• A self-healing framework to combat cyber attacks. Analysis and development of a self-healing mitigation framework against controlled malware attacks for enterprise networks.

      Awan, Irfan U.; Pagna Disso, Jules F.; Alhomoud, Adeeb M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, School of Engineering and Informatics, 2015-07-08)
      Cybercrime costs a total loss of about $338 billion annually which makes it one of the most profitable criminal activities in the world. Controlled malware (Botnet) is one of the most prominent tools used by cybercriminals to infect, compromise computer networks and steal important information. Infecting a computer is relatively easy nowadays with malware that propagates through social networking in addition to the traditional methods like SPAM messages and email attachments. In fact, more than 1/4 of all computers in the world are infected by malware which makes them viable for botnet use. This thesis proposes, implements and presents the Self-healing framework that takes inspiration from the human immune system. The designed self-healing framework utilises the key characteristics and attributes of the nature’s immune system to reverse botnet infections. It employs its main components to heal the infected nodes. If the healing process was not successful for any reason, it immediately removes the infected node from the Enterprise’s network to a quarantined network to avoid any further botnet propagation and alert the Administrators for human intervention. The designed self-healing framework was tested and validated using different experiments and the results show that it efficiently heals the infected workstations in an Enterprise network.
    • Semantic content analysis for effective video segmentation, summarisation and retrieval.

      Jiang, Jianmin; Ipson, Stanley S.; Ren, Jinchang (University of BradfordDepartment of Electronic Imaging and Media Communications, 2010-03-10)
      This thesis focuses on four main research themes namely shot boundary detection, fast frame alignment, activity-driven video summarisation, and highlights based video annotation and retrieval. A number of novel algorithms have been proposed to address these issues, which can be highlighted as follows. Firstly, accurate and robust shot boundary detection is achieved through modelling of cuts into sub-categories and appearance based modelling of several gradual transitions, along with some novel features extracted from compressed video. Secondly, fast and robust frame alignment is achieved via the proposed subspace phase correlation (SPC) and an improved sub-pixel strategy. The SPC is proved to be insensitive to zero-mean-noise, and its gradient-based extension is even robust to non-zero-mean noise and can be used to deal with non-overlapped regions for robust image registration. Thirdly, hierarchical modelling of rush videos using formal language techniques is proposed, which can guide the modelling and removal of several kinds of junk frames as well as adaptive clustering of retakes. With an extracted activity level measurement, shot and sub-shot are detected for content-adaptive video summarisation. Fourthly, highlights based video annotation and retrieval is achieved, in which statistical modelling of skin pixel colours, knowledge-based shot detection, and improved determination of camera motion patterns are employed. Within these proposed techniques, one important principle is to integrate various kinds of feature evidence and to incorporate prior knowledge in modelling the given problems. High-level hierarchical representation is extracted from the original linear structure for effective management and content-based retrieval of video data. As most of the work is implemented in the compressed domain, one additional benefit is the achieved high efficiency, which will be useful for many online applications.
    • Semantically-enriched and semi-Autonomous collaboration framework for the Web of Things. Design, implementation and evaluation of a multi-party collaboration framework with semantic annotation and representation of sensors in the Web of Things and a case study on disaster management

      Pillai, Anju; Amir, Mohammad (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering & Informatics, 2018-01-04)
      This thesis proposes a collaboration framework for the Web of Things based on the concepts of Service-oriented Architecture and integrated with semantic web technologies to offer new possibilities in terms of efficient asset management during operations requiring multi-actor collaboration. The motivation for the project comes from the rise in disasters where effective cross-organisation collaboration can increase the efficiency of critical information dissemination. Organisational boundaries of participants as well as their IT capability and trust issues hinders the deployment of a multi-party collaboration framework, thereby preventing timely dissemination of critical data. In order to tackle some of these issues, this thesis proposes a new collaboration framework consisting of a resource-based data model, resource-oriented access control mechanism and semantic technologies utilising the Semantic Sensor Network Ontology that can be used simultaneously by multiple actors without impacting each other’s networks and thus increase the efficiency of disaster management and relief operations. The generic design of the framework enables future extensions, thus enabling its exploitation across many application domains. The performance of the framework is evaluated in two areas: the capability of the access control mechanism to scale with increasing number of devices, and the capability of the semantic annotation process to increase in efficiency as more information is provided. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework is fit for purpose.
    • Senior management perception of strategic international human resource management effectiveness. The case of multinational companies performance in China

      Analoui, Farhad; Bao, Chanzi (University of BradfordDepartment of Development and Economic Studies, 2010-09-28)
      The intense competition arising from globalisation requires MNCs to manage their HRs globally and strategically to become a source of competitive advantage. Hence, SIHRM acknowledges the need to balance global integration and local responsiveness, together with emphasising the importance of seeking strategic fit between HR policies and business strategy, which in turn leads to superior firm performance. Furthermore, this development also increased awareness and recognition of the role of senior managers and cultural traditions. Therefore, the primary purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between SIHRM effectiveness and firm performance as perceived by senior management coupled with the influence from MNCs' headquarters and Chinese cultural values. Consequently, the researcher selected a case study approach with a triangulation data collection method through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews undertaken in four selected subsidiaries of MNCs. The research findings strengthened the theoretical foundations of several HRM models, together with supporting Analoui's eight-parameter approach (1999) as a functional, coherent and interlinked framework regarding the effectiveness of senior managers. In particular, this research found that quality enhancement of products and service was the preferred and adopted key business strategy amongst the studied MNCs. Whilst they are also seeking to balance globalisation and localisation through reconciling control and adaptation rather than satisfying one at the expense of the other, such that the trend is for Western HR policies to be gradually accepted and internalised by the younger generation of the Chinese managers. Finally, this research made several recommendations to foreign MNCs operating in China.
    • A sensemaking perspective on the psycological contract formations during organisational socialisation.

      Nadin, Sara J.; Tietze, Susanne; Ford, Jackie M.; Magang, Veronica G. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-05-10)
      The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the processes of the psychological contract during organisational socialisation. Research on psychological contract tends to focus more on the content and breach of the contract. Very little is known about the formative stages of the contract. Very little attention has also been given to investigating the psychological contract together with organisational socialisation. Linking the two research areas would further our understanding of both the dynamic nature of the psychological contract. This is achieved by investigating the temporal changes of the psychological contract of new employees, pre-entry up to six months post entry into employment. The research also investigates the psychological contract from the employer`s perspective. It utilises Weick`s (1995) sensemaking properties as a methodological framework to better understand these processes. Consistent with the research aim and objectives and social constructionism, a qualitative methodology was adopted. The research used in-depth semi structured interviews to collect data supplemented with sitting in during recruitment interviews in one of the organisations, and data were analysed using template analysis. Periodic interviews were carried out every four to six months post entry. The research consists of two organisations, where each provided two groups for analysis. The findings show that after entry into the organisation, the psychological contract changes in a variety of ways influenced by socialisation into the organisation. A model based on the findings is presented and discussed in the discussion chapter. The research also makes a contribution (methodology) by adopting the sensemaking framework.
    • A service orientated architecture and wireless sensor network approach applied to the measurement and visualisation of a micro injection moulding process. Design, development and testing of an ESB based micro injection moulding platform using Google Gadgets and business processes for the integration of disparate hardware systems on the factory shop floor

      Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Hu, Yim Fun; Raza, Umar (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering and Informatics, 2014)
      Factory shop floors of the future will see a significant increase in interconnected devices for monitoring and control. However, if a Service Orientated Architecture (SOA) is implemented on all such devices then this will result in a large number of permutations of services and composite services. These services combined with other business level components can pose a huge challenge to manage as it is often difficult to keep an overview of all the devices, equipment and services. This thesis proposes an SOA based novel assimilation architecture for integrating disparate industrial hardware based processes and business processes of an enterprise in particular the plastics machinery environment. The key benefits of the proposed architecture are the reduction of complexity when integrating disparate hardware platforms; managing the associated services as well as allowing the Micro Injection Moulding (µIM) process to be monitored on the web through service and data integration. An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) based middleware layer integrates the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based environmental and simulated machine process systems with frontend Google Gadgets (GGs) based web visualisation applications. A business process framework is proposed to manage and orchestrate the resulting services from the architecture. Results from the analysis of the WSN kits in terms of their usability and reliability showed that the Jennic WSN was easy to setup and had a reliable communication link in the polymer industrial environment with the PER being below 0.5%. The prototype Jennic WSN based µIM process monitoring system had limitations when monitoring high-resolution machine data, therefore a novel hybrid integration architecture was proposed. The assimilation architecture was implemented on a distributed server based test bed. Results from test scenarios showed that the architecture was highly scalable and could potentially allow a large number of disparate sensor based hardware systems and services to be hosted, managed, visualised and linked to form a cohesive business process.
    • Service quality in nursing homes. A construct, measurement and performance model to increase client focus.

      Wright, Gillian H.; Lapré, Frederik Albert Ludwig (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-12-18)
      This thesis is concerned with the quality of care for the elderly in nursing homes, responding to a critical social and demographic imperative. The aim of this study is to provide a service quality construct for nursing homes to increase client focus and satisfaction. The research is underpinned by the service quality literature. It utilises the SERVQUAL construct to explore the nature of service quality in nursing homes through semi-structured interviews with nursing home residents and resident's families. A service quality scale was constructed comprising six dimensions and 27 scale items capturing service delivery in nursing homes. This scale was purified through a survey of residents and family members (n=263). Through exploratory factor analysis, six importance and four experience factors were identified. Regression analysis was used to identify relationships between the factors, service quality and satisfaction. The results indicate that importance does not predict perceived quality, though experience of responsiveness and hospitality and courtesy and personal approach are indicators of service quality. Furthermore, quality emerges as a predictor of satisfaction. From these outcomes, a service quality construct was developed which comprises of service marketing and service quality dimensions. This thesis contributes to the construction of the concept of service quality in nursing homes, its dimensionality and thus the precursors of satisfaction. These have considerable implications for the management of nursing home services.homes, its dimensionality and thus the precursors of satisfaction. These have considerable implications for the management of nursing home services.
    • Settlement and landscape in the Northern Isles; a multidisciplinary approach. Archaeological research into long term settlements and thier associated arable fields from the Neolithic to the Norse periods.

      Heron, Carl P.; Brown, L.D.; Dockrill, Stephen J. (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2014-05-07)
      The research contained in these papers embodies both results from direct archaeological investigation and also the development of techniques (geophysical, chronological and geoarchaeological) in order to understand long-term settlements and their associated landscapes in Orkney and Shetland. Central to this research has been the study of soil management strategies of arable plots surrounding settlements from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. It is argued that this arable system provides higher yields in marginal locations. The ability to enhance yield in good years and to store surplus can mitigate against shortage. Control and storage of this surplus is seen as one catalyst for the economic power of elite groups over their underlying or ¿client¿ population. The emergence of a social elite in the Iron Age, building brochs and other substantial roundhouses of near broch proportions, is seen as being linked to the control of resources. Evidence at the site of Old Scatness indicated that there was a continuity of wealth and power from the Middle Iron Age through the Pictish period, before the appearance of the Vikings produced a break in the archaeological record. The Viking period saw a break in building traditions, the introduction of new artefacts and changes in farming and fishing strategies. Each of the papers represents a contribution that builds on these themes.
    • Shakespearean Polyphony. An exploration of female voices in seven selected plays using a dialogical framework.

      Knowles, James; Smith, Kenneth; Sullivan, Paul W.; Intezar, H. (University of BradfordDepartment of Social Sciences and International Studies, 2014-05-01)
      This thesis employs the concept of 'voice' in order to explore the variety of dialogic relationships between men and women in seven Shakespeare plays. Here, 'voice' is defined as an ideological position held by a character and voices within a dialogical relationship test dominant social ideas. In doing so, the aim is to explore how employing a linguistic approach allows us to develop a more nuanced perspective towards women and female voices in Shakespeare. Taking the early modern tradition of an all-male-cast into consideration, this project acknowledges the tension between the idea of embodiment and voice; however, it argues that even though there is no biological female body of the Shakespearean stage, there is a female voice. Dialogism, of course, derives from the work of the Russian theorist Mikhail Bakhtin. These 'voices' are analysed in the context of a theoretical framework informed by his writings on the novel, which are also increasingly being used to make sense of drama in line with Bakhtin's own awareness of a nascent dialogism in Shakespearean drama. 'Polyphony', in particular, assumes a separation between the author's and the characters' points of view. Thus, this project considers Shakespeare's texts as dialogic and his plays as a dialogue of voices, in which the characters have the capacity to hold dialogical relationships where no voice holds more importance than any other. This is significant because these conflicting voices are what make the Shakespearean text different from those in which a single voice is heard - that of the author, for example. As this study talks about an oppressive authoritative/patriarchal language, a dialogic approach unlocks the languages of the others which it tries to marginalise and silence. The research reveals a complex relationship between space, time and voice. More precisely, the carnivalesque becomes visible in Shakespeare's use of innovative discursive devices, such as 'active parody', 'Menippean dialogue' and 'Socratic dialogue', which suggests a multi-toned and ambiguous female voice; a voice that has the capacity to covertly and overtly oppose and challenge social ideologies surrounding gender. The thesis offers new perspectives on the presentation of women and speech. Importantly, it offers a more sophisticated and complex Bakhtinian framework for looking at carnival in Shakespeare. Additionally, a linguistic model of analysis also develops current scholarly use of Bakhtin's concept of carnival. Rather than viewing carnival as simply a time-space of betwixt and between, this project looks at carnival in the context of language (the carnivalesque). More specifically, it reveals how Shakespeare¿s female figures find pockets of carnivalesque space in everyday existence through dialogue. Thus, suggesting that emancipation is not limited to an allocated time or space, rather, it can also be achieved through language.
    • Shape from Gradients. A psychophysical and computational study of the role complex illumination gradients, such as shading and mutual illumination, play in three-dimensional shape perception.

      Bloj, Marina; McKeefry, Declan J.; Harding, Glen (University of BradfordShape Perception, Colour Vision, Psychophysics, Gradients, Shading, Bayes, Cue Combination, 2015-06-17)
      The human visual system gathers information about three-dimensional object shape from a wide range of sources. How effectively we can use these sources, and how they are combined to form a consistent and accurate percept of the 3D world is the focus of much research. In complex scenes inter-reflections of light between surfaces (mutual illumination) can occur, creating chromatic illumination gradients. These gradients provide a source of information about 3D object shape, but little research has been conducted into the capabilities of the visual system to use such information. The experiments described here were conducted with the aim of understanding the influence of chromatic gradients from mutual illumination on 3D shape perception. Psychophysical experiments are described that were designed to investigate: If the human visual system takes account of mutual illumination when estimating 3D object shape, and how this might occur; How colour shading cues are integrated with other shape cues; The relative influence on 3D shape perception of achromatic (luminance) shading and chromatic shading from mutual illumination. In addition, one chapter explores a selection of mathematical models of cue integration and their applicability in this case. The results of the experiments suggest that the human visual system is able to quickly assess and take account of colour mutual illuminations when estimating 3D object shape, and use chromatic gradients as an independent and effective cue. Finally, mathematical modelling reveals that the chromatic gradient cue is likely integrated with other shape cues in a way that is close to statistically optimal.
    • Shear and normal stresses in uniaxial compaction.

      Stanley-Wood, N.G.; Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Powder Technology, 2009-09-17)
      Three- different groups of materials were chosen to investigate the uniaxial compaction of particulate solids. Dentritic and cubic sodium chloride were chosen as plastically deforming, dicalcium phosphcte and sugar as fragmentary and styrocell, homopolymer and copolyrinier as non-compactable materials. The uniaxial compaction of the materials was continuously followed by measurement. of 1-.h e applied force, the force transmitted radially to the die wall and the upper punch displacement. The data obtained was presented in the form of Mohr circles, stress pathways (shear-mean compaction stress planes) and a three dimensional representation in mean compaction stress, shear stress and volume change. The yield loci evaluated from Mohr circles and shear-mean compaction stress relationships of compactable and non-compactable materials were found to be similar in shape. The unloading stress profiles were however more informative. All unloading shear-mean compaction stres's curves of the compactable materials cross the mean compaction stress axis to give negative values of shear stress and reach a minimum value of T min' which was material and compaction p.,- essure dependent. The unloading curves of non-compactable materials gaye approximately zero shear. The parameters evaluated from the characteristic stress profiles were correlated to the tensile strength and hardness of compacts. Mathematical expressions have been proposed for the shear-mean compaction stress relationships of the materials investigated. TI he materials were characterised before and after compaction in terms of specific surface aroa, porosity and mechanical strength of compacts with ccrnpaction pressure.
    • Short Distance Telemetry for Piston Monitoring. Design and Development of Short Distance Telemetry for Engine Condition Monitoring.

      Ebrahimi, Kambiz M.; Wood, Alastair S.; Lewalski, Antosh (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-04-17)
      Piston telemetry research involves monitoring the temperatures at specific internal location points within a combustion engine piston. The temperatures are detected with type K thermocouples as voltages and processed to convert them into temperatures using cold junction compensation methods. The present system uses a specific sensor designed to operate in the high temperature environment within the piston, reading multiple thermocouples. Because of the reciprocating motion of the piston, power generation is intermittent and available only when the piston reaches near bottom dead centre, using inductive coupling to power the sensors and transmit data to an evaluation unit for data processing. The planned system involves designing and building a prototype telemetry unit using ¿off the shelf¿ components that integrate the reading of thermocouple outputs, signal processing and cold junction compensation. Wireless telemetry is adopted for data transmission with an integrated Bluetooth and microcontroller module. The data acquisition module can be adapted for other sensors by adapting the firmware uploaded to the microcontroller. The hardware electronics are envisaged to be encased in thermal insulation to enable operation in high temperature environments. The considered system requires a power supply for the integrated components in the form of a power generator and that it should meet two criteria: to be located within confined spaces and to be permanently available, without having to dismantle systems to change batteries. The selected method is an induction generator constructed from a coil stator connected to the piston connection rod big end and a permanent magnet rotor connected to the crankshaft. The suggested mechatronic system is validated against the present system by comparing both systems to determine whether wireless telemetry can perform within acceptable tolerances and limits for the specified task. Then, for acceptable performances, reduce costs and include flexibility to operate in multiple environments. Bench testing shows that the power generator is capable of driving the sensors and the Bluetooth integrated DAQ system.
    • Sierra Leone`s post-conflict reconstruction: a study of the challenges for building long term peace

      Poku, Nana K.; Buxton, Julia; Cubitt, P. Christine (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2011-04-01)
      The main purpose of this research was to understand the civil war in Sierra Leone and its antecedents, and to analyse the package of reconstruction reforms which came along in the post-war era and their relevance for and impact on the local challenges for longer term peace. Continued corruption among the political class, the persistent disenfranchisement of important social groups, and emerging tensions along political party lines suggested that, ten years on from the Lomé Peace Accord, there may have been a malaise in the peacebuilding plan. To investigate the complex issues, and to support the hypothesis that the model for reconstruction was not best suited to local conditions and local priorities, the work first made a deep interrogation of the historic political, cultural and economic factors which led to the violent conflict. This scrutiny of the local experience allowed the conceptualisation of a germane ¿framework for peace` which represented the most pressing priorities of the local community and the central challenges for peace. The framework reflected the main concerns of the local populace and was used as an analytical tool to better understand the relevance of the model for reconstruction vis-à-vis the local context. Through a critical analysis of the post-war reforms and their impact on the social dimensions of recovery, in particular macro-economic reforms and the promotion of democracy, conclusions were drawn about the appropriateness and efficacy of the model of reconstruction experienced in Sierra Leone and how it supported local priorities for peace. The enquiry found that, in general, the model for reconstruction was not best suited to the local context because of its inflexibility to support the local peacebuilding and its many challenges. In some ways the model for reconstruction heightened residual tensions from the conflict because it failed to address key issues for reform such as governance and social justice.
    • Signifying creative engagement : what is the influence of professional identity on the values that people ascribe to creative partnership projects in education?

      Not named; Comerford Boyes, Louise (University of BradfordSchool of Lifelong Education and Development, 2010-10-20)
      This qualitative study examines the relationship between professional group belonging and what individuals deem valuable within the creative partnership projects they carry out together in schools. There were three consecutive stages to the research. The first stage was the phenomenographic analyses of interview transcripts from twenty three teachers and twenty three creative practitioners who partnered each other to run year long projects. The second stage was the aggregation of the resulting forty six analytic outputs into formats permitting inter-group comparisons to be made. This stage included three separate analyses: not only was an individual¿s professional group belonging shown to impact on what they deemed valuable, but partnership type, i.e. new versus established, also had a substantive impact. The influence of school type was examined and shown to have a lesser effect. The third stage was the use of formal, academic theories to interrogate trends appearing in the results: social identity theory and social representations theory, alongside discursive psychology and readings of identity from cultural studies, were mobilized as consecutive lens on the analytic outcomes. These theories were found to be apposite and a deeper comprehension of creative partnership dynamics was arrived at. This study evidences not only a difference between what teachers and creative practitioners respectively value, but shows how the application of theory is a valuable aid in understanding the variations. This represents a major contribution to the field as the use of formal academic theories does not, as yet, feature in the discourses underpinning creative partnership work.
    • Silencing the voices of women. A case study on the effects of the "Supporting People" programme on survivors of domestic abuse in a support and housing association.

      Macey, Marie; Clarke, Dawn E. (University of BradfordDepartment of Social Sciences and Humanities., 2010-06-23)
      For centuries women have experienced domestic violence from men they know, as a consequence of which many turn to public services for support. Traditionally, these services have failed to provide adequate support, yet it is through these interactions with the services that abused women's lives are shaped and defined. Service providers therefore need to hear their voices in order to develop effective support services that enable survivors to 'move on' with their lives. A government initiative ¬- the Supporting People Programme (SPP) - has the potential to ensure that housing support providers develop their services in this manner. The main aim of the SPP is to place service users at the 'heart' of the system through user participation. Whilst this is certainly a step in the right direction, my concern is whether this actually happens or whether services adopt a tokenistic approach to user participation that marginalises and silences women survivors. My primary research question, therefore, is: 'What is the impact of the SPP on women survivors of domestic abuse?¿ Using a research design that included document analysis, observation and semi-structured interviews, I argue that the SPP has the potential to improve the lives of survivors and even to ameliorate, if not eradicate, domestic abuse. However, far from achieving this, the SPP through lack of commitment to ensuring that services actually meet the funding requirement of user participation continues to marginalise and silence the voices of women survivors.
    • Simulation and optimisation of industrial steam reformers. Development of models for both primary and secondary steam reformers and implementation of optimisation to improve both the performance of existing equipment and the design of future equipment.

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Dunn, Austin J. (University of BradfordDepartment of Chemical Engineering, 2010-07-27)
      Traditionally the reactor is recognised as the `heart' of a chemical process system and hence the focus on this part of the system is usually quite detailed. Steam reforming, however, due to the `building block' nature of its reaction products is unusual and generally is perceived as a `utility' to other reaction processes and hence the focus is drawn " towards the 'main' reaction processes of the system. Additionally as a `mature' process, steam reforming is often treated as sufficiently defined for the requirements within the overall chemical process. For both primary and secondary steam reformers several models of varying complexity were developed which allowed assessment of issues raised about previous models and model improvements; drawing on the advancements in modelling that have not only allowed the possibility of increasing the scope of simulations but also increased confidence in the simulation results. Despite the complex nature of the steam reforming systems, a surprisingly simplistic model is demonstrated to perform well, however, to improve on existing designs and maximise the capability of current designs it is shown that more complex models are required. After model development the natural course is to optimisation. This is a powerful tool which must be used carefully as significant issues remain around its employment. Despite the remaining concerns, some simple optimisation cases showed the potential of the models developed in this work and although not exhaustive demonstrated the benefits of optimisation.
    • Simulation, optimisation and flexible scheduling of MSF desalination process under fouling. Optimal design and operation of MSF desalination process with brine heater and demister fouling, flexible design operation and scheduling under variable demand and seawater temperature using gPROMS.

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Hawaidi, Ebrahim A.M. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-07-24)
      Among many seawater desalination processes, the multistage flash (MSF) desalination process is a major source of fresh water around the world. The most costly design and operation problem in seawater desalination is due to scale formation and corrosion problems. Fouling factor is one of the many important parameters that affect the operation of MSF processes. This thesis therefore focuses on determining the optimal design and operation strategy of MSF desalinations processes under fouling which will meet variable demand of freshwater. First, a steady state model of MSF is developed based on the basic laws of mass balance, energy balance, and heat transfer equations with supporting correlations for physical properties. gPROMS software is used to develop the model which is validated against the results reported in the literature. The model is then used in further investigations. Based on actual plant data, a simple dynamic fouling factor profile is developed which allows calculation of fouling factor at different time (season of the year). The role of changing brine heater fouling factor with varying seawater temperatures (during the year) on the plant performance and the monthly operating costs for fixed water demand and fixed top brine temperature are then studied. The total monthly operation cost of the process are minimised while the operating parameters such as make up, brine recycle flow rate and steam temperature are optimised. It was found that the seasonal variation in seawater temperature and brine heater fouling factor results in significant variations in the operating parameters and operating costs. The design and operation of the MSF process are optimized in order to meet variable demands of freshwater with changing seawater temperature throughout the day and throughout the year. On the basis of actual data, the neural network (NN) technique has been used to develop a correlation for calculating dynamic freshwater demand/consumption profiles at different times of the day and season. Also, a simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature correlation is developed based on actual data. An intermediate storage tank between the plant and the client is considered. The MSF process model developed earlier is coupled with the dynamic model for the storage tank and is incorporated into the optimization framework within gPROMS. Four main seasons are considered in a year and for each season, with variable freshwater demand and seawater temperature, the operating parameters are optimized at discrete time intervals, while minimizing the total daily costs. The intermediate storage tank adds flexible scheduling and maintenance opportunity of individual flash stages and makes it possible to meet variable freshwater demand with varying seawater temperatures without interrupting or fully shutting down the plant at any-time during the day and for any season. Finally, the purity of freshwater coming from MSF desalination plants is very important when the water is used for industrial services such as feed of boiler to produce steam. In this work, for fixed water demand and top brine temperature, the effect of separation efficiency of demister with seasonal variation of seawater temperatures on the final purity of freshwater for both cleaned and fouled demister conditions is studied. It was found that the purity of freshwater is affected by the total number of stages. Also to maintain the purity of freshwater product, comparatively large number of flash stage is required for fouled demister.
    • Six Sigma implementation in Middle East organisations :|ban empirical study.

      Hafeez, Khalid; Ashri, Fahad H. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012-04-17)
      Not available
    • Six Sigma Implementation in Middle East Organisations: An Empirical Study

      Hafeez, Khalid; Abdi, M. Reza; Ashri, Fahad H.
      In the last decade, the rapid economic development in the Middle East has encouraged organisations to implement modem quality management and strategic initiatives such as Six Sigma to ensure continuous improvement and achieved excellence. Six Sigma is a comprehensive business strategic quality programme and a systematic process improvement methodology for achieving, sustaining and maximising business success. The proper implementation of Six Sigma leads to breakthrough in profitability through ensuring quantum gains in product/service quality, customer satisfaction and productivity. This research presents an empirical exploratory and comparative study that aims and attempts to bridge the gap in the existing literature of Six Sigma by investigating the current implementation status of Six Sigma in organisations of three Middle East countries (namely, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and United Arab Emirates (UAE)). The reasons/benefits that encourage Middle East organisations to implement Six Sigma projects, the challenges commonly faced during implementation, the critical success factors (CSFs) for effective implementation and the organisations’ satisfaction with the implementation are investigated. The key issues of Six Sigma implementation and their criticality relating to the experience of the implementing process of Six Sigma projects are explored through an extensive review of the relevant literature. The data were collected from a combination of quantitative (232 questionnaires) and qualitative (74 semi-structured interviews) methodologies. The research covered 44 organisations from manufacturing and services sectors and large, small, and medium enterprises (SME) sizes, which have implemented or were implementing Six Sigma projects in the selected countries at the time of study. The study findings identified 15 significant reasons/benefits which encourages Middle East organisations to implement Six Sigma projects, 13 major challenges commonly faced during implementation, 19 CSFs for effective implementation and level of the organisations’ satisfaction with the implementation. Based on the research findings, a generic model for successful and effective implementation of Six Sigma in Middle East organisations is developed and proposed. The research concludes that Six Sigma implementation in Middle East organisations still in early stage, most organisations have outstanding opportunities to implement the Six Sigma project successfully and effectively with tangible and intangible benefits. In addition, all the responding organisations, which are actively implementing Six Sigma programme, regardless of their countries, sectors and sizes are highly satisfied with the implementation results. However, the research output highlights that an improvement culture must be developed and promoted throughout the organisation to ensure long-term benefit and sustainable success. Furthermore, the research makes recommendations on development of an implementation strategy in Middle East organisations. Finally, a number of suggestions are made for future research.
    • Skeletal evidence of the social persona. Life, death and society in early medieval Alamannic communities

      Armit, Ian; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Heron, Carl P.; Speith, Nivien (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological and Environmental Sciences, 2012)
      Historic-archaeological research on the Alamanni, an early medieval population in the periphery of the Frankish Empire, primarily focuses on themes such as their military character or issues of ethnicity, while the actual functioning of Alamannic societies remains conjectural. Aiming at presenting an integrated approach to the concepts of social organisation and social identities in Alamannic populations, this study examines and defines Alamannic identity and society by creating a dialogue between the disciplines of archaeology, biological anthropology and socio-cultural sciences. A bioarchaeology of identity explores the Alamanni of Pleidelsheim and Neresheim via their funerary and skeletal evidence, allowing for the factor of different environments that influence the interactions of a community. A key theme is the investigation of indicators for biological and social "status" by direct association of bioanthropological with funerary archaeological data, as well as by evaluation of present interpretations made from material culture in the light of bioanthropological analysis as a paramount focus. The results are interpreted in terms of social status and the perception of certain social parameters, exploring interrelations between factors such as sex and gender, age, status and activity for the entirety of a society. This research offers new perspectives on Alamannic societies and helps to comprehend Alamannic social organisation as a multi-layered phenomenon, emphasizing the importance of a biocultural approach. Beyond common perceptions, this study forms the basis for a new understanding of the Alamanni, as the results reveal a society that was complex and diverse, displaying its own characteristics in the Merovingian world.