• Walking through time: a window onto the prehistory of the Yorkshire Dales through multi-method, non-standard survey approaches

      Armit, Ian; Gaffney, Christopher F.; Saunders, Mary K. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      Walking through time: a window onto the prehistory of the Yorkshire Dales through multi-method, non-standard survey approaches Keywords: Yorkshire Dales, prehistory, veneration, natural places, geophysical survey, walkover survey, field-system, clearance, land tenure The large-scale field-systems, ubiquitous across upland and marginal parts of the Yorkshire Dales, are insecurely dated and poorly understood. Apart from some sporadic academic interest, the archaeology of this region has yet to receive the level of scholarly attention it deserves. The research presented here involved an intensive investigation of an area near Grassington, Upper Wharfedale, UK. Detailed field analysis revealed a section of one of these field-systems to be only a single element in a complex, multi-layered prehistoric landscape, which it is proposed may have roots as far back as the early Neolithic. Contextualisation of the survey area against palynological data, radiocarbon dates and comparative material moves the date of inception of the field-systems back to the middle Bronze Age, some 1000 years earlier than is currently assumed. The combination of empirical data and theoretical ideas has allowed a relative chronology to be determined in the survey area, together with the creation of a testable hypothesis surrounding the development of Upper Wharfedale and the wider Yorkshire Dales through prehistory. A sense of place and the veneration of natural places are key themes within this landscape and it was possible through these to draw out elements of prehistoric society and to show the evolution of ideas such as land tenure and monument significance. This dual empirical-theoretical approach is novel in upland landscape archaeology in the UK and is shown here to have significant merit.
    • Weak mutually unbiased bases with applications to quantum cryptography and tomography. Weak mutually unbiased bases.

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Shalaby, Mohamed Mahmoud Youssef (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2013-12-05)
      Mutually unbiased bases is an important topic in the recent quantum system researches. Although there is much work in this area, many problems related to mutually unbiased bases are still open. For example, constructing a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in the Hilbert spaces with composite dimensions has not been achieved yet. This thesis defines a weaker concept than mutually unbiased bases in the Hilbert spaces with composite dimensions. We call this concept, weak mutually unbiased bases. There is a duality between such bases and the geometry of the phase space Zd × Zd, where d is the phase space dimension. To show this duality we study the properties of lines through the origin in Zd × Zd, then we explain the correspondence between the properties of these lines and the properties of the weak mutually unbiased bases. We give an explicit construction of a complete set of weak mutually unbiased bases in the Hilbert space Hd, where d is odd and d = p1p2; p1, p2 are prime numbers. We apply the concept of weak mutually unbiased bases in the context of quantum tomography and quantum cryptography.
    • 'We’re All Getting Older You See, and Things Do Change, Don’t They?’ An Ethnographic Study of Disruption and Continuity in the Daily Lives of Couples Living with Dementia and Co-morbidities

      Downs, Murna G.; Small, Neil A.; De Waal, Denise
      Most people with dementia live in the community with a family member, commonly a spouse. Together they engage in identity redefinition to maintain continuity. Many people living with dementia also have co-morbidities. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of the influence of co-morbidities on the lived experience of couples and to provide knowledge to improve services. This had not been researched before. Drawing on the dialectic relationship between the body, habitus, environment and common sense from Bourdieu’s theory of practice (1977; 1990) combined with identity theory as described by Burke and Stetts (2009) I conducted an ethnographic study with five couples over a six-month period. The resulting data were analysed using a framework approach and are presented using case studies to illustrate key points. Drawing up on the data I developed an identity perspective which provides a better understanding of these couples’ daily life experiences taking into consideration the contextuality of people’s multiple identities, experiences, care and support needs and their interaction with the environment and community. My findings illustrate how people with dementia and co-morbidities and their spouses negotiate their identity in daily life in order to continue their daily life routine and cope with health conditions. Furthermore, these identity negotiations influence the acceptance of the diagnoses of dementia, the access to care, services and information and the experience of dementia, stigma and co-morbidities in daily life. Implications include a presentation of the limitations of current concepts of embodied selfhood and the Aging in Place policy for people with dementia. It points to the potential of the identity perspective to shape policy, services and care practice consistent with couples’ lived experience and their needs and preferences.
    • What is the professional identity of Careers Advisers in Higher Education? Challenges and opportunities for careers service leaders and managers

      Lee, Hugh; Thambar, Nalayini Pushpam (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2016)
      This aim of this study is to understand the professional identity of careers advisers in UK universities, at a time of unprecedented interest in employability across the sector following an increase in undergraduate tuition fees in England. The research question is “What is the professional identity of careers advisers in higher education in the ‘new’ employability climate? Opportunities and challenges for careers service leaders and managers.” Here, professional identity is defined as ‘the experience and self-understanding of those fulfilling a particular occupational role’. The study is qualitative, using the methodological approach of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The areas of literature that have been reviewed relate to the nature and development of the professions and the development of individual and collective professional identity. The history of the careers adviser role within the UK education system also provides context. Data was collected in summer 2012 through interviews with 21 careers advisers from 14 universities across England, Wales and Scotland using a stratified sample based on league table data. This study makes a contribution to knowledge by suggesting a professional identity for careers advisers which is Undefined, Parochial, Unrecognised and Unconfident yet Dedicated, and by making recommendations for leaders and managers, and careers advisers themselves, to consider in their approaches to staff development, (self-) advocacy and connection with broader institutional priorities. Such approaches do not conflict with a primary purpose of ‘helping students’ and can serve to strengthen the impact and influence of careers advisers as experts who address the increasingly critical employability agenda.
    • What makes war? Assessing Iron Age warfare through mortuary behaviour and osteological patterns of violence.

      Armit, Ian; Buckberry, Jo; King, Sarah S. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, Division of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2012-04-19)
      There is an ongoing debate concerning the nature of warfare and violence in the Iron Age of Britain. Interpretations regarding material remains from this period fluctuate between classifying instruments of violence (i.e. swords, spears, hillforts) as functional tools of war and as ritual symbolic devices. Human skeletal remains provide the most unequivocal evidence for violent encounters, but were often missing from these debates in the past. This thesis addresses this lack of treatment by analyzing the patterns of traumatic injuries at sites from two distinct regions in Iron Age Britain (East Yorkshire and Hampshire). The human remains from these sites show clear markers of interpersonal violence. When the remains are placed in context with the mortuary treatment, it is evident that violence and ritual were inextricably linked. In East Yorkshire, combat may have been ritualized through duelling and competition performance. In Hampshire, individuals with perimortem injures are often found in special deposits such as pits, ditches and domestic areas, suggesting their use in ritual processes that distinguish them from the general population. This provides a basis for understanding warfare and violence during the Iron Age of Britain and how communities negotiated the social tensions caused by violent interactions.
    • The White International: anatomy of a transnational radical revisionist plot in Central Europe after World War I.

      Batonyi, Gabor; Alforde, Nicholas (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2014-05-30)
      The denial of defeat, the harsh Versailles Treaty and unsuccessful attempts by paramilitary units to recover losses in the Baltic produced in post-war Germany an anti-Bolshevik, anti-Entente, radical right-wing cabal of officers with General Ludendorff and Colonel Bauer at its core. Mistakenly citing a lack of breadth as one of the reason for the failure of their amateurishly executed Hohenzollern restoration and Kapp Putsch schemes, Bauer and co-conspirator Ignatius Trebitsch-Lincoln devised the highly ambitious White International plot. It sought to form a transnational league of Bavaria, Austria and Hungary to force the annulment of the Paris Treaties by the coordinated use of paramilitary units from the war vanquished nations. It set as its goals the destruction of Bolshevism in all its guises throughout Europe, the restoration of the monarchy in Russia, the systematic elimination of all Entente-sponsored Successor States and the declaration of war on the Entente. Archival documents, memoirs and other sources expose the underlying flaw in the plot: individual national priorities would always override transnational cooperation. Bavaria and Hungary were already seeking treaty revision through a rapprochement with the Entente; White Russian forces had turned from German support in favour of the French; and finally¿as pointed out by their own leaders¿the member states¿ paramilitary units were either untested or wholly ineffective, and thus would be no match for the national armies of the Successor States and the Entente.
    • Why has the Arab League failed as a regional security organisation? An analysis of the Arab League¿s conditions of emergence, characteristics and the internal and external challenges that defined and redefined its regional security role.

      Abi-Ezzi, Karen; Whitman, Jim R.; Abusidu-Al-Ghoul, Fady Y. (University of BradfordPeace Studies, School of Social and International Studies, 2014-05-07)
      This study presents a detailed examination of the Arab League¿s history, development, structure and roles in an effort to understand the cause of its failure as a regional security organisation. The research¿s point of departure is a questioning of the nature and scope of this failure in terms of the interplay between the conditions under which it was formed and the many actors and dynamics that had a long term-impact on the prospects for the League. To this end, the study looks at the League¿s conditions of emergence and Arab-Arab relations with the focus on Arab national security as the main concept determining its security role. The research synthesises methods of analysis from the existing literature and schools of thought so as to identify where and why failure and success occurred in relation to international relations theories, the security and international organisations literature, and comparable international models. The development and conditions affecting the League as discussed in the research demonstrate that none of the existing broad theories or approaches can fully explain the League¿s failure; however, the constructivist approach, although never before applied in this context, is shown to offer the most relevant approach for explaining this organisation and its unique parameters. The research also examines the role played by the Arab League in regional peacekeeping and conflict prevention in the context of Arab national security, with Palestine as a case study.
    • Why Peace Processes Fail: A Conceptual Analysis of the Peace Talks between Turkey and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), 2009-2015

      Kelly, Rhys H.S.; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Savran, Arin Y. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law, and Social Sciences, Division of Peace Studies and International Development, 2018)
    • Wireless mosaic eyes based robot path planning and control. Autonomous robot navigation using environment intelligence with distributed vision sensors.

      Hu, Yim Fun; Jiang, Ping; Cheng, Yongqiang (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2010-08-27)
      As an attempt to steer away from developing an autonomous robot with complex centralised intelligence, this thesis proposes an intelligent environment infrastructure where intelligences are distributed in the environment through collaborative vision sensors mounted in a physical architecture, forming a wireless sensor network, to enable the navigation of unintelligent robots within that physical architecture. The aim is to avoid the bottleneck of centralised robot intelligence that hinders the application and exploitation of autonomous robot. A bio-mimetic snake algorithm is proposed to coordinate the distributed vision sensors for the generation of a collision free Reference-snake (R-snake) path during the path planning process. By following the R-snake path, a novel Accompanied snake (A-snake) method that complies with the robot's nonholonomic constraints for trajectory generation and motion control is introduced to generate real time robot motion commands to navigate the robot from its current position to the target position. A rolling window optimisation mechanism subject to control input saturation constraints is carried out for time-optimal control along the A-snake. A comprehensive simulation software and a practical distributed intelligent environment with vision sensors mounted on a building ceiling are developed. All the algorithms proposed in this thesis are first verified by the simulation and then implemented in the practical intelligent environment. A model car with less on-board intelligence is successfully controlled by the distributed vision sensors and demonstrated superior mobility.
    • Women Textile Workers in the Twentieth Century: An Oral History of the Huddersfield Woollen District 1930-1990

      Jennings, Paul; Perfitt, Belinda Jayne (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2014)
      By using oral history as the primary research method, the aim of this thesis is to document and analyse the experiences of women woollen textile workers in the mid-twentieth century. The thesis contains a critique of oral history as a research method in general and the feminist practice of oral history in particular. In order to locate the women in the study in a particular place, there is description of the development and eventual collapse of the woollen textile industry in the Huddersfield area of West Yorkshire. Tape recorded interviews were carried out with 17 women. The key findings from their experiences fall into two main areas. The first relates to the experiences the women describe about the daily routine within the woollen mill, especially for new recruits and the tasks they had which were unconnected with their job. The second relates to the descriptions of the actions the women took during the collapse of the industry. This thesis contributes to the wider body of work on working class women and offers original insights into the experiences of women who worked in an industry which has all but disappeared.
    • Word based off-line handwritten Arabic classification and recognition. Design of automatic recognition system for large vocabulary offline handwritten Arabic words using machine learning approaches.

      Jiang, Jianmin; Ipson, Stanley S.; AlKhateeb, Jawad H.Y. (University of BradfordDepartment of Electronic Imaging and Media Communications, 2010-10-01)
      The design of a machine which reads unconstrained words still remains an unsolved problem. For example, automatic interpretation of handwritten documents by a computer is still under research. Most systems attempt to segment words into letters and read words one character at a time. However, segmenting handwritten words is very difficult. So to avoid this words are treated as a whole. This research investigates a number of features computed from whole words for the recognition of handwritten words in particular. Arabic text classification and recognition is a complicated process compared to Latin and Chinese text recognition systems. This is due to the nature cursiveness of Arabic text. The work presented in this thesis is proposed for word based recognition of handwritten Arabic scripts. This work is divided into three main stages to provide a recognition system. The first stage is the pre-processing, which applies efficient pre-processing methods which are essential for automatic recognition of handwritten documents. In this stage, techniques for detecting baseline and segmenting words in handwritten Arabic text are presented. Then connected components are extracted, and distances between different components are analyzed. The statistical distribution of these distances is then obtained to determine an optimal threshold for word segmentation. The second stage is feature extraction. This stage makes use of the normalized images to extract features that are essential in recognizing the images. Various method of feature extraction are implemented and examined. The third and final stage is the classification. Various classifiers are used for classification such as K nearest neighbour classifier (k-NN), neural network classifier (NN), Hidden Markov models (HMMs), and the Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). To test this concept, the particular pattern recognition problem studied is the classification of 32492 words using ii the IFN/ENIT database. The results were promising and very encouraging in terms of improved baseline detection and word segmentation for further recognition. Moreover, several feature subsets were examined and a best recognition performance of 81.5% is achieved.
    • Work Life Balance Policies and Practices: Case studies of the Palestinian Telecommunication Sector

      Atkinson, Carol; Smith, Andrew J.; Abubaker, Mahmoud A.J. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2015)
      AtkinsonThis study explores Work Life Balance (WLB) in two Palestinian organisations. It argues that the nature and content of WLB policies and the reasons for their adoption in many Arabic organisations differ from those in Western organisations. Additionally, research is under-developed concerning the role of line managers in interpreting access to WLB practices, and to what extent such WLB practices are accessed and utilised by individuals. Based on a qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews with 49 employees and managers, this study shows that WLB policies involve, particularly for female employees, mainly family support, and financial, social, and religious benefits. These reflect cultural and religious characteristics of an Arab, Islamic country. In addition to identifying the role of government, and the needs of a female workforce, this study develops a new theoretical framework explaining the role of religious and cultural variables, as well as international networking of the organisations, as factors underlying adoption of WLB policies. Line managers often used Wasta, being the political and religious origin of individuals as criteria in granting benefits to individuals. WLB practices are useful for women, but males made less use of these practices, preferring strong ‘breadwinner Arabic cultural norms. A valuable contribution in understanding the extension of WLB policies in Arabic settings is offered, as well as cultural, social and religious reasons for their implementation. The study presents a theoretical model of the adoption and application of WLB policies which can be used in further crosscultural research.
    • Working from Home in the Clinical Trials Sector: A Case Study of Clinical Research Associates (CRAs) in the UK

      Prowse, Peter J.; McBride, Jo; Chronopoulos, Andreas (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2016)
      This study explores Working from Home (WFH) as a model of work in a public organisation in London, which operates in the clinical-trials sector. It argues that WFH is used as a strategy that offers benefits both to the organisation and its employees. WFH is offered to all Clinical Research Associates (CRAs) who work as monitors of the whole process of a clinical trial. Based on a qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews of 29 CRAs, managers and administrative staff and secondary data, this single-case study focuses on five topics that are part of the CRAs’ everyday life. These are work-life balance (WLB), cost reduction, the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) factor, the performance of the CRAs and the management of remote workers. In particular, the study identified that WFH had a positive effect on CRAs’ WLB. Moreover, it argues that WFH may offer significant assistance to organisational budgets and may reduce personal expenses. It found that existing ICT could cover all employees’ technological needs and reduce the requirement of managers to keep them physically present at a centralised workplace. Additionally, this thesis also identified that WFH improved CRAs’ performance, whilst it also highlighted that results-oriented management was the main managerial approach towards employees who work from a distance. The key contribution of the thesis is the examination of the CRA occupation through a contemporary perspective on the WFH phenomenon.
    • Woven Into the Stuff of Other Men's Lives: The Treatment of the Dead in Iron Age Atlantic Scotland.

      Armit, Ian; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Buckberry, Jo; Tucker, Fiona C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2012-01-11)
      Atlantic Scotland provides plentiful and often dramatic evidence for settlement during the Iron Age but, like much of Europe, very little is known of the funerary traditions of communities in this region. Formal burial appears to have been rare, and evidence for alternative mortuary treatments is dispersed, varied and, to date, poorly understood. This study sets out to examine for the first time all human remains dating to the Iron Age in Atlantic Scotland, found in a variety of contexts ranging from formal cemeteries to occupied domestic sites. This data-set, despite its limitations, forms the basis for a new understanding of funerary treatment and daily life in later prehistoric Atlantic Scotland, signifying the development of an extraordinary range of different methods of dealing with, and harnessing the power of, the dead during this period. This information in turn can contribute to wider issues surrounding attitudes to the dead, religious belief, domestic life and the nature of society in Iron Age Europe.
    • Young British Muslims in Higher Education: exploring the experiences and identities of Bradford students within a narrative framework

      Johnson, Sally E.; Alam, M. Yunis; Hussain, Ifsa (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2016)
      This research aims to explore the lived experiences of young British Muslims in higher education at the University of Bradford and the implications this has for the construction of their identities. The increased participation of Muslims in higher education has been hailed a major success story and is said to have enabled the forging of new, alternative, more empowering identities in comparison to previous generations. This thesis provides a new approach in exploring young British Muslims identity by focusing on the dynamics underling identity construction through the use of a pluralistic method to present an array of informants’ accounts of their experiences (Frost et al., 2011). Phase one of the research included qualitative ethnographic observations which were carried out at the University of Bradford City Campus and was chosen in order to capture the use of the various social settings by informants and to understand actions, practices and meanings people gave to issues relevant to the research. Moreover, phase one was used to identify diversity of experience and select participants for phase two, the more focused aspect of the study which involved narrative interviews. A generative narrative interview was conducted with five young Muslims and aimed to understand how students negotiated their identity as Muslims in Britain within the higher educational contexts. The research revealed that rather than Muslims utilising university as a place whereby they are able to forge new identities, as depicted in previous literature, higher education is a context which demands the negotiation of identities that both enabled and constrained.