• Taken to the grave. An archaeozoological approach assessing the role of animals as crematory offerings in first millennium AD Britain.

      Bond, Julie M.; Worley, Fay L. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2010-04-01)
      The crematory funerary rites practiced by those living in parts of mainland Britain during the first millennium AD included burning complete or parts of animals on the pyre. This thesis highlights the potential for archaeozoological analysis of faunal pyre goods using assemblages from the first millennium AD as a dataset. Experimental study and the integration of current research from a number of disciplines is used to suggest that although pyrolysis and cremation practices fragment and distort burnt bone assemblages, careful analysis can reveal a wealth of data leading to the interpretation of various forms of pyre good. The results of the author¿s analysis of material from the sites of Brougham, Cumbria, St. Stephen¿s, Hertfordshire, Castleford, West Yorkshire and Heath Wood, Derbyshire are combined with data from other published cemeteries to suggest a series of chronological and regional continuities in the use of animals but with a distinct change at the start of the Early Medieval period. The results from Brougham are particularly significant as they alter preconceived views on the utilisation of animals in Romano-British funerary practice. Cremation burials in first millennium AD Britain are shown to include the burnt remains of predominantly domestic taxa with occasional wild species. The pyre goods are interpreted as representing food offerings, companions, amulets, gaming items and sacrifices. This thesis demonstrates that cremated animal bone should not be disregarded but rather valued as source of archaeozoological data, and a significant functional tool for interpreting past funerary behaviour and animal utilisation.
    • Tanzania’s Mainstream News Media Engagement with National Development

      Macaulay, Fiona; Nkya, Ananilea W.
      This thesis examines the ways in which Tanzania’s media report news on development issues and what accounts for the way they report, guided by social constructionist philosophy and framing theory. In terms of how they report news, the thesis draws on primary data generated from: (1) an analysis of 10,371 news stories reported by 15 Tanzanian media outlets over the course of one month, noting the general types of preferred stories and the range of news sources relied upon (which tend to be government or elite sources and male); (2) an in-depth analysis of 36 newspapers’ front-page lead stories, looking not just at the presentation and framing of these stories, but also at the omissions and elisions, using interpretive content analysis. In order to explore why the Tanzanian media cover development issues the way they do, the thesis draws on another set of primary data: semi-structured, face-to-face interviews conducted with 76 media stakeholders, where editors, journalists and media owners reflect on the constraints and opportunities – media ownership, laws used to control media autonomy, financing and professional training – facing them as media professionals trying to report on topics linked to their country’s social, economic and political challenges. There is, to date, little literature that foregrounds the views and experiences of media professionals in Tanzania or, indeed, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and it is to this literature that this thesis primarily contributes. It concludes that from the colonial period to the current day Tanzanian media has been a contested space in which different stakeholders have diverse views about the role and functioning of the media. If the media are to play a normative, watchdog role, holding government to account and thus contributing, indirectly, to national development, then the issues of ownership, legal constraints, training and financial capacity are key.
    • A taphonomic approach to reconstructing Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherer fishing strategies. A load of old trout!

      Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Jones, Andrew; Heron, Carl P.; Russ, Hannah (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, 2013-05-02)
      In many cases in the past fish bones recovered during archaeological excavations at Upper Palaeolithic sites were often assumed to result from human activity without any consideration for alternate accumulation processes. Many of these assemblages had not been analysed in a scientifically rigorous manner, with some receiving no consideration at all. A review of current evidence and results of new analyses indicate that salmonids (salmon and trout) are the most frequently recorded fish at the European Palaeolithic cave sites. Two potential accumulation agents for fish remains were explored: brown bears (Ursus arctos) and eagle owls (Bubo bubo). Controlled feeding experiments integrated with ecological studies indicate that salmonid remains survive the digestive systems of both species and result in distinctive patterning in assemblage characteristics. Post-depositional taphonomic processes, such as trampling, also produce distinct taphonomic signatures and are an agent of differential inter-species preservation. A thorough consideration of depositional and post-depositional processes of archaeological assemblages in central Italy (Grotta di Pozzo, Maritza, La Punta and Ortucchio) and Spain (El Juyo, Altamira, Salitre, Castillo and Rascaño) shows that the fish remains from these sites result from human activity. The overrepresentation of cranial elements at the Italian sites suggest that fish were processed by removing the head to perhaps smoke or dry before transportation to other locations for consumption. This research lead to improved methods of analysis, and thus enhanced understanding of the role of fishing and fish consumption in Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherer societies.
    • The Technology of Ancient and Medieval Directly Reduced Phosphoric Iron.

      McDonnell, Gerry; Pollard, A. Mark; Schmidt, Armin R.; Godfrey, Evelyne (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2013-03-25)
      After carbon, phosphorus is the most commonly detected element in archaeological iron. The typical phosphoric iron range is 0.1wt% to 1wt%P. The predominant source of phosphorus in iron is the ore smelted. Around 60% of economic UK rock iron ore formations contain over 0.2%P. Under fully reducing conditions, both in liquid-state (cast iron) and solid-state bloomery smelting (direct reduction) processes, such rock ores would be predicted to produce phosphoric iron, and bog iron ores even more so. Ore-metal-slag phosphorus ratios for bloomery iron are derived here, by means of: laboratory experiments; full-scale experimental bloomery smelting; and analysis of remains from three Medieval and two Late Roman-Iron Age iron production sites in England and the Netherlands. Archaeological ore, slag, metal residues (gromps), and iron artefacts were analysed by metallography, SEM-EDS, EPMA, and XRD. The effects of forging and carburising on phosphoric iron were studied by experiment and artefact analysis. The ore to slag %P ratio for solid-state reduction was determined to range from 1:1.2 to 1: 1.8. The ore to metal %P ratio varied from 1:0.2 to 1:0.7 ¿ 1.4, depending on furnace operating conditions. Archaeological phosphoric iron and steel microstructures resulting from non-equilibrium reduction, heat treatment, and mechanical processing are presented to define the technology of early phosphoric iron. Microstructures were identified by a combination of metallography and chemical analysis. The phosphoric iron artefacts examined appear to be fully functional objects, some cold-worked and carburised. Modern concepts of 'quality' and workability are shown to be inapplicable to the archaeological material.
    • Tensile and fracture behaviour of isotropic and die-drawn polypropylene-clay nanocomposites. Compounding, processing, characterization and mechanical properties of isotropic and die-drawn polypropylene/clay/polypropylene maleic anhydride composites

      Sweeney, John; Coates, Philip D.; Caton-Rose, Philip D.; Al-Shehri, Abdulhadi S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010)
      As a preliminary starting point for the present study, physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites (PPNCs) for samples received from Queen's University Belfast have been evaluated. Subsequently, polymer/clay nanocomposite material has been produced at Bradford. Mixing and processing routes have been explored, and mechanical properties for the different compounded samples have been studied. Clay intercalation structure has received particular attention to support the ultimate objective of optimising tensile and fracture behaviour of isotropic and die-drawn PPNCs. Solid-state molecular orientation has been introduced to PPNCs by the die-drawing process. Tensile stress-strain measurements with video-extensometry and tensile fracture of double edge-notched tensile specimens have been used to evaluate the Young¿s modulus at three different strain rates and the total work of fracture toughness at three different notch lengths. The polymer composite was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, polarizing optical microscopy, wide angle x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. 3% and 5% clay systems at various compatibilizer (PPMA) loadings were prepared by three different mixing routes for the isotropic sheets, produced by compression moulding, and tensile bars, produced by injection moulding process. Die-drawn oriented tensile bars were drawn to draw ratio of 2, 3 and 4. The results from the Queen's University Belfast samples showed a decrement in tensile strength at yield. This might be explained by poor bonding, which refers to poor dispersion. Voids that can be supported by intercalated PP/clay phases might be responsible for improvement of elongation at break. The use of PPMA and an intensive mixing regime with a two-step master batch process overcame the compatibility issue and achieved around 40% and 50% increase in modulus for 3% and 5% clay systems respectively. This improvement of the two systems was reduced after drawing to around 15% and 25% compared with drawn PP. The work of fracture is increased either by adding nanoclay or by drawing to low draw ratio, or both. At moderate and high draw ratios, PPNCs may undergo either an increase in the size of microvoids at low clay loading or coalescence of microvoids at high clay loading, eventually leading to an earlier failure than with neat PP. The adoption of PPMA loading using an appropriate mixing route and clay loading can create a balance between the PPMA stiffness effect and the degree of bonding between clay particles and isotropic or oriented polymer molecules. Spherulites size, d-spacing of silicate layers, and nanoparticles distribution of intercalated microtactoids with possible semi-exfoliated particles have been suggested to optimize the final PPNCs property.
    • A thematic analysis exploring behavioral traits at the individual level that explain a manifestation in relationships that influence collaborative innovation on scale. Five senses that humanize collaborative innovation for individuals in organizations

      Harding, Nancy H.; Smith, Andrew J.; Anderson, V.; Antoine, Cara L. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2014)
      This research examines the manifestation of collaborative relationships among technological individuals involved in innovation across corporate alliances on scale. Collaboration “on scale” refers to the necessity for global companies to work together to innovate, thus developing ways of cooperating across multiple alliances. ‘Organizations’ do not do this – it is the individuals who work for them that do. However, traditional research defaults to a corporate culture focus on innovation processes and tools, with the result that little is known about how individuals representing their companies collaborate with individuals in numerous other companies in order to achieve innovation. The research therefore looks through the lens of the individual with the aims of (i) understanding how individuals relate and collaborate with others in a range of companies; (ii) finding ways of improving those relationships, and (iii), actively bridging the gap between academia and business so that the learning from this project can be applied in practice. A qualitative, interview based methodology is used to identify individual attributes and gain an understanding of their impact on collaborative relationships. Five main themes are discovered that explain the individual behavioral influences that stimulate or hinder collaborative relationships in innovation practice. They are Make it Personal, Value Relationships, Champion the Cause, Offer Tribute, and Trust Your Intuition. The conclusions call for leaders to develop a deeper focus on individuals contributing to collaboration, strengthen relationships, integrate collaboration and innovation, improve intuitional skills, and re-examine measures and rewards. Academically, this research proposes new theory related to influencing variables in collaborative relationships. A bridge between academic theory and business practice is established firstly through developing a writing style designed to bridge that gap, and secondly through use of a practical rubric framework and self-assessment package to enable individuals to learn how to instill these findings in their collaborative relationships and get more out of innovation results. The report highlights areas and suggestions for future research study.
    • Therapeutic Targeting of BMP and TGF-β Signalling Pathways for the Resolution of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

      Nasim, Md. Talat; Graham, Anne M.; Sharmin, Nahid (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, 2018)
      Vascular remodelling due to excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) has been attributed to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is an incurable cardiovascular disorder, which leads to right heart failure and death, if left untreated. Heterozygous germline mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) have been linked with the majority (~75%) of the familial form of the disease (HPAH). Mutations in the BMPR2 gene impinge upon the BMP signalling which perturbs the balance between BMP and TGF-β pathways leading to the clinical course of the disease. Current therapies were discovered prior to the knowledge that PAH has substantial genetic components. Hence, this study aims to identify novel therapeutic intervention and provide novel insights into how the dysfunctional BMPRII signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of PAH. This work demonstrates that cryptolepines and FDA approved drugs (doxorubicin, taxol, digitoxin and podophyllotoxin) inhibit the excessive proliferation and induce apoptosis in BMPR2 mutant PASMCs by modulating the BMP and TGF-β pathways. Moreover, established drug PTC124 has also been tested but has failed to promote translational readthrough. I have also shown that dysregulated apoptosis of PASMCs and HPAECs is mediated through the BMPRII-ALK1-BclxL axis. Finally, the siRNA screen targeting approximately 1000 genes has identified novel proteins including PPP1CA, IGF-1R, MPP1, MCM5 and SRC each capable of modulating the BMPRII signalling. Taken together, this study for the very first time has identified novel compounds with pro-BMP and anti-TGFβ activities which may provide therapeutic intervention prior to or after the onset of PAH.
    • Thermal and rheological approaches for the systematic enhancement of pharmaceutical polymeric coating formulations. Effects of additives on glass transition temperature, dynamic mechanical properties and coating performance in aqueous and solvent-free coating process using DSC, shear rheometry, dissolution, light profilometry and dynamic mechanical analysis.

      Forbes, Robert T.; Gough, Timothy D.; Bonner, Michael C.; Isreb, Mohammad (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2013-05-02)
      Additives, incorporated in film coating formulations, and their process parameters are generally selected using a trial-and-error approach. However, coating problems and defects, especially those associated with aqueous coating systems, indicate the necessity of embracing a quality-by-design approach to identify the optimum coating parameters. In this study, the feasibility of using thermal and rheological measurements to help evaluate and design novel coating formulations has been investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), an enteric coating polymer, was used as the film forming polymer. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), and Parallel Plate Shear Rheometery (PPSR) were used to evaluate the effect of different plasticisers on the performance of HPMCAS. The results illustrate that, for identical formulations, the DSC and DMA methods yielded up to 40% differences in glass transition temperature (Tg) values. Moreover, Tg measured using loss modulus signals were always 20-30 oC less than those measured using tan delta results in DMA testing. Absolute and relative Tg values can significantly vary depending on the geometry of the samples, clamp size, temperature ramping rate and the frequency of the oscillations. Complex viscosity data for different formulations demonstrated a variable shear thinning behaviour and a Tg independent ranking. It is, therefore, insufficient to rely purely on Tg values to determine the relative performance of additives. In addition, complex viscosity results, obtained using both the DMA and PPSR techniques at similar temperatures, are shown to be comparable. The results from both techniques were therefore used to produce continuous master curves for the HPMCAS formulations. Additionally, step strain tests showed that HPMCAS chains do not fully III disentangle after 105 seconds as predicted by the Maxwell model. Finally, in situ aqueous-based coating experiments proved that mixtures of triethyl acetyl citrate and acetylated monoglyceride (TEAC/AMG), even without cooling of the suspension, do not cause blocking of the spray nozzle whereas triethyl citrate (TEC) based formulae did. TEAC (alone or in a combination with AMG) exhibits superior wettability to HPMCAS than TEC/AMG formulations and can be used to enhance the efficiency and film quality of the dry coating process.
    • Thermal homogeneity and energy efficiency in single screw extrusion of polymers. The use of in-process metrology to quantify the effects of process conditions, polymer rheology, screw geometry and extruder scale on melt temperature and specific energy consumption

      Kelly, Adrian L.; Brown, Elaine C.; Coates, Philip D.; Vera-Sorroche, Javier (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2014)
      Polymer extrusion is an energy intensive process whereby the simultaneous action of viscous shear and thermal conduction are used to convert solid polymer to a melt which can be formed into a shape. To optimise efficiency, a homogeneous melt is required with minimum consumption of process energy. In this work, in-process monitoring techniques have been used to characterise the thermal dynamics of the single screw extrusion process with real-time quantification of energy consumption. Thermocouple grid sensors were used to measure radial melt temperatures across the melt flow at the entrance to the extruder die. Moreover, an infrared sensor flush mounted at the end of the extruder barrel was used to measure non-invasive melt temperature profiles across the width of the screw channel in the metering section of the extruder screw. Both techniques were found to provide useful information concerning the thermal dynamics of the extrusion process; in particular this application of infrared thermometry could prove useful for industrial extrusion process monitoring applications. Extruder screw geometry and extrusion variables should ideally be tailored to suit the properties of individual polymers but in practise this is rarely achieved due the lack of understanding. Here, LDPE, LLDPE, three grades of HDPE, PS, PP and PET were extruded using three geometries of extruder screws at several set temperatures and screw rotation speeds. Extrusion data showed that polymer rheology had a significant effect on the thermal efficiency on the extrusion process. In particular, melt viscosity was found to have a significant effect on specific energy consumption and thermal homogeneity of the melt. Extruder screw geometry, set extrusion temperature and screw rotation speed were also found to have a direct effect on energy consumption and melt consistency. Single flighted extruder screws exhibited poorer temperature homogeneity and larger fluctuations than a barrier flighted screw with a spiral mixer. These results highlighted the importance of careful selection of processing conditions and extruder screw geometry on melt homogeneity and process efficiency. Extruder scale was found to have a significant influence on thermal characteristics due to changes in surface area of the screw, barrel and heaters which consequently affect the effectiveness of the melting process and extrusion process energy demand. In this thesis, the thermal and energy characteristics of two single screw extruders were compared to examine the effect of extruder scale and processing conditions on measured melt temperature and energy consumption. Extrusion thermal dynamics were shown to be highly dependent upon extruder scale whilst specific energy consumption compared more favourably, enabling prediction of a process window from lab to industrial scale within which energy efficiency can be optimised. Overall, this detailed experimental study has helped to improve understanding of the single screw extrusion process, in terms of thermal stability and energy consumption. It is hoped that the findings will allow those working in this field to make more informed decisions regarding set conditions, screw geometry and extruder scale, in order to improve the efficiency of the extrusion process.
    • Thermo-Economic Modelling of Micro-Cogeneration Systems System Design for Sustainable Power Decentralization by Multi-Physics System Modelling and Micro-Cogeneration Systems Performance Analysis for the UK Domestic Housing Sector

      Ebrahimi, Kambiz M.; Kalantzis, Nikolaos (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2015)
      Micro-cogeneration is one of the technologies promoted as a response to the global call for the reduction of carbon emissions. Due to its recent application in the residential sector, the implications of its usage have not yet been fully explored, while at the same time, the available simulation tools are not designed for conducting research that focuses on the study of this technology. This thesis develops a virtual prototyping environment, using a dynamic multi-physics simulation tool. The model based procedure in its current form focuses on ICE based micro-CHP systems. In the process of developing the models, new approaches on general system, engine, heat exchanger, and dwelling thermal modelling are being introduced to cater for the special nature of the subject. The developed software is a unique modular simulation tool platform linking a number of independent energy generation systems, and presents a new approach in the study and design of the multi node distributed energy system (DES) with the option of further development into a real-time residential energy management system capable of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in the domestic sector. In the final chapters, the developed software is used to simulate various internal combustion engine based micro-CHP configurations in order to conclude on the system design characteristics, as well as the conditions, necessary to achieve a high technical, economic and environmental performance in the UK residential sector with the purpose of making micro- CHP a viable alternative to the conventional means of heat & power supply.
    • Thermosensitive Injectable Pluronic Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Release: Characterisation of thermal, rheological and structural properties of injectable pharmaceutical formulations

      Kelly, Adrian L.; Gough, Timothy D.; Isreb, Mohammad; Shriky, Banah
      This study seeks to develop smart hydrogel formulations for injectable controlled drug delivery from Pluronics to enhance patients compliance, decrease side effects, reduce dose and frequency. A biocompatible copolymer, Pluronic F127 was probed as the main ingredient for the injectable systems owing its low gelation concentration and ease of modification the system properties through excipients addition. The matrix properties were studied through a series of thermal, rheological and structural (SAXS/SANS) experiments as a function of concentration and shear rate, covering both static and dynamic environments. It has shown that gelled viscosity (and structure) can be critically controlled by shear rate and the structures recorded do not match those predicted for sheared colloids. Two further Pluronics F68 and F108, were studied showing similar but shifted gelation properties to F127. Effects of additives were studied by introducing different Mw PEGs and a model hydrophobic drug ‘ibuprofen’ to a F127 20% formulation. PEGs addition effects on the system properties and gelation transition were largely dependent on the Mw used in the blend, which became more prominent with increasing chain length. Ibuprofen’s addition has resulted in reduced gelation temperature and smaller hard spheres without having a great effect on the system rheological properties compared to neat gels. Blends containing both additives PEG and ibuprofen exhibited a synergistic effect, where comparisons show that Ibuprofen had the largest effect on the blends lowering gelation boundaries and slightly increasing the size of the hard spheres indicating the necessity of full characterisation of the formulation with any API.
    • Thought and social struggle: A history of dialectics.

      Burkitt, Brian; Scott, Simeon G. (University of BradfordDepartment of Social and Economic Studies., 2010-02-01)
    • Three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beams in torsion. Reinforced concrete members under torsion and bending are analysed up to failure. A non-linear concrete model for general states of stress including compressive strength degradation due to cracking is described.

      May, I.M.; Shaarbaf, Ihsan Ali Saib (University of BradfordDepartment of Civil Engineering, 2009-10-02)
      This thesis describes a non-linear finite element model suitable for the analysis of reinforced concrete, or steel, structures under general three-dimensional states of loading. The 20 noded isoparametric brick element has been used to model the concrete and reinforcing bars are idealised as axial members embedded within the concrete elements. The compressive behaviour of concrete is simulated by an elasto-plastic work hardening model followed by a perfectly plastic plateau which is terminated at the onset the . crushing. In tension, a smeared crack model with fixed orthogonal cracks has been used with the inclusion of models for the retained post-cracking stress and the reduced shear modulus. The non-linear equations of equilibrium have been solved using an incremental-iterative technique operating under load control. The solution algorithms used are the standard and the modified Newton-Raphson methods. Line searches have been implemented to accelerate convergence. The numerical integration has been generally carried out using 15 point Gaussian type rules. Results of a study to investigate the performance of these rules show that the 15 point rules are accurate and computationally efficient compared with the 27(3X3X3) point Gaussian rule. The three- dimensional finite element model has been used to investigate the problem of elasto-plastic torsion of homogeneous members. The accuracy of the finite element solutions obtained for beams of different cross-sections subjected to pure and warping torsion have been assessed by comparing them with the available exact or approximate analytical solutions. Because the present work is devoted towards the analysis of reinforced concrete members which fail in shear or torsional modes, the computer program incorporates three models to account for the degradation in the compressive strength of concrete due to presence of tensile straining of transverse reinforcement. The numerical solutions obtained for reinforced concrete panels under pure shear and beams in torsion and combined torsion and bending reveal that the inclusion of a model for reducing the compressive strength of cracked concrete can significantly improve the correlation of the predicted post-cracking stiffness and the computed ultimate loads with the experimental results. Parametric studies to investigate the effects of some important material and solution parameters have been carried out. It is concluded that in the presence of a compression strength reduction model, the tension-stiffening parameters required for reinforced concrete members under torsion should be similar to those used for members in which bending dominates.
    • Timber Circles, Henge Monuments and Stone Circles: A reassessment of the currently accepted chronologies.

      Gibson, Alex M.; Williamson, Richard A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, Department of Archaeological Sciences., 2012)
      The sequence of timber circle - henge monument - stone circle is widely accepted. This is in spite of the reality that the datable evidence and contextual data upon which this series is based has seldom been subjected to any real form of critical evaluation. The aim of this research was to determine whether this order could still be deemed tenable in light of contemporary research and the continued advances that have been achieved relating to the application of radiocarbon dating. The findings of this study demonstrated that sufficient contextual data exists to enable phases of construction to be identified. However rarely did these data appear to support the currently accepted chronologies. Indeed more commonly they alluded to an alternative series, one that demonstrated how some individual site sequences may have been previously misinterpreted. This study has also proven how methodological and interpretative weaknesses, relating to the use of radiocarbon dating, have created a quantifiable degree of accuracy between individual radiocarbon determinations and their ability to be reliably associated with the event or act that they have been used to date. These findings have not only cast sufficient doubt upon the reliability of the currently accepted chronologies for these three monumental forms but have also alluded to the existence of a far more appropriate sequence that conforms to the overall conclusions of this review far more convincingly. Accordingly a new series of timber circle(s) - stone circle - henge monument is proposed by this study.
    • Time-lapse Geophysical Investigations over Known Archaeological Features Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Earth Resistance

      Gaffney, Christopher F.; Batt, Catherine M.; Fry, Robert J. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2014-12-22)
      Electrical methods of geophysical survey are known to produce results that are hard to predict at different times of the year, and under differing weather conditions. This is a problem which can lead to misinterpretation of archaeological features under investigation. The dynamic relationship between a ‘natural’ soil matrix and an archaeological feature is a complex one, which greatly affects the success of the feature’s detection when using active electrical methods of geophysical survey. This study has monitored the gradual variation of measured resistivity over a selection of study areas. By targeting difficult to find, and often ‘missing’ electrical anomalies of known archaeological features, this study has increased the understanding of both the detection and interpretation capabilities of such geophysical surveys. A 16 month time-lapse study over 4 archaeological features has taken place to investigate the aforementioned detection problem across different soils and environments. In addition to the commonly used Twin-Probe earth resistance survey, electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and quadrature electro-magnetic induction (EMI) were also utilised to explore the problem. Statistical analyses have provided a novel interpretation, which has yielded new insights into how the detection of archaeological features is influenced by the relationship between the target feature and the surrounding ‘natural’ soils. The study has highlighted both the complexity and previous misconceptions around the predictability of the electrical methods. The analysis has confirmed that each site provides an individual and nuanced situation, the variation clearly relating to the composition of the soils (particularly pore size) and the local weather history. The wide range of reasons behind survey success at each specific study site has been revealed. The outcomes have shown that a simplistic model of seasonality is not universally applicable to the electrical detection of archaeological features. This has led to the development of a method for quantifying survey success, enabling a deeper understanding of the unique way in which each site is affected by the interaction of local environmental and geological conditions.
    • Toward an understanding of an inside out perspective on city branding - a grounded theory study of Leeds and Istanbul

      Trueman, Myfanwy; Maxwell, Rachael; Yuksel, Z. Ruya (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2016)
      Adopting an inside out perspective to city branding, this doctoral thesis examines the significance of residents and their relationship towards cities in terms of association, identity and ownership of the physical environment, in the context of city branding. This is important because the growing interest towards city branding not only challenged the traditional understanding of branding concepts but also forced academics and practitioners to seek ways to mould and shape existing concepts to the context of city branding. This qualitative study was undertaken within a constructivist grounded theory methodology and uses Leeds, UK and Istanbul, Turkey as deliberately contrasting case studies. In accordance with grounded theory, the literature was only used to inform rather than direct the research design. The sampling design involved initial and theoretical sampling and in total of 22 residents interviewed from both cities. The emergent place brand identity mosaic comprises of four main categories of social process (SP), place attachment (PA), sense of place (SoP) and built environment (BE), and the most significant feature of the place identity mosaic is that it is processual, dynamic, and time and context specific. In terms of contribution to knowledge, the present study bridges the gap in between the subject fields of branding (brand management) and urban studies by proposing an inside out approach to branding cities. The findings indicate that the place brand identity mosaic elements provide a platform to explain how residents make sense of where they live and to begin to understand the concept of the city brand identity. Moreover, in regards to practice, it brings a new perspective to the existing city managements by highlighting a focal point of “keeping the existing customers happy” through investigating and understanding the role and significance of residents, their attachment to where they live and how this insight can be cooperated into creating and developing a sustainable city brand.
    • Toward Formulation a Maturity Framework for E-diplomacy

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Irani, Zahir; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Al-Muftah, Hamad M.
      Digital diplomacy (e-Diplomacy), is commonly defined as the use of information and communication technology for the purposes of attaining foreign policy goals. The emerging field of digital diplomacy has been largely neglected in academic research. Also, in practice, this area has been slow to evolve compared to other areas of public service such as e-government, e-education and e-health. This research draws on the existing literature to present a novel conceptual framework that could be used to guide the implementation of e-diplomacy. A new e-diplomacy maturity framework is formulated to address the modern functions of foreign relations in today’s global environment. The e-diplomacy maturity framework is derived from the theory of growth models, the e-government maturity model, the broader literature on diplomacy and the practice of diplomacy. To validate the conceptual framework, a qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews with diplomats and professionals from the foreign ministries of the USA, the UK and Qatar were conducted. The novelty of this research is based on the development of a conceptual framework of e-diplomacy maturity and implementation that was built around the scaffolding of conjectures that were tested to determine their validity. It can guide research scholars wishing to explore the discipline of digital diplomacy. It will also assist foreign ministries to identify the stage they have reached in deploying ICT in their diplomatic functions. This study should also provide policy makers, diplomats, ICT managers, and practitioners with a greater understanding of the stages and factors that encourage or hinder e-diplomacy implementation and maturity.
    • Towards an Improved Framework of E-Government Implementation in Chaotic Environment; Proposed Social Collaboration Model: Case study of Libya

      Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Tassabehji, Rana; Khamallag, Masoud M.
      E-government is basically described as using all available electronic media to provide an online public services companies, agencies, citizens or persons in certain country or region. This provision can be provided by the government institutions, agencies, or organisation, in addition to public and private sectors subject to government policies and legislation. Political instability, armed conflict, corruption and chaotic situations are considered to be an obstacle confronting public services delivery and governance in some developing countries around the world. Therefore, Libya is selected a case study of this research. Post the 2011 ousting of the Gadhafi regime in Libya, the country has been experiencing a severe and deep-rooted environment of conflict and chaos, which has destabilised and in some cases dismantled government institutions throughout the country. Within this environment, the original aim of this study was to explore the possibility of implementing e-government services that can provide public services to citizens and, if so, how and what services could be utilised. An exploratory qualitative pilot study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of e-government implementation in Libya utilising the knowledge of government officials. The study found that, the Libyan government had recently and successfully implemented an online e-passport service. An extensive literature review carried out in relation to e-government implementation to help understanding lesions learned and factors behind such success then to utilise the knowledge for further services implementations. Critical success factors of e-government implementation were addressed but available ones are related to stable countries under normal situations. This research is aiming to investigate its implementation in chaotic environment where not much of research is available. During the chaotic environment and instability, different factors may emerge to drive the implementation and the usage of e-services such environment. From government perspectives, it is noticed that cases of corruption, lack of citizens’ safety and poor infrastructure were found to be drivers behind the success of existing government institutions and departments of implement e-passport system. Social collaboration and trust in government institutions’ commitment were emerged from the citizens’ perspectives as factors encouraged the citizens to use the e-passport system. Quantitative data analysed using structural equation modelling techniques using SmartPLS (3.2.7) together with the SPSS 23 were used to analyse the collected data. The outcome were used to propose a framework that can improve the implementation of public e-services while the country at unrest. Another contribution of this studies is the proposal of social collaboration model towards better e-services in such environment.
    • Towards an integrated approach to the assessment and management of children with reading difficulties

      Gilchrist, James A.; Barrett, Brendan T.; Chambers, Caroline A. (University of BradfordSchool of Optometry and Vision Science, 2017)
      Learning to read is a complex and demanding skill which is vital in order for children to be able to access a broad curriculum of learning within the school environment. Reading requires the integration of many different processes, it is possible that difficulties with one or more of these processes has the possibility to interfere with reading ability. The research aimed to investigate the presence and co-occurrence of difficulties across many factors thought to be involved in the reading process. Data were collected from 126 schoolchildren, aged 8-10 years on performance measures associated with reading; reading ability, visual sensory and oculomotor function, visual perception, attention, memory, phonological awareness and rapid naming. Differences in mean performance between different reading ability groups (ANOVA), and correlations between the variables studied, were used to investigate the presence and magnitude of any relationships. Many of the variables studied were found to be significantly different between reading ability groups and significantly correlated with reading ability to varying degrees. The analysis of multiple single-case studies determined that each child has a unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses and that many children including ‘average/above average’ readers, show below average performance on several measures included in the study, with affected skills rarely existing in isolation. Thus, it is recommended that an individualised multi-factorial approach is taken to the assessment of children struggling to read. This will require communication by a multi-professional team to ensure all possible contributing factors are explored to enable each child to achieve their potential.
    • Towards Data Governance for International Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). A Study Proposing DCM Data Management through a Data Warehousing Approach.

      Neagu, Daniel; Khalid, Shehla (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media., 2011-11-18)
      Information Technology (IT) plays a vital role in improving health care systems by enhancing the quality, efficiency, safety, security, collaboration and informing decision making. Dementia, a decline in mental ability which affects memory, concentration and perception, is a key issue in health and social care, given the current context of an aging population. The quality of dementia care is noted as an international area of concern. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) is a systematic observational framework for assessing and improving dementia care quality. DCM has been used as both a research and practice development tool internationally. However, despite the success of DCM and the annual generation of a huge amount of data on dementia care quality, it lacks a governance framework, based on modern IT solutions for data management, such a framework would provide the organisations using DCM a systematic way of storing, retrieving and comparing data over time, to monitor progress or trends in care quality. Data Governance (DG) refers to the implications of policies and accountabilities to data management in an organisation. The data management procedure includes availability, usability, quality, integrity, and security of the organisation data according to their users and requirements. This novel multidisciplinary study proposes a comprehensive solution for governing the DCM data by introducing a data management framework based on a data warehousing approach. Original contributions have been made through the design and development of a data management framework, describing the DCM international database design and DCM data warehouse architecture. These data repositories will provide the acquisition and storage solutions for DCM data. The designed DCM data warehouse facilitates various analytical applications to be applied for multidimensional analysis. Different queries are applied to demonstrate the DCM data warehouse functionality. A case study is also presented to explain the clustering technique applied to the DCM data. The performance of the DCM data governance framework is demonstrated in this case study related to data clustering results. Results are encouraging and open up discussion for further analysis.