developed countries during the last decades suggests that Adaptive Water Management (AWM) could provide a sustainable route to address the existing complex problems of urban water management through the future. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AWM could be applied to Greater Tehran in order to maximise sustainability and deal with the future uncertainties. The AWM characteristics of polycentric governance, institutional flexibility, and public participation were used to assess the adaptability of the existing water management. The research findings showed that, despite the lack of adaptability in the current Greater Tehran water management, there are positive attitudes towards adaptability among water professionals and the public. The research findings emphasised that the AWM application could be promoted by more participation in various levels of institutional structure. This thesis suggests that if the concept of AWM is applied to Iran, it has the potential to have a significant influence in the current/future water management by promoting technical and institutional performances simultaneously.
    • A constructivist account of Pakistan's political practice in the aftermath of 9/11. The normalisation of Pakistan's participation in the 'war on terror'.

      Gregory, Shaun R.; Perrigo, Sarah; Fiaz, Nazya (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2010-11-23)
      This research is concerned with Pakistan¿s participation in the US-led `war on terror¿ in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001. The study seeks to explain how Pakistan¿s state practice in the aftermath of 9/11 was normalised and made possible. In explaining the state practice, the study draws on a constructivist conceptual framework; which is further enhanced by incorporating key theoretical insights from critical realism. In the first instance, the study proposes that Pakistan¿s participation in the `war on terror¿, seen as a set of actions and practices, was an outcome of a specific domestic political discourse. This discourse enabled and legitimised the state¿s alliance with the US and its abandonment of the Taliban regime. Secondly, the study is concerned with explaining why the particular discourse emerged in the shape and form that it did. In this context, the argument is that a depth `critical realist¿ ontological inquiry can reveal underlying and enduring global and domestic social structural contexts, and traces of agential influence as connected to the discourse. Consequently, this study conceptualises Pakistan¿s actions in the context of the `war on terror¿ as emerging from a multi-causal complex in which discourse, structure and agency are complicit. The study represents a departure from realist readings that emphasise a mono-causal relationship between the US and Pakistan. Instead, this research uses a synthesis of critical realism and constructivism to add a fresh perspective in terms of how we may conceptualise Pakistan¿s political practice in this instance.
    • Consumer Reaction to Food and Health. A longitudinal study of U. K. consumer behaviour and attitudes towards health, with particular reference to food purchasing and consumption habits, product quality, nutritional composition, ingredients and production methods.

      Wheelock, J. Verner; Wright, Gillian H. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Biomedical Sciences., 2009-11-12)
      Consumers have increasing choice in food products and within the social environment of today's consumer, the factors of demand are increasingly complex. Food is no longer simply a primary necessity for survival, it is a leisure and family activity, the participation in which, takes up a considerable amount of time. Today, food is a social and a political issue - something about which people have opinions, be it food quality, healthiness, or the food supply itself. It is also central to consumer's self-image. There is a large sector of the economy which supplies food demand, and this sector is itself now under considerable scrutiny from the consumer. This thesis examines consumer behaviour and attitudes towards food, with particular reference to the health aspects of food issues. It describes a programme of qualitative and quantitative research - group discussions, personal interviews and postal questionnaires. The programme examines milk (particularly low fat milk) as a diet and health case study; knowledge about food; attitudes towards food; the food industry and related issues; shopping behaviour and eating habits. It is important to both the consumer and the supplier of food, that consumer behaviour and attitudes are understood as fully as possible. This research highlights the misunderstandings between consumer and producer, emphasises the mistrust of the consumer for the producer and concludes with the need for communication between them. The thesis discusses the background to diet and health as an issue, describes the development of the current consumer environment and gives a profile of today's consumer. It then goes on to detail the research - two quantitative surveys, each undertaken over two years and a series of group discussions. The final section summarises the findings of each individual piece of the programme as a whole for various groups: food Oroducers; food manufacturers; food retailers; advertisers; the media; health professionals; the consumer; consumer organisations and government.