• Saccadic eye movement measurements in the normal eye: Investigating the clinical value of a non-invasive eye movement monitoring apparatus.

      Douthwaite, William A.; Hazel, Charlotte; Bloj, Marina; Kavasakali, Maria (University of BradfordDepartment of Optometry, 2009-10-02)
      Clinicians are becoming increasingly aware of the effect of various pathologieso n the characteristicso f saccadice ye movements.A s such, an efficient and non-invasivem eano f measuringe ye-movementisn a clinical environmenti s of interest to many. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the clinical application of a non-invasive eye movement recording technique as a part of a clinical examination. Eye movements were measured using an IRIS 6500 infrared limbal eye tracker, which we customized for the direct recording of oblique eye movements as well as horizontal and vertical. Firstly, the eye-tracker itself was assessed. Visually normal observers made saccadic eye movements to a 10' stimulus in eight directions of gaze. Primary (ANOVA) and secondary analyses (mean error less than 5%) resulted in acceptance that averaging four measurements would give a representative measurement of saccadic latency, peak velocity, amplitude and duration. Test-retest results indicated that this technique gives statistically (± 1.96*STDEVDifference) repeatable responses. Severalf actors that could potentially influence clinically basedm easureso f eye-movementsw ere examined. These included, the effect of ageing, viewing distances, dioptric blur and cataract. The results showed that saccadic latency and durationa re significantly (p< 0.05) longer in older (60-89 years)o bserversc ompared to younger (20-39 years). Peak velocity and amplitude were not significantly affectedb y the age of the observer.A ll saccadicp arameters( SP) were significantly affected by direction (Chapter 5). The compact nature of this eye movement methodology is obtainable since there is no significant effect on viewing distance (300 cm vs. 49 cm) (Chapter 6). There is also no significant effect of dioptric blur (up to +LOODS) on any of the four SP. In contrast, a higher level of defocus (+3.O ODS)h as a larger probability of interfering with the measurementso f peak velocity and duration (Chapter 7). Saccadice ye-movementsw ere also recorded whilst normally sighted subjects wore cataract simulation goggles. The results suggested that the presence of dense cataract introduces significant increases in saccadic latencies and durations. No effect was found on the peak velocities and amplitudes.T he effect of amblyopiao n SP was also investigatedin order to examine if this methodologyi s able to detectn ormal from abnormalr esponses(i . e. increased saccadicla tencies).T his set of data (Chapter9 ) showedt hat using IRIS 6500, longer than normal latencies may be recorded from the amblyopic eye but no consistent effect was found for the other SP (peak velocity, amplitude, duration). overall, the results of this thesis demonstrateth at the IRIS 6500 eye-tracker has many desirable elements (it is non-invasive; comfortable for the observers and gives repeatable and precise results in an acceptable time) that would potentially make it a useful clinical tool as a part of a routine examination.
    • A safety analysis of industrial accidents. Accident records of major coal producing countries are analysed to obtain fatal and non-fatal accident rates. Significant factors influencing these rates are identified with efficacy of preventive measures.

      Keller, Alf; Habibi, Ehsanollah (University of BradfordDepartment of Industrial Technology, 2010-02-12)
      A comprehensive study of accident records which have occured in Coal Mining Industries of Europe and U. S. A are analysed. The intention of the research was to establish relationships between the various accidents and prevention methods adopted by each country are evaluated and to assess the impact of industrial legislation in these various countries on accident rate are examined. The study analyses in paricular the fatal accident rate, and major and minor rate. The Major health hazards associated with coal mining are described in detail and discusses together with the Measurement of safety performance and its application in the Safety field. The study also examines the role of human factors in accidents also includes a summaries of fatal and major injury rates for 46 countries. Arising from the research a number of recommendations for improving safety are requires further research are indentified.
    • The same but better: understanding ceramic variation in the Hebridean Neolithic

      Armit, Ian; Gibson, Alex M.; Copper, Michael (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, School of Archaeological Sciences, 2016-09-21)
      Over 22,000 sherds of pottery were recovered during the excavation of the small islet of Eilean Dòmhnuill in North Uist in the late 1980s. Analysis of the assemblage has demonstrated that all of the main vessel forms and decorative motifs recognised at the site were already in place when settlement began in the earlier 4th millennium BC and continued to be deposited at the site until its abandonment over 800 years later. Statistically significant stylistic variation is limited to slow drifts in the relative proportions of certain rim forms. Across the Outer Hebrides, decorative elaboration and the presence of large numbers of distinctive vessel forms would appear to mark out certain assemblages seemingly associated with communal gathering and feasting events at key locales within which a distinctive Hebridean Neolithic identity was forged. Throughout, this study takes a relational approach to the issue of variation in material culture, viewing all archaeological entities as dynamic assemblages that themselves form attributes of higher-level assemblages. It is argued that the various constraints and affordances that arise within such assemblages constitute significant structuring principles that give rise to commonly held expectations and dispositions, resulting in the kind of constrained temporal and spatial variation that we observe in the archaeological record and which in turn gives rise to the concept of the archaeological culture.
    • Sand dune movement and its impact on human activities in the North Western coast region of Libya. An analysis of the sediment characteristics of sand dunes, and their movement using satellite images, and the effects of encroachment on farms assessed by a questionnaire survey.

      Hale, William H.G.; Donahue, Randolph E.; Koja, Suliman F. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, Division of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Science, 2015-06-24)
      Sand movement is one of the many environmental problems facing humans in the dry and semi-dry areas of the world. This study has investigated the observed changes in sand dune coverage compared to predictions, and has also assessed the impact of sand movement on human activity in the north western coastal region of Libya. The study used three methods. The first was a statistical model proposed by Bagnold, which correlates wind shear velocity with particle size, in order to predict likely sand movement. It was found that 60% of sand grains within the study area have a diameter of less than 0.25 mm, making them liable to be moved by the wind speeds recorded, particularly from March until September, and mostly in a northerly direction. The sand in the western part of the study area had a greater predicted rate of sand transport compared with the sand in the eastern part, which was related to its origin. The second method involved the analysis of satellite images for four different years; from 1986 to 2003. The land cover in the study area was found to have changed over this time. Sand dune area cover had increased, and there were other changes particularly a decline in forest. The third method was the use of a questionnaire (the respondents being land owners), which showed that there was notable loss of crop production (by about a quarter) due to sand movement, and that land owners mostly used afforestation to help control the sand movement in the region. The observed sand movement did not match the predictions based solely on sand grain size and wind speed, and climatic analyses showed no convincing trends which could explain increased sand movement except perhaps an increase in wind gusts. The thesis concludes that the overriding determinant in greater sand movement over the period studied was the loss of forest from the area due to human impacts, which farmers are having to compensate for by planting trees locally to reduce sand movement.
    • Sanitation Realities in Peri-Urban Communities: Unfreedoms, Capabilities and the Conscious Mind - A Case of Chennai, India

      Anand, Prathivadi B.; Morvaridi, Behrooz; Immler, Ulrike S-HE (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2018)
      This thesis assesses sanitation realities experienced by peri-urban slum dwellers in Chennai, India, to investigate whether rapid economic growth translates into pervasive safe sanitation, otherwise a threat to human security. This is in line with the Sustainable Development Goals of ‘leaving no one behind’. The empirical methodology consists of qualitative comparative case studies approached through rapid appraisal. At least 5 interviews at each of the 10 different slum settlement locations within the Chennai Metropolitan area were conducted. Both the locations and the settlers were conveniently sampled. The settlements were chosen as they mostly lay in a rapidly urbanizing area. The selection of interviewee was determined by availability, yet leaning towards women who are more vulnerable when lacking safe sanitation facilities, and who are the primary caregivers in the household. The research found that out of the 10 settlements visited, 5 habitually practiced open defecation, as no sanitation facilities were available. Hence some settlers were restricted in their freedom to be safe from emotional or physical harm: threatened by dangerous pathogens released into the environment, and insecurities due to lack of privacy. Conceptually the thesis applies an understanding of how affecting influences in individual history and living environment impact upon an individual’s conscious mind, connecting the capability approach to consciousness research. The thesis argues how settlers, overlooked by public services, and subjected to the dangerous and humiliating practice of open defecation, are faced with mental health issues and a diminished likelihood to productively engage, and exercise agency for human growth.
    • Satellite multiple access protocols for land mobile terminals. A study of the multiple access environment for land mobile satellite terminals, including the design analysis and simulation of a suitable protocol and the evaluation of its performance in a U.K. system.

      Watson, P.A.; Gardiner, John G.; Fenech, Hector T. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Information Systems Engineering, 2011-08-26)
      This thesis is a study of multiple access schemes for satellite land mobile systems that provide a domestic or regional service to a large number of small terminals. Three orbit options are studied, namely the geostationary, elliptical (Molniya) and inclined circular orbits. These are investigated for various mobile applications and the choice of the Molniya orbit is justified for a U. K. system. Frequency, Time and Code Division Multiple Access (FDMA, TDMA and CDMA) are studied and their relative merits in the mobile environment are highlighted. A hybrid TDMA/FDMA structure is suggested for a large system. Reservation ALOHA schemes are appraised in a TDMA environment and an adaptive reservation multiple access protocol is proposed and analysed for a wide range of mobile communication traffic profiles. The system can cope with short and long data messages as well as voice calls. Various protocol options are presented and a target system having 100,000 users is considered. Analyses are presented for the steady state of protocols employing pure and slotted ALOHA and for the stabilty of the slotted variant, while simulation techniques were employed to validate the steady state analysis of the slotted ALOHA protocol and to analyse the stability problem of the pure ALOHA version. An innovative technique is put forward to integrate the reservation and the acquisition processes. It employs the geographical spread of the users to form part of the random delay in P-ALOHA. Finally an economic feasibility study is performed for the spacesegment. For costs of capital (r) less than 23 % the discounted payback period is less than the project's lifetime (10 years). At r- 8% the payback period is about 5.6 years, while the internal-rate-of-return is 22.2 %. The net present value at the end of the projects lifetime is £M 70 at r-8%.
    • Scheduling and Resource Efficiency Balancing. Discrete Species Conserving Cuckoo Search for Scheduling in an Uncertain Execution Environment

      Hu, Yim Fun; Li, Jian-Ping; Bibiks, Kirils (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2017)
      The main goal of a scheduling process is to decide when and how to execute each of the project’s activities. Despite large variety of researched scheduling problems, the majority of them can be described as generalisations of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP). Because of wide applicability and challenging difficulty, RCPSP has attracted vast amount of attention in the research community and great variety of heuristics have been adapted for solving it. Even though these heuristics are structurally different and operate according to diverse principles, they are designed to obtain only one solution at a time. In the recent researches on RCPSPs, it was proven that these kind of problems have complex multimodal fitness landscapes, which are characterised by a wide solution search spaces and presence of multiple local and global optima. The main goal of this thesis is twofold. Firstly, it presents a variation of the RCPSP that considers optimisation of projects in an uncertain environment where resources are modelled to adapt to their environment and, as the result of this, improve their efficiency. Secondly, modification of a novel evolutionary computation method Cuckoo Search (CS) is proposed, which has been adapted for solving combinatorial optimisation problems and modified to obtain multiple solutions. To test the proposed methodology, two sets of experiments are carried out. Firstly, the developed algorithm is applied to a real-life software development project. Secondly, the performance of the algorithm is tested on universal benchmark instances for scheduling problems which were modified to take into account specifics of the proposed optimisation model. The results of both experiments demonstrate that the proposed methodology achieves competitive level of performance and is capable of finding multiple global solutions, as well as prove its applicability in real-life projects.
    • Scheduling and Resource Efficiency Balancing: Discrete Species Conserving Cuckoo Search for Scheduling in an Uncertain Execution Environment

      Hu, Yim Fun; Li, Jian-Ping; Bibiks, Kirils
      The main goal of a scheduling process is to decide when and how to execute each of the project’s activities. Despite large variety of researched scheduling problems, the majority of them can be described as generalisations of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP). Because of wide applicability and challenging difficulty, RCPSP has attracted vast amount of attention in the research community and great variety of heuristics have been adapted for solving it. Even though these heuristics are structurally different and operate according to diverse principles, they are designed to obtain only one solution at a time. In the recent researches on RCPSPs, it was proven that these kind of problems have complex multimodal fitness landscapes, which are characterised by a wide solution search spaces and presence of multiple local and global optima. The main goal of this thesis is twofold. Firstly, it presents a variation of the RCPSP that considers optimisation of projects in an uncertain environment where resources are modelled to adapt to their environment and, as the result of this, improve their efficiency. Secondly, modification of a novel evolutionary computation method Cuckoo Search (CS) is proposed, which has been adapted for solving combinatorial optimisation problems and modified to obtain multiple solutions. To test the proposed methodology, two sets of experiments are carried out. First, the developed algorithm is applied to a real-life software development project. Second, performance of the algorithm is tested on universal benchmark instances for scheduling problems which were modified to take into account specifics of the proposed optimisation model. The results of both experiments demonstrate that the proposed methodology achieves competitive level of performance and is capable of finding multiple global solutions, as well as prove its applicability in real-life projects.
    • The scheduling of manufacturing systems using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in order to find optimal/near-optimal solutions.

      Khan, M. Khurshid; Wood, Alastair S.; Maqsood, Shahid (University of Bradford, 2014-05-07)
      This thesis aims to review and analyze the scheduling problem in general and Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) in particular and the solution techniques applied to these problems. The JSSP is the most general and popular hard combinational optimization problem in manufacturing systems. For the past sixty years, an enormous amount of research has been carried out to solve these problems. The literature review showed the inherent shortcomings of solutions to scheduling problems. This has directed researchers to develop hybrid approaches, as no single technique for scheduling has yet been successful in providing optimal solutions to these difficult problems, with much potential for improvements in the existing techniques. The hybrid approach complements and compensates for the limitations of each individual solution technique for better performance and improves results in solving both static and dynamic production scheduling environments. Over the past years, hybrid approaches have generally outperformed simple Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Therefore, two novel priority heuristic rules are developed: Index Based Heuristic and Hybrid Heuristic. These rules are applied to benchmark JSSP and compared with popular traditional rules. The results show that these new heuristic rules have outperformed the traditional heuristic rules over a wide range of benchmark JSSPs. Furthermore, a hybrid GA is developed as an alternate scheduling approach. The hybrid GA uses the novel heuristic rules in its key steps. The hybrid GA is applied to benchmark JSSPs. The hybrid GA is also tested on benchmark flow shop scheduling problems and industrial case studies. The hybrid GA successfully found solutions to JSSPs and is not problem dependent. The hybrid GA performance across the case studies has proved that the developed scheduling model can be applied to any real-world scheduling problem for achieving optimal or near-optimal solutions. This shows the effectiveness of the hybrid GA in real-world scheduling problems. In conclusion, all the research objectives are achieved. Finaly, the future work for the developed heuristic rules and the hybrid GA are discussed and recommendations are made on the basis of the results.
    • The Schlumberger Array in geophysical prospection for archaeology.

      Aspinall, A.; Bintliff, John L.; Gaffney, Christopher F. (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2009-09-02)
      The Schlumberger array, or Schlumberger, was one of the first resistance arrays to be used to detect buried archaeological features. The early work used fixed probes and widely spaced traverses. Recent simulation work, ýhowever, suggested that the array should give improved resolution and depth penetration over the Twin-Probe array. This thesis is an attempt to operationalise the Schlumberger for use in archaeological prospection. This has been achieved via a co-ordinated use of laboratory simulation and-field studies. Initial fieldwork in England suggested. that the. - use of point electrodes created response patterns that were dependent upon the relative direction of linear targets. This was verified using a simulation tank modified to represent field procedure. The recognition of this response, therefore, required each survey area to be surveyed twice. The re-survey requires the two current probes to be positioned at right angles to the original survey points. The Schlumberger was then used in a battery of methods to investigate the problem of the archaeological interpretation of- small, discrete scatters of ceramic sherds that cover the landscape in Greece. The research has indicated a variation of intra-site patterning that may be significant to the function of these sites. Overall, the results suggest that the relationship between the 'site' and its environment is a complex one, one that can be oversimplified when the ceramic evidence is viewed in isolation. The Schlumberger indicated possible structural elements within some of these sites.
    • Schrödinger equation with periodic potentials.

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Mugassabi, Souad (University of BradfordDepartment of Mathematics, 2011-05-27)
      The Schrödinger equation ... is considered. The solution of this equation is reduced to the problem of finding the eigenvectors of an infinite matrix. The infinite matrix is truncated to a finite matrix. The approximation due to the truncation is carefully studied. The band structure of the eigenvalues is shown. The eigenvectors of the multiwells potential are presented. The solutions of Schrödinger equation are calculated. The results are very sensitive to the value of the parameter y. Localized solutions, in the case that the energy is slightly greater than the maximum value of the potential, are presented. Wigner and Weyl functions, corresponding to the solutions of Schrödinger equation, are also studied. It is also shown that they are very sensitive to the value of the parameter y.
    • Scientific evidence to support the art of prescribing spectacles. Identification of the clinical scenarios in which optometrists apply partial prescribing techniques and the quantification of spectacle adaption problems.

      Elliott, David B.; Mouat, Graham; Howell-Duffy, Christopher J. (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision Science, 2013-12-06)
      Although experiential prescribing maxims are quoted in some optometric textbooks their content varies significantly and no direct research evidence was available to support their use. Accordingly in chapters 2 and 3, the uses of several potential prescribing rules were investigated in the UK optometric profession. Our results indicated that the subjective refraction result exerted a strong hold on the prescribing outcome with 40-85% of optometrists prescribing the subjective result in a variety of scenarios. The finding that after 40 years qualified, experienced optometrists were three times more likely to suggest a partial prescription was an important discovery that provides significant support for the prescribing rules suggested by various authors. It would also appear from the results of the retrospective evaluation of the ¿if it ain¿t broke, don¿t fix it¿ clinical maxim in Chapter 4 that spectacle dissatisfaction rates could be reduced by between 22 to 42% depending on how strictly the maxim is interpreted by the practitioner. Certainly an ¿if it ain¿t broke, don¿t fix it much¿ maxim was suggested as being particularly appropriate. Chapter 5 included a reanalysis of previously published data that found no change in falls rate after cataract surgery to investigate any influence of refractive correction change and /or visual acuity change on falls rate. Unfortunately these data were not sufficiently powered to provide significant results. In chapter 6, a spectacle adaptation questionnaire (SAQ) was developed and validated using Rasch analysis. Initial studies found no differences in SAQ with gender or age.
    • A scientific investigation of the brick and tile industry of York in the mid-eighteenth century

      Warren, Stanley E.; Betts, Ian M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Physics, 2009-05-26)
      Petrological and neutron activation analysis of bricks and tiles from York and neighbouring sites with discussion of the analytical and documentary evidence for their production in York up until AD 1750.
    • Secondary Metabolites from Xylaria Endophytes: The isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites from Xylaria endophytes by chemical and spectroscopic methods

      Maitland, Derek J.; Edwards, Raymond L.; Al-Busaidi, Harith
      This thesis describes the isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites from a number of endophytic Xylaria fungi. Six Xylaria endophytes were surface cultured on an aqueous malt extract-glucose medium. The fungus A311R, from a palm tree in Thailand, produced nonane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, which was isolated for the first time as a natural product. Also isolated from the same fungus was spiculisporic acid; the first instance of isolation from a Xylaria fungus. The fungus 6RD12 produced cycloepoxydon, which was isolated for the first time from a Xylaria fungus, and 4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-propyl-3,4,6,7-tetrahydro-l//-isochromen- 8(5//)-one, which is a novel compound. The fungi A217R and A517R produced cytochalasin D, (S)-mellein and (3S,4S)-4-hydroxymellein as main secondary metabolites suggesting that the two fungi are the same species. The fungus X04 (Xylaria cf. juruensis) produced 2-Hydroxy-5-ethoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-dien- 1,4-dione as a novel compound, coriloxin as the main secondary metabolite in addition to (R)-mellein and a mixture of two stereoisomers of the 4-Hydroxymellein. The fungus 6RD8 produced (S)-Omethylmellein as the main secondary metabolite. l
    • Secondary metabolites from Xylariaceous fungi. The isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites from Xylariaceous fungi by chemical and spectroscopic methods.

      Maitland, Derek J.; Alhaidari, Rwaida A.A. (University of BradfordDivision of Chemical and Forensic Sciences, 2013-11-21)
      This thesis describes the isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites formed in static culture from a number of endophytic Xylariaceous fungi. Four Xylaria endophytes isolated from a palm tree in Thailand were surface cultured on an aqueous malt extract-glucose medium. They all produced cytochalasin D, coriloxin, (S)-mellein and (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein as the main secondary metabolites suggesting that the four endophytes could be the same species. The endophytic fungus A116 produced cytochalasin D as the main secondary metabolite. Another non-endophytic fungus B315, produced cytochalasin D, (R)-mellein, a mixture of two isomers of 4-hydroxymellein and phloroglucinol. X.62, an endophytic fungus, produced 19,20-epoxycytochalasin C from the mycelium as the main secondary metabolite. The fungus Engleromyces sinensis produced engleromycin acetate as the main secondary metabolite. Fungus X. polymorpha produced (3E)-4-(3¿-acetyl-2¿,6¿-dihydroxy-5¿-methylphenyl)-2-methoxybut-3-enoic acid.
    • Security Provision and Governing Processes in Fragile Cities of the Global South: The case of Medellin 2002-2012

      Pearce, Jenny V.; Abello Colak, Alexandra L. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2015)
      The incidence of violence and the configuration of areas of instability, which have accompanied rapid urbanisation processes in the global South, have led to a wide range of responses by state authorities at different levels. These responses include attempts to control, prevent and/or manage various forms of violence and crime. An emerging literature on urban security aims to improve our understanding of public security provision in volatile urban contexts in the global South. This literature has so far been dominated by policy-oriented and state-centric analyses, as well as by critiques of the way neoliberal governance is shaping responses to urban instability. These analytical approaches tend to ignore the political aspects and governmental consequences of security provision in fragile cities. This thesis argues that Foucault’s work on governmentality and ethnographic methodologies offer analytical and methodological tools that can help us address limitations in predominant analytical frameworks and contribute to fill gaps in the literature. The thesis develops an alternative critical approach to the study of urban security using those tools and employs it to investigate security provision in Medellin. This alternative approach focuses on the way security shapes governing processes in particular contexts and on their implications for those who are most vulnerable to urban fragility. Moreover, the thesis uses this innovative approach to investigate the security strategy implemented in Medellin since 2002, as part of what has come to be known as the ‘Medellin Model’. By exploring this particularly relevant case, this thesis highlights the significance of undertaking empirical explorations of the rationality of security strategies in different urban contexts and the importance of taking into account people´s differentiated experiences of security provision. Furthermore, this thesis argues that this alternative approach helps us understand the way power is exercised for particular purposes and on particular subjects in an attempt to deal with urban violence and insecurity. It also argues for the inclusion of these dimensions in contemporary studies of urban security in the global South.
    • Security Sector Change in Georgia, 1985 - 2008 Local Dynamics, Politics of Reform and Paramilitaries

      Greene, Owen J.; Koyama, Shukuko
      The literature on security sector actors in transitional societies emerging from war and/or authoritarianism has evolved by critiquing local perspectives recently. While the existing literature has extensively analysed transitional societies in Africa, Middle East and Eastern Europe, the thesis adds a new geographical perspective by providing a case study of security sector change processes in the Republic of Georgia, 1985 - 2008. More specifically, the thesis examines the local processes and drivers of security sector change in Georgia, and their interrelationships with donor supported programmes including SSR. The thesis employs a political economy analysis to examine indigenous security sector actors and their characteristics. Based on the approach, the thesis particularly examines processes of change and reform of policing institutions. The paramilitary is identified and examined as a key focus for analysis. The research shows that political dynamics among a few political elites determined the course of security sector change in Georgia. Despite ample external assistance, domestic political dynamics remained the main driving factor in the SSR agenda-setting process. In the politically-driven security sector change efforts, the restoration and maintenance of regime security remained a priority under both the Shevardnadze and Saakashvili regimes. Overall, the security sector actors played significant role in the political developments. Consequently, the process of changing these actors was a largely domestically driven political process. The role of paramilitaries in relation to regime security and the security sector change agenda-setting process in Georgia requires the security sector research to treat paramilitary as a distinguished unit for consideration.
    • Security sector reform in post-conflict environments: An analysis of coherence and sequencing in Mozambique. Examining Peacebuilding Challenges of Defence, Police and Justice Reforms in a Neo-Liberal Era

      Cooper, Neil; Abdulcarimo Lala, Anicia (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2014)
      This thesis deals with the circumstances that lead to a fragmented implementation of post-conflict justice and security reforms and their negative impact on institutional capacity to provide justice and security for citizens. It strenghtens the existing critique of SSR by employing liberal peacebuilding critique to examine the development of the SSR agenda within the security-development nexus mainstream and the difficulties in learning from SSR experience. The main research question concerns the factors affecting the coherence and sequencing of justice and security system reforms, and is addressed through a case study of Mozambique. The analysis identifies power dynamics surrounding formal and informal interactions that impact institutional change, and showcase the vulnerability of justice and security system reforms to co-optation by powerful international and national players. Throughout, patterns of critical juncture and path dependence are identified that have influenced the adaptation of powerful local players to external and domestic pressures which resulted in political and institutional bricolage. The thesis also looks at how the sequencing of Mozambique’s triple transition, in which economic liberalisation prevailed over peacebuilding and democratisation, shaped the post-civil war direction and pace of the defence, police and justice reforms. The 1992 peace agreement and the public sector reform programme are investigated with regards to the failure of driving substantive SSR and of imparting it coherence and sequencing in the short, medium and longer term. Finally, lessons are proposed for future reform in Mozambique, and recommendations are drawn for improving the design of strategy and implementation of SSR in general.
    • Self, Society and the Second World War. The Negotiation of Self on the Home Front by Diarist and Keighley Schoolmaster Kenneth Preston 1941-1945

      Jennings, Benjamin R.; Sheeran, George; Krutko, Lauren K. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological Sciences, 2016)
      This study examines the interaction of the Second World War with the selfhood of Kenneth Preston, a Keighley schoolmaster, using primarily the exceptionally rich content of Preston’s Diary, maintained 1941-1945. In tracing Preston’s home front experience, attention is given to the ways in which the war interacted with the individual’s own self and social conceptions, as well as ways in which subjective experiences and perceptions translated into objective realities, such as in Preston’s participation in the war effort. Illuminating the personal dimensions of the war experience enabled a broad range of meanings and “webs of significance” to emerge, allowing for examination of the interplay between the conflict and understandings of class, community, gender, citizenship, social mores, and aspects of social change during the conflict. Preston’s understandings of himself and of society are intriguing contributions to the discussion surrounding active wartime citizenship, and further historical awareness of the meanings and understandings held within the British population during the era of the Second World War. In particular, the prestige the war offered to modernistic notions of science and technical intelligence is shown to have held a central place in the war experience of this particular individual and in his perception of the rise of the welfare state. With its focus on selfhood, the study is distinguished from arguments grounded in analysis of cultural products from the era; it also contributes to understandings of the causes and implications of social change, as well as the war’s personal impact on the male civilian.