• Rethinking Secular and Sacred. On the Role of Secular Thought in Religious Conflicts.

      Whitman, Jim R.; McFarland, Michael E. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2010-03-15)
      In early 2001, as I began exploring the role of religion in conflict, I came across a declaration by a then little-known leader, Osama bin Laden, and his fellows. That declaration was of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders.1 Many analysts now see it as one of the founding documents of al Qaeda, the amorphous terrorist umbrella group. The purpose of the declaration was to issue a fatwa that, because United States troops were stationed in the holy Arabian peninsula and threatened Muslims, particularly in Iraq, it was every Muslim¿s duty ¿to kill the Americans and their allies ¿ civilians and military ¿ ... in any country in which it is possible to do it.¿ Of course, the first thing that struck me, as an American, was that here was a group that wished to kill me solely because of my birthplace. They did not seem to care that I might not support specific actions of my government, even if I supported that government generally. Nor was there any discussion of whether methods other than violence might be more useful in persuading my fellow citizens as to the justice of their cause. I wondered, as a student of peace studies, what I could do in the face of such seemingly implacable hatred. The second thing that struck me about the declaration was its language. I noticed, in particular, a certain flourish that one does not often find in political analysis. The image that ¿nations are attacking Muslims like people fighting over a plate of food¿ has always stayed in my mind because the simple image has such rhetorical power. I also noticed, in accordance with my research interests, the use of religious teachings as a justification for violence. Yet poetic rhetoric and religious dogma were not the only contents of that declaration. Bin Laden and his fellows made coherent political points. They cited as 1 bin Laden, Osama; al-Zawahiri, Ayman; Taha, Abu-Yasir Rifa¿i Ahmad; Hamzah, Mir; Rahman, Fazlul, 1998, ¿Nass Bayan al-Jabhah al-Islamiyah al-Alamiyah li-Jihad al-Yahud wa-al-Salibiyin¿ (¿Declaraton of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders¿), al-Quds al-Arabi (UK) 9(2732), 23 Feb.: 3, <data.alquds.co.uk/Alquds/1998/02Feb/23%2520Feb% 2520Mon/QudsPage03.pdf>. Cornell University Library hosts an English translation and a photocopy of the original at <www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/wif.htm> and <./fatw2.htm>, respectively (all web addresses as at 27 Jan. 2005). examples of the harm caused by the United States: the post-Gulf War presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia, ¿dictating to its rulers [and] humiliating its people;¿ the continued bombing of Iraq ¿even though all [Saudi] rulers are against their territories being used to that end;¿ and, finally, the way that these actions contributed to the security of Israel by weakening Arab nations. Thus, beneath its religious expression the declaration contained political points with which I could engage. Now, as I categorically oppose the use of violence, I unreservedly reject the conclusion of the fatwa. Moreover, I do not assume that a single statement is evidence of this group¿s true intent. It may very well be the case, as analysts more versed in their politics than I have argued, that al Qaeda¿s real goal is the establishment of an Islamic caliphate. Its affiliation with Afghanistan¿s Taliban certainly supports this argument. In spite of these things, though, their use of political arguments meant they were trying to reach an audience that cared about such things. I could address that audience as well, and try to propose different courses of action that would address the same concerns. Thus, I could step outside of my original framework, in which I envisioned implacable hatred, and argue for nonviolent ways of addressing the issues. Yet the religious idiom of the declaration was also an important factor. Given that the declaration addressed Muslims as Muslims, by only trying to argue political points with them I might alienate people for whom the religious language meant a great deal. Already in my research I had come to the conclusion, drawing on R. Scott Appleby¿s The Ambivalence of the Sacred,2 that the people best placed to show the peaceful potential of a religion are believers in that religion. I am not, however, religious. Thus, this conclusion left me with no recourse in the face of the religious aspects of conflict. I began to wonder what role a nonreligious ¿ or, as I came to think of myself, a secular ¿ person could play in peacemaking when religion is an element of a conflict. Moreover, 2 Appleby, R. Scott, 2000, The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield). I saw that different seculars would have different reactions to bin Laden¿s arguments. Some would reject the message because of the religious medium. Some, like I first did, would perceive the sociopolitical elements but continue to ignore the religious language. Others, as I also briefly did, might consider the religious element but leave out the issue of their own secular nature. Yet no perspective provided a good model for what I, as a secular, might do. Thus, the goal of my thesis became to analyze the various models of secularity, find the most beneficial principles, and construct from these a model for secular best practice. That Osama bin Laden¿s words should catalyze this thesis brings me to two important points. First, this is not a thesis about Islam. If a disproportionate number of the examples that I use throughout the thesis focus on Islam, this should not indicate that Islam deserves special attention concerning conflict and violence. Rather, the focus here is always on secularity and secular responses to religion in situations of conflict. However, particularly after September 11th, the largely secular policy and scholarly establishments of Europe and North America have produced a great deal of material concerning Islam. Thus, while I sought out more diverse sources dealing with secularity, I often used the religion most commented on by secular sources as an exemplar. That leads to the second point, which is that this is not a thesis about terrorism. Given its scope and the place of religion in it, most obvious case study to use in this thesis is the ¿war on terror¿ ¿ which I call such for ease of use, as that is what the Western media generally call it, not because I think it is an adequate designation. I will cover this topic in the final chapter, but because the thesis is about peace and violence in conflict, and not about specific forms of violence, it will not figure elsewhere. Because this thesis is concerned with violence and, specifically, with the promotion of peace, it has an overt prescriptive element. This stems in large part from my Peace Studies background. Peace Studies entails a normative commitment to pursue peaceful situations through nonviolent means. Thus, at several points I actively enjoin readers to take or not take certain types of action because, by my analysis, that is the best way to promote peaceful relationships. More generally, by the title of this thesis, I ask readers to ¿rethink secular and sacred¿ ¿ both what these terms mean, and more importantly how they relate to one another. In particular, this goal leads me to avoid discussing the concept of tolerance. Tolerance is often held to be a virtue by those who seek to promote nonconfrontational religious interaction. However, as many other writers have pointed out, the word ¿tolerance¿ itself stems from physiological and biological studies, where it means the ability to withstand negative factors, such as poisons or drugs.3 Thus I find that its social meaning is essentially negative, denoting forbearance of what one finds repugnant. While in a very limited sense I feel that tolerance is necessary, it is only as a first step to actively engaging with what one might at first find off-putting. By itself, tolerance does not encourage one to rethink one¿s relationship with something, and thus a nonconfrontational situation is not necessarily a peaceful one. As I researched the thesis, although I was aware of academic work concerning tolerance, I found that none of it contributed to my goals. Thus, the thesis took shape in such a way that a treatment of tolerance was unnecessary. As a final note I would like to mention another topic that did not fit into this thesis, which I regard as something of a loss ¿ gender. During my research, I was also aware of work in this field, and, again, the structure of this thesis is such that it was not necessary to mention it explicitly. However, if there is one single issue that cuts across religious and secular groups, as well as the conflicts I analyze, it is the effect of gender roles and issues. Yet the very breadth of the topic put me in a bind ¿ either I could thoroughly treat it and produce a much different thesis, or I could cursorily treat it, perhaps in the chapter on theory and methodology. I chose to do neither, because the first option would have obscured the value that this thesis does have, and the second would have been a paltry treatment of such a weighty topic. However, the theoretical schools I use 3 See, for example, the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. (1st 1933), Simpson, J.A., and Weiner, E.S.C., co-eds., in. al. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1989), v. 18, pp. 199-200. in this thesis are amenable to a gendered interpretation. This is particularly the case with integral theory, the chief proponent of which, Ken Wilber, has addressed gender issues in a number of his primary works. One can easily discern what I define in this thesis as a strong-open analysis in his analysis of feminisms. He notes both the strength of the radical feminist perspective that champions female distinctiveness as well as the desire of liberal feminists to open social and political spheres traditionally closed to women, and seeks to bring them together.4 Thus, I am confident that this thesis can bolster future research that specifically addresses gender issues as they arise in conflicts with a religious element.
    • Rheology and Pumping of Waxy Crude Oils: An experimental study of the yield stresses of waxy crude oils measured using a range of rheological techniques

      Benkreira, Hadj; Patel, Rajnikant; Abdelrahim, A.M.A.
      A major problem faced by the petroleum industry is the deposition of wax during the pumping of waxy crude oils. This precipitation occurs at “normal” temperature, typically 20-30°C in Libya. It could occur during the journey from well to terminal through hundreds of miles of pipelines. This kind of transportation is expensive in terms of pumping costs. The pumping has to be continuous; otherwise wax can build up in the pipeline, reducing the pumping or even stopping it. The property that defines this characteristic is the yield stress which depends on wax concentration and cooling rate. The build-up of paraffin and asphaltenes can lead to serious problems in formation, tanks, and pipelines. Blockages can be expensive and time-consuming to deal with; this is precisely the topic of this research. For this research, model and real waxy crude oils are formulated and their rheology systematically measured under various cooling rates to determine the yield stress. A pipeline loop has been designed to measure the start-up pressure of stagnant oil which has been allowed to precipitate wax. The start-up pressure and the thickness of deposited wax are used in a simple mathematical model to calculate the yield stress. This research thus provides two independent means of predicting the yield stress. This research studied three different waxy crude oils. An MCR-301 Anton Paar rheometer was used to measure the rheology of the oils, and a pipeline rig was used to obtain the start-up pressure to calculate the yield stress of each type of oil after different stoppage times. Also, the thickness of the precipitated wax is measured to calculate the yield stress precisely. The data show that the layer thickness has significant effect on the yield stress and start-up pressures and corresponding yield flow stresses have been found to underpin the crystallisation process of the wax and slow cooling rate produce stronger structures requiring higher stresses to fracture and induce flow. Also, longer shutdown times make these structures even stronger and therefore require even larger stresses for flow to commence.
    • Rheology and the pumping of waxy crude oils : an experimental study of the yield stresses of waxy crude oils measured using a range of rheological techniques.

      Benkreira, Hadj; Abdelrahim, A.M.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-10-31)
    • Rheology of chocolate. Rheological studies of chocolate in relation to their flow and mixing properties during manufacture.

      Benkreira, Hadj; Beckett, S.; Rutson, Sandra M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering., 2010-01-21)
      An investigation has been carried out into the rheology of chocolate in relation to its flow and mixing features in a real industrial environment. The chocolate manufacturing plant of Rowntree at York provided a base for this study. The project aims were: a) to measure the viscous and time dependent properties of chocolate. b) to explain the observed flow properties in relation to the constituents of chocolate. c) to determine the shear rate which, for a given recipe, yields a minimum stable viscosity (of particular commercial value). d) to assess the type of mixer able to provide this duty. The experimental work involved rheological studies with concentric cylinder and tubular viscometers, operated to measure viscosity as a function of shear rate and shearing time. The chocolate samples studied were taken from various points in the manufacture process at Rowntree, York. Model chocolate systems were made from cocoa liquor, and sugar with cocoa butter, which were studied to underpin the basic mechanisms of the flow properties of the total chocolate. Shear thinning in milk chocolate has been shown to be accounted for by surface coating and fat release from the cocoa cellular material. Analysis of the sugar and cocoa butter system gave large hysteresis loops which may be explained as due to agglomeration of the sugar particles. The level of hysteresis was found to be related to the polarity of the liquid phase, such that a more polar fluid results in less hysteresis. Laboratory experiments have revealed that the level of work input to give permanent viscosity reduction for milk chocolate is dependent on the measuring shear rate. The level of optimum shear input for the measuring range 10 to 130 sec 1 is 645 sec for 30 minutes. The apparent viscosity measured at lower shear rates requires much longer ([approx]100 minutes).
    • Rheology of grout for preplaced aggregate concrete. Investigation on the effect of different materials on the rheology of Portland cement based grouts and their role in the production of preplaced aggregate concrete.

      Hughes, David C.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Ganaw, Abdelhamed I. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-18)
      Preplaced aggregate concrete (PAC) is produced by grouting high workability cement based grouts among the voids of compacted coarse aggregate mass. Because of its low shrinkage, PAC has been used for many repair jobs like; tunnel lines, dams and bridge piers. Moreover, it has been used for underwater construction. Grout has a major effect on the properties of produced PAC and well defined grout controls the properties of resulted PAC. The effect of types and amount of powder materials, admixtures, sand and water content on the properties of fresh and hardened grout for the production of PAC have been investigated. Tests on hardened grout and PAC properties have also been carried out to investigate the most important effects. A correlation between hardened properties of grout and PAC has also been analyzed. Grout rheology using four different gradation sands at two different cement-sand and at different w/c ratios ratios has been identified experimentally; no added chemical admixtures or mineral additives had first employed, then superplasticizer (SP) was added at 2% and 1%, and finally a combination of 1% SP and pulverized fuel ash (Pfa) at 20% of the cement weight was employed for all mixes. Grout tests have included two point workability tests by the Viskomat NT, flow time funnel test, Colcrete flow meter test, and water bleeding test. After that, eighteen grout mixes with high workability were produced using three different sands at three w/c ratios and two c/s ratios with 1% SP and Pfa at 20% of the cement weight were designed. Eighteen hardened grout and PAC then produced and their compressive strength and sorptivity were tested. Grout rheology can be defined by the rheology of cement paste employed and the internal distance between sand particles. The effect of sand surface texture on grout rheology is important at very low internal distances. Fresh grout yield stress is the most important property which gives the same degree of sensitivity for all grouts regardless the material type and content used in the mix. There are strong relations between compressive strength of grout and PAC, but less correlation between them in sorptivity test because of the effect high quantity of coarse aggregate of PAC. Sorptivity of PAC is low comparing with different kinds of concrete suggesting its advantage for underwater construction.
    • Rights Claims and Conflict Transformation in Indigenous Contexts: The Case of the Awajún in Peru

      Lefevre, Natalie
      This dissertation examines how conflicts between the Peruvian State and the indigenous Awajún people can be transformed and further escalation prevented by focusing on rights claims. This study analyses the Awajún’s main rights claims, their perspective on their relationship with the Peruvian State including the main causes of conflict and their views on what the key aspects of conflict transformation with the State should be. The research is focused on the perspective of the indigenous people, not only in the light of the research objectives but also because a decolonized approach that gives voice to the indigenous perspective is the most culturally appropriate approach for an outsider researcher to carry out research with indigenous people. In order to ensure a decolonized research design, one-on-one, in-depth interviews were selected for data collection since these allow a maximum input of the participants and provide the kind of detailed and rich information that is required for this study. Findings illustrate that a rights-based conflict transformation approach, which applies the typical aspects of a rights-based approach focusing on the specific collective rights claims of the Awajún as well as the main principles of conflict transformation focusing on improving relationships, offers the best prospects of preventing violent confrontations.
    • Rights, responsibilities and reform: a study of French justice (1990-2016)

      Dutton, Kathryn; Guth, Jess; Trouille, Helen L. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2017)
      The principal questions addressed in this portfolio of eleven publications concern the reforms to French justice at the end of the twentieth and beginning of the twenty-first centuries. The portfolio is accompanied by a supporting statement explaining the genesis and chronology of the portfolio, its originality and the nature of the submission's distinct contribution to knowledge. The thesis questions whether the reforms protect the rights of the defence adequately. It considers how the French state views its responsibility to key figures in criminal justice, be they suspected and convicted criminals, the victims of offences or the professionals who are prosecuting the offences. It reflects upon the role of the examining magistrate, the delicate relationship between justice, politics and the media, breaches of confidentiality and the catastrophic conditions in which suspects and prisoners are detained in French prisons. It then extends its scope to a case study of the prosecution of violent crimes before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and discovers significant flaws in procedures even at international levels. In concluding, it asks whether, given the challenges facing the French criminal justice system, French courts are adequately equipped to assure justice when suspects charged with the most serious international crimes appear before them under the principle of universal jurisdiction. The research, carried out over a number of years, relies predominantly on an analysis of French-language sources and represents a unique contribution to the understanding and knowledge of French justice for an English-speaking public at the turn of the twenty-first century.
    • The rise of the Austrian Freedom Party under Jörg Haider and Right Wing Populism in Austria 1986-2000. An historical and political study of Haider's FPO with a case-study giving a cultural perspective.

      Housden, Martyn; Batonyi, Gabor; Murphy, Anthony J. (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2014-05-07)
      The extraordinary political success achieved by the Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ) under the leadership of Jörg Haider during the 1990s is widely known as the ¿Haider Phenomenon¿ in academic literature. This thesis is a cultural-historical investigation into the roots of Haider¿s political breakthrough in Austrian politics during the 1990s. My aim has been to try to understand this political phenomenon in the context of Austrian cultural and historical forces and set out the political developments that enabled Haider (almost) to achieve the Austrian Chancellorship in 2000. There is already a considerable amount of scholarship available on this subject ¿ particularly in German. This thesis aims to enrich this scholarship by uncovering some previously neglected cultural-historical aspects relating to the rise of Haider. During my research, I found a rich vein of sources pointing to the centrality of Kultur in any understanding of political-historical developments in 20th century Austria. This is certainly the case in regards to Haider¿s FPÖ, which actually initiated a Kulturkampf as part of their populist political strategy in the 1990s. This study will also add to the body of work about the growth of right wing populism throughout Europe in the last twenty years. More importantly however, my thesis highlights the importance of focusing on local and country-specific aspects of such a political phenomenon in order to explain the causes of its success. Otherwise, there is a danger of superficial or generalized conclusions being made that distract from a deeper comprehension of events.
    • Risk analysis in mangement planning and project control. (Probabilistic techniques are applied to the estimation, planning, forecasting and control of large capital projects to ascertain and reduce the degree of inherent risk and uncertainty)

      Keller, A.Z.; Ashrafi, Rafi A. (University of BradfordIndustrial Technology, 2009-10-02)
      Effective estimation, planning, and control of the functions, operations, and resources of a project are among the most challenging tasks faced by the management of today's engineering and construction organisations. The increase in size and complexity of modern projects demand a sound organisational structure and a rational approach. The main objectives of the present study are two-fold. Firstly to report and critically review theoretical and practical developments of different aspects of the management of engineering and construction projects. Secondly to further develop conceptual, practical techniques and processes; also to provide Guidelines to make more effective use. of resources and systems. To achieve these objectives the present research was carried out in close collaboration with various indurtrial organisations. The current literature on project management is critically examined from the point of View of project cost estimation, planning and control. Various existing and recommended procedures, approaches and techniques are reviewed with particular emphasis on using probabilistic techniques. As the problems of scale are increasing, progressively more industries are adopting systems and project management approaches. Problems, deficiencies and gaps in the existing systems are identified. An analysis of a questionnaire survey on Systems-Caps is carried out and the results of the analysis are reported. . S-curves (or progress curves) are widely used in the plauaing and control of cost, time and resources. A mathematical model for the S-curve is adopted for this purpose. Expenditure data on a number of ii recent projects is analysed and fitted to two S-curve models suggested by Keller-Singh and the Department of Health and Social Security (D. H. S. S. ). A comparative study of the models is carried out. A set of standard parameters for the models is obtained and the predicting accuracy of these models for forecasting expenditure for future similar projects investigated. Quantification aspects of risk involved with the completion time of a project are studied. 'A number of stochastic distributions arc fitted for this purpose to the programed and actual durations for the different activities of a housing project. The maximum likelihood method is used for the estimation of parameters of the fitted distributions. Due to the increasing use of indices in the construction industry, building cost and tender price indices, their application, limitations and methods of formation are discussed. Box-Jenkins models are employed to study past behaviour and to forecast future trends for labour, materials and building cost indices. Finally, general conclusions derived from the present regearch are sunmarised and areas requiring further research are proposed.
    • A risk and reliability management appraisal of company failure. An application of risk and reliability managment methodology to the analysis and identification of pattern, causes and symptoms of company failure, including formation of a Data Bank for failed companies.

      Keller, A.Z.; Roosta, Ahmad (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Industrial Technology, 2009-11-12)
      The principal objective of the research is to diagnose the causes and symptoms of company failure and to investigate whether a pattern of failure could be determined to enable management and other interested parties to identify the risks threatening the survival of the company. The current research divides into three main areas 1. Development of a Data Bank and a study of the age structure of failed companies. 2. An application of reliability management techniques to the analysis of company failure data. 3. Identification of causes and symptoms of company failure based on risk management methodology. Data were collected and analysed for approximately 2000 manufacturing companies which had undergone either compulsory or creditors' voluntary liquidation during the period 1970 to 1977. A Data Bank was established with classified information for 16 different groups of companies making up the manufacturing industry. The classification was based on the Standard Industrial Classification. A study of the age structure of each group was carried out and compared with previous studies. Reliability methodology was applied to the analysis of company failure data for the identification of the failure pattern. Best distributions describing failure behaviour of companies were also determined and the validity and application of various statistical distributions were examined. A detailed examination of the histories of some large companies which failed during the period 1970-1977 was carried out. Risks, weaknesses and possible causes and symptoms of failure were investigated and discussed. A list of the causes of failure emerged from the analysis is drawn and the non-financial symptoms are highlighted in a tabular form. Illustrative models for the appraisal of change and identification of causes and symptoms are developed and critical factors discussed. Finally, general conclusions arising out of the research are-presented, along with recommendations for further research and study.
    • Road Infrastructure and Rural Poverty in Ethiopia

      Weiss, John A.; Jalilian, Hossein; Wondemu, Kifle Asfaw (University of BradfordDevelopment and Economic Studies Department, 2011-04-01)
      In the face of high population growth and declining natural resource base, tackling rural poverty necessitates an increase in overall factor productivity or a rise in the market rate of return of assets possessed by the poor. Towards achieving these objectives, the role of spatial integration of markets and the efficiency with which these markets operate are considerably important, as these factors shape the structure of incentives and the level of opportunities open to the rural poor. As a result, factors that hinder the spatial integration of markets and their efficient operation will have significant impact on rural poverty. In Ethiopia markets are often segmented mainly due to high transport cost associated with poor road infrastructure. The existing poor quality and low road density are expected to contribute to rural poverty through limiting the size of the market, increasing market risk (price volatility), widening the spatial prices gaps, reducing the market return to land and labour, inflating the profitability of new technologies and reducing the incentive to produce for market. This research endeavours to empirically substantiate if there is a robust link between farm income and the quality of road infrastructure farm households have access to as well as the pathways through which the effects of road on rural income are felt. The empirical result consistently showed that improving rural road access will have significant impact on rural income in general and the income of the poor in particular. The mechanisms by which road boosts rural income and reduce poverty are also found to work through narrowing down spatial price gaps, promoting technology adoption, boosting resource allocation efficiency and raising the market return to land and labour. The result also showed that the rural poor benefits from road induced income growth.
    • The Road to Regulation of Private Military and Security Companies: An Analysis of the (Re-)Articulation of the Norms Governing the Legitimate Use of Force

      Cooper, Neil; Leunis, Jelle (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies Faculty of Social and International Studies, 2014)
      Since the end of the Cold War, private military and security companies have gained a prominent place on the international battlefield. In an attempt to reduce monetary and political costs, states have not only outsourced some of the defense functions previously performed by uniformed personnel; they have also partly privatised the provision of security. Traditional accounts of the rise of private military and security companies have explained this evolution in terms of changing demand and supply of military force after the Cold War, in a neoliberal ideological environment. This rationalist account, however, overlooks the role of norms, which, as the constructivist research tradition has demonstrated, constrain state behaviour even in the domain of national security. From this constructivist point of view, the rise of private military and security companies is surprising given the existence of an anti-mercenary norm and a norm on the state monopoly on violence, both of which have precluded the private exercise of violence. How, then, should the rise of private military and security companies be understood in light of this hostile normative environment? Against a realist-constructivist background, this text draws upon models of norm change and epistemic communities to show that private military and security companies have used their pragmatic legitimacy and epistemic power to decisively shape the discursive construction of a new regulatory framework that legitimises the exercise of non-state violence.
    • Robust optimization for portfolio risk : a ravisit of worst-case risk management procedures after Basel III award.

      Kenc, Turalay; Adkins, Roger; Özün, Alper (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2015-07-01)
      The main purpose of this thesis is to develop methodological and practical improvements on robust portfolio optimization procedures. Firstly, the thesis discusses the drawbacks of classical mean-variance optimization models, and examines robust portfolio optimization procedures with CVaR and worst-case CVaR risk models by providing a clear presentation of derivation of robust optimization models from a basic VaR model. For practical purposes, the thesis introduces an open source software interface called “RobustRisk”, which is developed for producing empirical evidence for the robust portfolio optimization models. The software, which performs Monte-Carlo simulation and out-of-sample performance for the portfolio optimization, is introduced by using a hypothetical portfolio data from selected emerging markets. In addition, the performance of robust portfolio optimization procedures are discussed by providing empirical evidence in the crisis period from advanced markets. Empirical results show that robust optimization with worst-case CVaR model outperforms the nominal CVaR model in the crisis period. The empirical results encourage us to construct a forward-looking stress test procedure based on robust portfolio optimization under regime switches. For this purpose, the Markov chain process is embedded into robust optimization procedure in order to stress regime transition matrix. In addition, assets returns, volatilities, correlation matrix and covariance matrix can be stressed under pre-defined scenario expectations. An application is provided with a hypothetical portfolio representing an internationally diversified portfolio. The CVaR efficient frontier and corresponding optimized portfolio weights are achieved under regime switch scenarios. The research suggests that stressed-CVaR optimization provides a robust and forward-looking stress test procedure to comply with the regulatory requirements stated in Basel II and CRD regulations.
    • The role of bone morphogenetic protein signalling in the control of skin repair after wounding. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of cutaneous wound healing mediated by bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonist Noggin.

      Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Sharpe, David T.; Lewis, Christopher J. (University of BradfordMedical Biosciences School of Life Sciences, 2015-07-09)
      Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors (BMPRs) coordinate tissue development and postnatal remodelling by regulating proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, their role in wound healing remains unclear. To study this, transgenic mice overexpressing Smad1 (K14-caSmad1) or the BMP antagonist Noggin (K14-Noggin) were utilised, together with human and mouse ex vivo wound healing models and in vitro keratinocyte culture. In wild-type mice, transcripts for Bmpr-1A, Bmpr-II, Bmp ligands and Smad proteins were decreased following tissue injury, whilst Bmpr-1B expression was up-regulated. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed a down-regulation of BMPR-1A in hair follicles adjacent to the wound in murine skin, whilst in murine and human wounds, BMPR-1B and phospho-Smad-1/5/8 expression was pronounced in the wound epithelial tongue. K14-caSmad1 mice displayed retarded wound healing, associated with reduced keratinocyte proliferation and increased apoptosis, whilst K14-Noggin mice exhibited accelerated wound healing. Furthermore, microarray analysis of K14-caSmad1 epidermis revealed decreased expression of distinct cytoskeletal and cell motility-associated genes including wound-associated keratins (Krt16, Krt17) and Myo5a versus controls. Human and mouse keratinocyte proliferation and migration were suppressed by BMP-4/7 both in vitro and ex vivo, whilst they were stimulated by Noggin. Additionally, K14-caSmad1 keratinocytes showed retarded migration compared to controls when studied in vitro. Furthermore, Bmpr-1B silencing accelerated migration and was associated with increased expression of Krt16, Krt17 and Myo5a versus controls. Thus, this study demonstrates that BMPs inhibit proliferation, migration and cytoskeletal re-organization in epidermal keratinocytes during wound healing, and raises a possibility that BMP antagonists may be used for the future management of chronic wounds.
    • The role of clinical pharmacy in the treatment of hypertension in the State of Kuwait. An analysis of the current treatment of hypertension in Kuwait and the role of the clinical pharmacist in advancing treatment strategies.

      Naylor, Ian; Naylor, Robert J.; Al-Shammari, Ayed M.H.M. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2012-10-31)
      The thesis investigated nicotine levels and their effects on hypertensive subjects and whether aspirin could be used in the treatment of hypertension to bring about not only an anti thrombotic effect but reduce the systemic blood pressure especially in those individuals who smoke cigarettes. The study, which also audits the use of aspirin, was conducted in Kuwait and so provides an insight of hypertensive patients very rarely considered in the literature The thesis begins in Chapter One with an extensive literature review which analyses the properties and problems that nicotine causes and its ability to cause hypertensive changes along with its multitude of other events. The physiological and pathological problems caused by nicotine are reviewed on the basis of its chemistry and pharmacological properties using a worldwide perspective rather than just focus on Kuwait. The second Chapter uses extensive analysis of the literature to determine the pharmacological properties of aspirin and its use in cardiovascular disease. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects are presented with emphasis to its inhibitory effects on platelet activation which is central to the development of serious cardiovascular consequences such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The third Chapter returns to consider the literature in detail and why nicotine has specific effects on the cardiovascular system in terms of receptor stimulation and how aspirin may be able to reduce nicotine¿s cardiovascular effects and concludes with the Aims and Objectives of the thesis. The fourth Chapter investigates urinary nicotine levels in smokers from cigarettes available in Kuwait to indicate the actual levels which could be achieved by smokers in this study. This established that the levels would cause pharmacological effects demonstrating also the effects of passive smoking. The number of cigarettes smoked per day has an unpredictable effect on metabolism and urinary output of nicotine. The fifth Chapter is the major investigational section of the thesis and considers if aspirin ability to reduce cardiovascular effects, may be useful in terms of diastolic blood pressure and lipid levels in the 4 blood. The effects were suggestive that aspirin did reduce the blood pressure in hypertensive subjects but was not universal and was limited to those suffering from mild - moderate hypertension. It was determined that aspirin should be sued at the earliest age possible in these patients. The sixth Chapter involved a large scale trial of the effectiveness of aspirin treatment in hypertensive patients over a one year period in Kuwait. This used ambulatory blood pressure measurements to determine the effectiveness of daytime and nightime changes in blood pressure in patients with and without aspirin treatment. The overall conclusion was a reduced relative risk of suffering cardiovascular events in mild to moderate hypertension when aspirin (75mg/day) was administered. Specifically in smokers, aspirin lowers the systolic daytime BP and diastolic nightime BP. To support this work a comprehensive audit is provided of the use of the current use of aspirin in Kuwait hospitals
    • The role of customer service in a highly tangible business-to-business market.

      Wright, Gillian H.; Fischer, Jens-Hendrik (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-10-22)
      Defining and measuring the quality of customer service has been a major challenge for business-to-business marketers. This research addresses the question whether an established instrument for consumer markets (SERVQUAL) can be used for understanding the role of customer service in the European nylon intermediates industry. To accomplish this objective, an in-depth literature review is accomplished followed by several expert panels adopting the instrument slightly. Based on a survey sample of 110 industry members collected with the ¿drop and collect technique¿ the appropriateness of the tool to verify the anticipated structure is examined using reliability tests as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The findings suggest that even though various criteria for reliability and validity are met, the five-dimensional structure of the instrument cannot be recovered. The research questions the usefulness of the instrument for the European nylon intermediates industry despite it being originally anticipated to be applicable. However, the research emphasises that the instrument is a useful indicator for understanding the role of customer service based on individual items rather than on the instrument¿s dimensionality. It is demonstrated how the implementation in the nylon intermediates industry enables an organization to develop a greater awareness of customer service quality and how an enterprise gains an initial instrument to comprehend and improve this element of the offering. The thesis concludes by linking the results of the research with the discussion on service-dominant logic.
    • The Role of Dramaturgy in Change Management in Shell Oman Marketing Company

      Cunliffe, Ann L.; Al Balushi, Mohammed M.D.M.
      Inspired by my personal interest in the topic of dramaturgy, coupled with the continuous change programmes that Shell Oman Marketing Company (SOMC) adopts in many areas, this research attempts to explore the role of dramaturgy (Goffman 1956) in change management in SOMC. The primary question that this thesis addresses is: What is the role, impact and potential of dramaturgy in change management in SOMC? The objective is to examine the ability of dramaturgy to offer an effective method for managing change, and one that will eventually be used as an integral part of effective change management programmes in SOMC. The research consists of a case study of installing Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system cameras in the offices of SOMC. The research was a qualitative study, conducting 22 semi-structured interviews along with unstructured observations of meetings and engagements. The research concludes that front stage performances and backstage performances are witnessed extensively in SOMC, and concludes that the boundary between front and backstage is blurred, that stories, metaphors and body language play an important role in performances, and that the audience perception of the authenticity, sincerity and genuineness of the performers is a key factor in their acceptance of the message. This research identifies a number of themes that can be added to the existing literature. The study highlighted the importance of ‘Alignment’ as a way of explaining the work that goes on in backstage and front stage performances, much part of living organisations. The term found extensively in organisational life at SOMC and many other organisations. Backstage meeting often has the goal of aligning participants to the message that has to be conveyed – the coordinated front stage performance. Therefore, alignment is a key element of the rehearsals and practices for the frontstage performances, and in bringing together the supporting team and loyalists. Another contribution of this research that is not available in other studies is that the importance of context and culture. That although metaphors and storytelling are used in many organisations across the world, they resonate particularly with Omanis because they are part of their history and culture. Hence using storytelling and metaphors in performances in SOMC can have a huge help connecting the audience with the performance.
    • The role of eicosanoids in the human skin's response to ultraviolet radiation.

      Tobin, Desmond J.; Nicolaou, Anna; Gledhill, Karl (University of BradfordDivision of Biomedical Science, 2010-03-31)
      Erythema is a hallmark skin response to excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and is associated with cutaneous inflammation. Both are mediated by inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and chemoattractants such as 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) leading to vasodilation and increased leukocyte infiltration. The erythematous response is more pronounced in individuals with low basal melanin levels or who fail to respond to UVR with a robust up-regulation of melanogenesis. While melanin production is a key function of melanocytes, these cells can also produce NO and PGE2, and are located in close proximity to the dermal vasculature. It has been hypothesized that melanocytes with poor melanogenic capacity may participate in the inflammatory response to UVR. The aim of this project was to investigate the inflammatory response in the skin of individuals with either skin phototype (SPT) 1 or 4 to UVR. Sixteen normal healthy individuals were selected for study (8 SPT-1 & 8 SPT-4). Buttock skin was investigated by immunohistochemistry for leukocyte subtypes, eicosanoid producing enzymes and NO synthases under basal and UVR-stimulated conditions. In addition primary cultures of epidermal melanocytes (EM) were established from 16 individuals (8 SPT-1 & 8 SPT-4) and assessed for the presence of eicosanoid-producing enzymes, melanogenic enzymes and NO synthases, by immunocytochemistry, Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western Blotting and for the production of the main pro-inflammatory eicosanoid PGE2 by ELISA and Mass Spectrometry. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of cultured melanocytes was assessed by Gas Chromatography. Results showed that individuals with SPT-1 had significantly greater neutrophil infiltration into the epidermis than those with SPT-4 at 24 hrs post-UVR. Moreover, CD3+ lymphocyte infiltration into the dermis was significantly greater in individuals with SPT-4 than those with SPT-1 at 24 and 72 hrs post-UVR. NOS-1, NOS-3, 12-LOX and COX-2 expression were significantly increased in SPT-1 skin, while NOS-2 and 15-LOX were significantly increased in SPT-4 skin. As 12-LOX and COX-2 products are chemoattractive (for neutrophils) and pro-inflammatory respectively these data could explain the greater observed neutrophil infiltration in SPT-1. The 15-LOX product (15-HETE) is anti-inflammatory and may suggest that 15-LOX up-regulation in SPT-4 skin may aid resolution of the sunburn response, which in part may be mediated by CD3+ lymphocytes and a class-switch in eicosanoid production from COX to LOX products. Melanocyte primary cultures surprisingly showed that SPT was not correlated with melanin content or melanogenic enzyme expression/activity suggesting that all melanocytes in vitro contained the necessary cellular machinery to produce melanin. This finding may reflect also their equal treatment under these enriched culture conditions, which may or may not be available to these cells in situ. Moreover, all melanocytes expressed the necessary machinery (PLA2, COX-1, cPGES) to produce PGE2. However, only some cultures did so at baseline and in response to UVR, and this was not correlated with SPT. A positive correlation was found however between expression level of dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) and protection against PGE2 production in response to UVR, which may suggest a novel role for DCT unrelated to melanogenesis. In summary this research project has generated data that highlights differences between the skin of individuals with SPT-1 and those with SPT-4, and may provide evidence that the keratinocyte partner contributes significantly to the SPT-associated response. This research may also suggest DCT as a novel therapeutic target to protect EM from participation in the UVR-associated inflammatory response in skin.
    • The role of family in adolescent smoking. Social influences and implications for social policy.

      McAlaney, John; Hussain, Manzoor (University of BradfordDivision of Psychology, 2013-12-18)
      Smoking in childhood and adolescence is associated with a range of health issues, as is the exposure of young people to the second hand smoke of their parents and other family members. The initiation of smoking in adolescence is also associated with an increased risk of smoking in adulthood and all the subsequent health problems that are attached to this. Whilst smoking rates in adolescent have fallen in recent years there remains a significant number of adolescent who initiate smoking every year, and this risk is higher in certain groups such as those from areas of low socio-economic status. Under-age adolescents also continue to be able to obtain cigarettes despite recent changes in legislation and availability. Social influence has been identified as a major causal factor of initiation of adolescent smoking. This can take place in a number of settings, including the home, at school and in the community. Whilst the evidence for the relative effects of these sources of influence is mixed there is an overall lack of research in the UK on familial influences and factors. A survey of 100 adolescents was conducted for the current study at a local college and included items on smoking behaviour, family structure and several other factors. No overall significant effects of parental attitudes were found. However in light of the existing literature recommendations are made to further research family and home influences and to develop anti-smoking health education strategies which more fully take these factors into account.
    • The role of institutional systems and government policy in securing inward foreign direct investment in Kuwait. The impact of institutional and government policy systems on the inward foreign direct investment decision in Kuwait

      McDonald, Frank; Owens, Martin D.; Alawadhi, Salah A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2014-05-01)
      Promoting economic diversity is important for states reliant on natural resources as the major source of economic development. Many of these states suffer from the Dutch disease leading to negative effects, which hinders economic diversification. One of the ways to reduce dependency on national resources is to encourage Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, which aids diversification by the transfer of technology, the creation of new employment opportunities, and the adoption of modern management practices. The Gulf Council Cooperation (GCC) countries recognised the necessity and benefits of FDI as an aid to economic diversification; it seems, however, that Kuwait is lagging behind in this endeavour. The government of Kuwait has engaged in a series of policy measures to induce Multinational Companies (MNCs) to invest in Kuwait, but the results, thus far, have been disappointing. The formal and informal institutions interact in a variety of ways. However, ineffective formal rules can create different outcomes; particularly, in the presence of strong informal institutions. In such a case, formal rules and procedures are not enforced systematically, that is, enabling actors who are involved in the policy process to ignore or violate them, which subsequently results in a failure to attract inward FDI to a host country. Thus, this study investigates the reasons behind this failure by examining the role of formal and informal institutions on FDI policy and on decisions on whether to grant FDI licences by means of using a New Institutional Economics (NIE) approach. The conceptual framework is used as a guide for an inquiry into the subject of study by constructing a category of intellectual scaffolding, which would provide a coherent structure (Schlager, 2007). The conceptual framework in this study systematically organises the investigation into how a MNC examines a potential investment location by dividing the host country assessments into four distinct ¿stages¿. When systematically conducted, the respective approach is grounded in the existing literature, which provides theories regarding the behaviour of MNCs in relation to their decision-making processes for considering locations for their FDI projects. The research questions derived from the conceptual framework are answered using a mixed methods research approach that uses three sets of data survey, semi-structured interviews, and secondary data. Firstly, the findings show that almost that all MNCs in the Gulf region have a limited awareness regarding investment opportunities in Kuwait, FDI laws and regulations. Secondly, the findings reveal a number of attractive and unattractive locations, and institutional factors of Kuwait. Finally, it is discovered that the high rejection rate of FDI applications is linked to unsuccessful policy implementation, which is a result of interaction of both formal and informal institutions in Kuwait. Subsequently, the results are utilised to make a number of recommendations for government policy makers, administrators, and for MNCs regarding how to improve FDI inflows into Kuwait. The results are also used to contribute towards the international business literature concerning the institution based view of FDI, and for government policy connected to attracting FDI.