• The Nagorno Karabakh Conflict. Causes of the conflict and obstacles to conflict resolution.

      Rogers, Paul F.; Nikkar-Esfahani, Hamidreza (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2013-10-07)
      Since 1988, the states of Armenia and Azerbaijan have been engaged in conflict over the enclave of Nagorno Karabakh. The conflict has developed into one of the most intractable and complicated disputes in the international arena, with the main parties being the two rivalling sovereign states plus the ¿unrecognised state¿ of Nagorno Karabakh. Despite the optimistic statements and claims by the OSCE and after many years of negotiations and talks, the peace process remains in stalemate. The research argues the virtues of Track Two diplomacy and highlights the successful instances where it has made important contributions to the ¿official¿ or Track One diplomatic process. It also explores the potential of a ¿no war no peace¿ situation by discerning the factors influencing the progress of the conflict. The research shows that a deeper understanding of the obstacles to peace is achieved by appreciating the significance of historical events as well as recognising the motives and interests of the different parties. The study reviews all major factors which have led to the failure of resolution efforts, particular the negative role played by Russia. It concludes that the scholars in the field of conflict resolution can bring about a lasting peace to this region, provided there is a fundamental change in the structure of the co-chairs of the OSCE.
    • A narrative exploration of policy implementation and change management. Conflicting assumptions, narratives and rationalities of policy implementation and change management: the influence of the World Health Organisation, Nigerian organisations and a case study of the Nigerian health insurance scheme.

      Harding, Nancy H.; Lee, Hugh; Kehn-Alafun, Omodele (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012-03-07)
      Purpose - The thesis determined how policy implementation and change management can be improved in Nigeria, with the health insurance scheme as the basis for narrative exploration. It sets out the similarities and differences in assumptions between supra-national organisations such as the World Bank and World Health Organisation on policy implementation and change management and those contained in the Nigerian national health policy; and those of people responsible for implementation in Nigerian organisations at a) the federal or national level and b) at sub-federal service delivery levels of the health insurance scheme. The study provides a framework of the dimensions that should be considered in policy implementation and change management in Nigeria, the nature of structural and infrastructural problems and wider societal context, and the ways in which conceptions of organisations and the variables that impact on organisations¿ capability to engage in policy implementation and change management differ from those in the West. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative approach in the form of a case study was used to track the transformation of a policy into practice through examining the assumptions and expectations about policy implementation of the organisations financing the policy's implementation through an examination of relevant documents concerning policy, strategy and guidelines on change management and policy implementation from these global organisations, and the Nigerian national health policy document. The next stages of field visits explored the assumptions, expectations and experiences of a) policy makers, government officials, senior managers and civil servants responsible for implementing policy in federal-level agencies through an interview programme and observations; and b) those of sub-federal or local-level managers responsible for service-level policy implementation of the health insurance scheme through an interview programme. Findings - There are conflicts between the rational linear approaches to change management and policy implementation advocated by supra-nationals, which argue that these processes can be controlled and managed by the rational autonomous individual, and the narratives of those who have personal experience of the quest for 'health for all'. The national health policy document mirrors the ideology of the global organisations that emphasise reform, efficiencies and private enterprise. However, the assumptions of these global organisations have little relevance to a Nigerian societal and organisational context, as experienced by the senior officials and managers interviewed. The very nature of organisations is called into question in a Nigerian context, and the problems of structure and infrastructure and ethnic and religious divisions in society seep into organisations, influencing how organisation is enacted. Understandings of the purpose and function of leadership and the workforce are also brought into question. Additionally, there are religion-based barriers to policy implementation, change management and organisational life which are rarely experienced in the West. Furthermore, in the absence of future re-orientation, the concept of strategy and vision seems redundant, as is the rationale for a health insurance scheme for the majority of the population. The absence of vision and credible information further hinder attempts to make decisions or to define the basis for determining results. Practical implications - The study calls for a revised approach to engaging with Nigerian organisations and an understanding of what specific terms mean in that context. For instance, the definitions and understanding of organisations and capacity are different from those used in the West and, as such, bring into question the relevance and applicability of Western-derived models or approaches to policy implementation and change management. A framework with four dimensions - societal context, external influences, seven organisational variables and infrastructural/structural problems - was devised to capture the particular ambiguities and complexities of Nigerian organisations involved in policy implementation and change management. Originality/value - This study combines concepts in management studies with those in policy studies, with the use of narrative approaches to the understanding of policy implementation and change management in a Nigerian setting. Elements of culture, religion and ethical values are introduced to further the understanding of policy making and implementation in non-Western contexts.
    • Narratives of Troubled Journeys: Personality disorder and the medicalisation of moral dilemmas

      Burkitt, Ian; Sullivan, Paul W.; Walker, Tammi; Middleton, Raymond P.
      This thesis examines the interaction of the medical and moral in the historical evolution of “personality disorder” starting with the relationship between Prichard’s (1835) diagnosis of “Moral Insanity” and an anti-modern religious text (Hancock, 1824) describing disorder of the moral faculty. Moral insanity is traced through to Psychopathic Personalities and the military’s Medical 203 to Personality Disorder in DSM I (1952) through to DSM 5 (2013). The extent to which DSM medicalises everyday moral categories is examined by building on the works of writers theorising moral orders and moral selves, such as Harré (1993), Bakhtin (1981, 1984, 1986) and Taylor (1989). This thesis moves from macro-level concerns to the micro-level using dialogical narrative methodology (Sullivan, 2012) alongside Bakhtin’s conceptual tools to examine how medical and personal narratives of "Personality Disorder" interact in lived experience by analysing a triangulation of my psychiatric clinical notes, contemporary diary entries and an autobiographical account. An analysis is undertaken of several diverse autobiographical accounts of ‘successful’ recovery from mental health crisis already available in the public sphere. Consideration was given to how concepts developed throughout this study might be used in future work, concepts such as “dialogical search for a new narrative”, the dialogical ethics of “habitual excess and insufficiency” and “authoritative narrators”. This thesis’s originality is in linking DSM 5’s diagnosis of personality disorder to anti-modern moral discourses on disorder of the moral faculty, and in revealing complex genre relationships between literal/medical and literary/moral understandings of emotional and mental crisis and recovery.
    • Natural scene classification, annotation and retrieval. Developing different approaches for semantic scene modelling based on Bag of Visual Words.

      Neagu, Daniel; Cowling, Peter I.; Alqasrawi, Yousef T. N. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2013-04-05)
      With the availability of inexpensive hardware and software, digital imaging has become an important medium of communication in our daily lives. A huge amount of digital images are being collected and become available through the internet and stored in various fields such as personal image collections, medical imaging, digital arts etc. Therefore, it is important to make sure that images are stored, searched and accessed in an efficient manner. The use of bag of visual words (BOW) model for modelling images based on local invariant features computed at interest point locations has become a standard choice for many computer vision tasks. Based on this promising model, this thesis investigates three main problems: natural scene classification, annotation and retrieval. Given an image, the task is to design a system that can determine to which class that image belongs to (classification), what semantic concepts it contain (annotation) and what images are most similar to (retrieval). This thesis contributes to scene classification by proposing a weighting approach, named keypoints density-based weighting method (KDW), to control the fusion of colour information and bag of visual words on spatial pyramid layout in a unified framework. Different configurations of BOW, integrated visual vocabularies and multiple image descriptors are investigated and analyzed. The proposed approaches are extensively evaluated over three well-known scene classification datasets with 6, 8 and 15 scene categories using 10-fold cross validation. The second contribution in this thesis, the scene annotation task, is to explore whether the integrated visual vocabularies generated for scene classification can be used to model the local semantic information of natural scenes. In this direction, image annotation is considered as a classification problem where images are partitioned into 10x10 fixed grid and each block, represented by BOW and different image descriptors, is classified into one of predefined semantic classes. An image is then represented by counting the percentage of every semantic concept detected in the image. Experimental results on 6 scene categories demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Finally, this thesis further explores, with an extensive experimental work, the use of different configurations of the BOW for natural scene retrieval.
    • Navigating Stremes. Conceptualising, Activating, and Legitimising Strategic Change within BBC International News.

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Zueva-Owens, Anna; Parkinson, Neil (University of BradfordManagement School, 2015-06-05)
      This thesis considers strategic change from the novel perspective of a manager practically ‘activating’ it within a complex organisation. It involved 18 months of action research and participant observation within BBC Global News, where joint processes were developed across two converging businesses. A journal was maintained of meetings and events, access was granted to internal documentation, and 12 interviews were conducted. One contribution of this thesis is a new conceptualisation of the developing elements of organisational strategic posture and related environmental events as ‘stremes’: strategic memes representing relevant subsystems, ideas, and subcultures. The posture is depicted as a construction of multiple voices, often combining, sometimes clashing, as ideas compete for legitimacy. This allows the practitioner outlook to be presented through three linked perspectives. A ‘process’ approach maps the unfolding streme system; a ‘people’ approach considers the building of consensus to legitimise stremes; and a ‘practice’ approach considers the efficacy of action research in helping to craft change. It is found that not only do the actions of people shape the streme network; the complex, interdependent network also partially shapes their actions. This research builds on previous work on strategic change, but provides new narrative insight from a practitioner’s outlook. It also created ‘practical knowledge’, since many outputs of the process were implemented within the BBC, and may have relevance elsewhere.
    • Negotiating individual and collective narratives in a contested urban space. An investigation of storytelling dynamics in contemporary Bradford.

      Kelly, Rhys H.S.; Rohse, Melanie C.C. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2015-07-08)
      This thesis explores the dynamics of narrative production and contestation within individuals’ stories and the collective stories of the communities in which they live. The research is focused on trying to understand the relationship between public stories constructed about place and community, and the stories told by the inhabitants of those places. A case study in the city of Bradford provides a focus for inquiry. A qualitative research design is utilised, combining theory with primary data collection and analysis. A narrative analysis of national, academic and local stories about Bradford is used to disaggregate collective narratives of the city and explore the relationship between popular, political and academic discourses. It provides a context for the analysis of in-depth interviews with a range of inhabitants from a selected geographic area within Bradford, centred on how their individual stories relate to the identified collective stories of Bradford. Analysis of the fieldwork data shows that individuals are often engaged in complex negotiations of public discourse in ways that may reinforce and contest existing stories, but also complement them with parallel stories that neither reinforce nor contest but construct a different narrative. It reveals and reflects on apparent contradictions within everyday storytelling, for example, how nostalgia can be displayed about harsh times of socio-economic decline, or how attitudes to change over time can be variably positive and negative depending both on the speakers’ positioning of themselves and of the interviewer, and the speakers’ purpose in the interaction.
    • Negotiating pathways to manhood: Violence reproduction in Medellin's periphery. Exploring habitus and masculinity to explain young men's decisions to join armed groups in poor urban neighbourhoods of Colombia

      Pearce, Jenny V.; Baird, Adam D.S. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2011-12-02)
      In recent years urban violence has become understood as a 'reproduced', multi-causal and socially generated phenomenon. Less is understood about why young men reproduce the majority of this violence. This thesis uses original empirical data based on thirty-two life-histories of youths living in two poor and violent neighbourhoods in Medellín, Colombia. It argues that urban violence is reproduced by male youths because it is linked to 'masculinity'; that is, the process of 'becoming men' where youths strive to fulfil productive or 'successful' models of masculinity. These processes are related to contexts of poverty, inequality and exclusion, so this thesis does not reduce the generation of urban violence to masculinity alone. Rather, understanding masculinity provides us with further insight into the reproduction of violence. This thesis further argues that male youths are disposed by their habitus - after Pierre Bourdieu - to negotiate a pathway to manhood that largely reflects traditional masculine values in their context. Striving to achieve prevailing versions of manhood contributed to some of these youths joining armed groups, such as gangs. The gang acted as a mechanism to fulfil their dispositions to become men, by providing them with a way to perform a version of 'successful' masculinity. This is prevalent in urban contexts of exclusion and high levels of social violence, because there are limited opportunities to achieve legal and dignified versions of manhood, whilst there are significant opportunities to join the local gang. The youths interviewed that did not join gangs tended to come from families that taught them to reject violence at a young age, whilst supporting them in pursuing alternative pathways to manhood. Youths that joined gangs tended to have more problems at home and often had family members already in gangs.
    • The Neolithic and late Iron Age Pottery from Pool, Sanday, Orkney: An archaeological and technological consideration of coarse pottery manufacture at the Neolithic and late Iron Age site of Pool, Orkney incorporating X-Ray Fluorescence, Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometric and Petrological Analyses.

      Warren, Stanley E.; Hunter, John; MacSween, Ann (University of BradfordDepartment of Archaeological Sciences, 2009-09-03)
      The Neolithic and late Iron Age pottery from the settlement site of Pool, Sanday, Orkney, was studied on two levels. Firstly, a morphological and technological study was carried out to establish a sequence for the site. Secondly an assessment was made of the usefulness of X-ray Fluorescence Analysis, Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry and Petrological analysis to coarse ware studies, using the Pool assemblage as a case study. Recording of technological and typological attributes allowed three phases of Neolithic pottery to be identified. The earliest phase included sherds of Unstan Ware. This phase was followed by an assemblage characterised by pottery with incised decoration, which was stratified below a traditional Grooved Ware assemblage. The change in pottery styles and manufacturing methods with the Grooved Ware indicated that it evolved elsewhere. Grass tempered and burnished pottery characterised the Iron Age assemblage. Pottery samples from all phases of the site were analysed by XRF and ICPS. In addition, pottery from late Iron Age sites in the area was analysed for comparison with the Pool Iron Age pottery. XRF and ICPS analyses did not distinguish between either different phases at Pool or different Orcadian sites. This was attributed to the similarities in geological deposits over much of Orkney and the variations which can occur within a clay source. A clay survey was carried out in the vicinity of the site, and samples taken for comparison with the Pool pottery. Identification of rocks and minerals in thin section, and grain-size analysis, indicated that the Pool pottery was made locally to the site, and that both primary and secondary clays were used. It was concluded that petrological analysis is more suitable than elemental analysis in the study of coarse wares.
    • Neonatal Phencyclidine (PCP) induced deficits in rats: A behavioural investigation of relevance to schizophrenia.

      Neill, Joanna C.; Harte, Michael K.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2012-04-13)
      Background: The main aim of the studies in this thesis is to provide insights into the neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) induced deficits in male and female rats as a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia. Methods: Both male and female rats were treated with neonatal PCP on postnatal days (PNDs) 7,9 and 11 or vehicle, followed by weaning on PND 21-22. The rats were then tested in behavioural paradigms such as novel object recognition, spatial memory and social interaction in their adolescent and adult stages and were also tested with acute treatment of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents. Results: Neonatal PCP treatment (10 & 20 mg/kg in males and 10 mg/kg in females; once a day for 3 days on PND 7,9 and 11) caused novel object recognition and spatial memory impairment in male and female rats both in the adolescent (PND35-56) and in the adult stages (PND>56) (chapter 2) and robust deficits in social interaction behaviours in the adolescent stage. The SI deficits were observed in adulthood in female but not in male rats thereby establishing a sex-specific social behavioural deficit (chapter 3). The object memory and social interaction deficits induced by neonatal PCP treatment were reversed following acute risperidone but not haloperidol. Finally, the temporal profile of this treatment regime was investigated and the male and female animals were tested on PND 190 and PND 365. The animals did not have any challenge dose of PCP during their testing stage. The result showed that there was significant deficit in object and spatial recognition memory in both male and female animals at both time points, thereby establishing enduring deficits. Conclusion: Given the heterogeneity of the schizophrenic disorder and its complex aetiology, it is understandably difficult to find animal models that completely mimic most or all of the symptoms associated with the disorder. However, data from the studies in this thesis support the use of neonatal PCP as a valid animal model of cognitive and negative symptoms, and explores the effect of antipsychotics in understanding the model. Also, in light of the efficacy of neonatal PCP to produce robust object, spatial memory and social interaction deficits in rats, it appears that this model may be a useful tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutic candidates that may help improve therapy and understand the illness.
    • Neopragmatism and the Dual-Use Issue: A Topology of Visions

      Whitby, Simon M.; Cooper, Neil; Walther, Gerald (University of BradfordDivision of Peace Studies, School of Social and International Studies, 2015-07-01)
      In the wake of the 2001 anthrax attacks in the US, States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention started to discuss the potential malign application of biological research and technology. This thesis examines how this issue of dual-use has been developed, discussed, and how solutions have been proposed. In order to do so, the thesis follows a neopragmatist approach. As a neopragmatist methodology is largely underdeveloped, the thesis explores some of the key aspects of neopragmatism, specifically its openness to various methods and theories, by directly applying it to the topic. As a result of this approach, the thesis starts with exploratory empirical research, which follows Bruno Latour’s Actor Network Theory. This research reviews how the problem of dual-use has been discussed in three communities: politics and security, ethics, and science. One of the results is that dual-use has primarily been discussed in the security community while the other two were only marginally involved. The proposed solution to the problem by the security community is to place the burden of responsibility on the scientific community. The second part of the thesis then uses theory, Niklas Luhmann’s social systems theory and Martin Heidegger’s work on questioning technology, to critically challenge this solution developed in the security community. The thesis concludes by identifying approaches to help deal with the dual-use issue. It also examines how the adoption of a neopragmatist methodology has influenced and guided the thesis.
    • Network Coding for Multihop Wireless Networks: Joint Random Linear Network Coding and Forward Error Correction with Interleaving for Multihop Wireless Networks

      Hu, Yim Fun; Pillai, Prashant; Susanto, Misfa (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics. School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2015)
      Optimising the throughput performance for wireless networks is one of the challenging tasks in the objectives of communication engineering, since wireless channels are prone to errors due to path losses, random noise, and fading phenomena. The transmission errors will be worse in a multihop scenario due to its accumulative effects. Network Coding (NC) is an elegant technique to improve the throughput performance of a communication network. There is the fact that the bit error rates over one modulation symbol of 16- and higher order- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) scheme follow a certain pattern. The Scattered Random Network Coding (SRNC) system was proposed in the literature to exploit the error pattern of 16-QAM by using bit-scattering to improve the throughput of multihop network to which is being applied the Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC). This thesis aims to improve further the SRNC system by using Forward Error Correction (FEC) code; the proposed system is called Joint RLNC and FEC with interleaving. The first proposed system (System-I) uses Convolutional Code (CC) FEC. The performances analysis of System-I with various CC rates of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/6, and 1/8 was carried out using the developed simulation tools in MATLAB and compared to two benchmark systems: SRNC system (System-II) and RLNC system (System- III). The second proposed system (System-IV) uses Reed-Solomon (RS) FEC code. Performance evaluation of System IV was carried out and compared to three systems; System-I with 1/2 CC rate, System-II, and System-III. All simulations were carried out over three possible channel environments: 1) AWGN channel, 2) a Rayleigh fading channel, and 3) a Rician fading channel, where both fading channels are in series with the AWGN channel. The simulation results show that the proposed system improves the SRNC system. How much improvement gain can be achieved depends on the FEC type used and the channel environment.
    • Neural network based hybrid modelling and MINLP based optimisation of MSF desalination process within gPROMS: Development of neural network based correlations for estimating temperature elevation due to salinity, hybrid modelling and MINLP based optimisation of design and operation parameters of MSF desalination process within gPROMS

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Sowgath, Md Tanvir (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering Design and Technology, 2007)
      Desalination technology provides fresh water to the arid regions around the world. Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) distillation process has been used for many years and is now the largest sector in the desalination industry. Top Brine Temperature (TBT) (boiling point temperature of the feed seawater in the first stage of the process) is one of the many important parameters that affect optimal design and operation of MSF processes. For a given pressure, TBT is a function of Boiling Point Temperature (BPT) at zero salinity and Temperature Elevation (TE) due to salinity. Modelling plays an important role in simulation, optimisation and control of MSF processes and within the model, calculation of TE is therefore important for each stages (including the first stage, which determines the TBT). Firstly, in this work, several Neural Network (NN) based correlations for predicting TE are developed. It is found that the NN based correlations can predict the experimental TE very closely. Also predictions of TE by the NN based correlations were found to be good when compared to those obtained using the existing correlations from the literature. Secondly, a hybrid steady state MSF process model is developed using gPROMS modelling tool embedding the NN based correlation. gPROMS provides an easy and flexible platform to build a process flowsheet graphically. Here a Master Model connecting (automatically) the individual unit model (brine heater, stages, etc.) equations is developed which is used repeatedly during simulation and optimisation. The model is validated against published results. Seawater is the main source raw material for MSF processes and is subject to seasonal temperature variation. With fixed design the model is then used to study the effect of a number of parameters (e.g. seawater and steam temperature) on the freshwater production rate. It is observed that, the variation in the parameters affect the rate of production of fresh water. How the design and operation are to be adjusted to maintain a fixed demand of fresh water through out the year (with changing seawater temperature) is also investigated via repetitive simulation. Thirdly, with clear understanding of the interaction of design and operating parameters, simultaneous optimisation of design and operating parameters of MSF process is considered via the application MINLP technique within gPROMS. Two types of optimisation problems are considered: (a) For a fixed fresh water demand throughout the year, the external heat input (a measure of operating cost) to the process is minimised; (b) For different fresh water demand throughout the year and with seasonal variation of seawater temperature, the total annualised cost of desalination is minimised. It is found that seasonal variation in seawater temperature results in significant variation in design and some of the operating parameters but with minimum variation in process temperatures. The results also reveal the possibility of designing stand-alone flash stages which would offer flexible scheduling in terms of the connection of various units (to build up the process) and efficient maintenance of the units throughout the year as the weather condition changes. In addition, operation at low temperatures throughout the year will reduce design and operating costs in terms of low temperature materials of construction and reduced amount of anti-scaling and anti-corrosion agents. Finally, an attempt was made to develop a hybrid dynamic MSF process model incorporating NN based correlation for TE. The model was validated at steady state condition using the data from the literature. Dynamic simulation with step changes in seawater and steam temperature was carried out to match the predictions by the steady state model. Dynamic optimisation problem is then formulated for the MSF process, subjected to seawater temperature change (up and down) over a period of six hours, to maximise a performance ratio by optimising the brine heater steam temperature while maintaining a fixed water demand.
    • New applications of Imidazotetrazinone prodrugs. Synthesis and mechanistic investigation of novel imidazotetrazinones as prodrugs of aziridines and as traceless carriers for drug delivery to the central nervous system.

      Wheelhouse, Richard T.; Garelnabi, Elrashied A.E. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics & School of Pharmacy, 2010-08-27)
      New imidazotetrazinones have been synthesised that possess features in their structures to release aziridinium ions upon ring opening. Unstable 2-aminoethylisocyanates were required in this preparation, which were synthesized with BOC-protection of the amino group to counteract the reactivity of the amine towards the isocyanate group in the case of aliphatic amines; in contrast, anilinoethylisocyanates were synthesized unprotected. Substituents with a range of electron-withdrawing and electron-releasing properties were introduced at the p-position of the aniline ring. A 13C-labelled study confirmed the release of the aziridinium ion by these imidazotetrazinones in neutral pH buffer solution. Furthermore the kinetics of the hydrolysis in neutral aqueous solution of some these new tetrazines were similar to temozolomide, in addition to useful acid stability. Other imidazotetrazinones were synthesised for the purpose of releasing alcohols and phenols. Their synthesis was performed with a one-carbon linker between the imidazotetrazinone 3-position and the alcohols or phenols to be released. The release of alcohol and phenol through the hydrolysis of the intermediate diazonium ions to the unstable hemiacetals that decomposed to the alcohol and phenol was confirmed by 1H NMR. The kinetics of the hydrolysis of these tetrazines in neutral aqueous solution showed a faster reaction rate compared with temozolomide (t1/2 = 0.53 and 0.36 h compared with temozolomide 1.4 h).
    • New C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 7 Antagonists

      Afarinkia, Kamyar; Ahmed, Mohaned S.A. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, 2016)
      Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines which play an important role in the migration of immune cells to distant tissues or compartments within tissues. These proteins have also been demonstrated to play a major role in cancer metastasis. The C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) is a member of the chemokine receptor family. CCR7 along with its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 plays an important role in innate immune response by trafficking of lymphocytes. In cancer, tumour cells expressing CCR7 migrate to lymphoid organs and thus disseminate to other organs. Neutralizing the interactions between CCL21/CCR7 would therefore be expected to inhibit the progression and metastasis of many different types of cancer to regional lymph nodes or distant organs. Our objective was to identify a potent small molecule antagonist of CCR7 as a prelude to the investigation of the role of this axis in cancer metastasis. In this study, we provided a brief description of chemokines and their role in health and disease with an emphasis on the CCR7/CCL19/CCL21 axis, as well as identification of a CCR7 antagonist “hit”. The potency of the CCR7 antagonist “hit” was optimised by synthesizing different CCR7 antagonist analogues. The “hit” optimization process has led to discover the most active compound amongst a series of different analogues which have the ability to bind and block CCR7 receptor. The efficacy of the most active compound and other analogues were evaluated in vitro using a calcium flux assay which is based on detecting fluorescent light emitted upon release of calcium ions. To identify a suitable cell line, which expresses CCR7 and capably respond to it, amongst a panel of cell lines for in vitro assessment of potency of synthesised compounds, we used Western blot assay and later by flow cytometry assay. The activity and selectivity of the most effective compound against CCR7 receptor was evaluated in vitro by other functional assays such as “configured agarose spot assay” and scratch assay. We first configured the existing under agarose assay to fulfil our requirements and then used it to assess activity and selectivity of compounds. The configured agarose spot assay also describes the application of the agarose spot for evaluation of cells chemotactic response to multiple chemokines under identical experiment conditions.
    • A new class of coherent states and it's properties.

      Vourdas, Apostolos; Mohamed, Abdlgader (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, 2013-11-28)
      The study of coherent states (CS) for a quantum mechanical system has received a lot of attention. The definition, applications, generalizations of such states have been the subject of work by researchers. A common starting point of all these approaches is the observation of properties of the original CS for the harmonic oscillator. It is well-known that they are described equivalently as (a) eigenstates of the usual annihilation operator, (b) from a displacement operator acting on a fundamental state and (c) as minimum uncertainty states. What we observe in the different generalizations proposed is that the preceding definitions are no longer equivalent and only some of the properties of the harmonic oscillator CS are preserved. In this thesis we propose to study a new class of coherent states and its properties. We note that in one example our CS coincide with the ones proposed by Glauber where a set of three requirements for such states has been imposed. The set of our generalized coherent states remains invariant under the corresponding time evolution and this property is called temporal stability. Secondly, there is no state which is orthogonal to all coherent states (the coherent states form a total set). The third property is that we get all coherent states by acting on one of these states [¿fiducial vector¿] with operators. They are highly non-classical states, in the sense that in general, their Bargmann functions have zeros which are related to negative regions of their Wigner functions. Examples of these coherent states with Bargmann function that involve the Gamma and also the Riemann ¿ functions are represented. The zeros of these Bargmann functions and the paths of the zeros during time evolution are also studied.
    • New consumption identities in virtual worlds. The case of Second Life.

      Bettany, Shona M.M.; Larsen, Gretchen; Nikolaou, Ioanna (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-08-29)
      The dynamic development of new technologies influences consumers in many different ways reaching far beyond the shift in consumption patterns, challenging the way consumers live their lives. The role of new information technologies is continually growing in our daily lives changing the way we see the self and the world around us. Consequently, the advent of the computer culture incites a radical rethinking of who we are and the nature of being human, which clearly illustrates the postmodern age. As a result, over the past decades consumer research has moved away from simply viewing consumers as information processors to consumers as socially conceptualized beings. This Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) movement views consumers and consumer behaviour as articulations of meanings and materiality within the productive of complex cultural milieu. This ethnographic thesis focuses on the three-dimensional virtual world of Second Life, which is a ¿Real Life¿ simulation and where the residents represent themselves through ¿avatars¿, creating a kind of virtual materiality. This raises interesting questions for consumer researchers, not just about how consumption is enacted, produced and articulated within this environment, but also in relation to theoretical and methodological issues. More specifically, this thesis critically examines the development of interpretive consumer research and the emergence of the Consumer Culture Theory framework in the context of the juxtaposition of reality and hyperreality and takes a position which goes beyond the 'body in the net/physical body' binary. Therefore, this thesis places the ¿avatar-as-consumer¿ at the centre of the research focus. The current thesis develops a theoretical framework which examines the role of consumption in resolving key paradoxes. Moreover, it extends the netnography framework from mainly text based research to the visual characteristics of virtual worlds so that it can be useful for the study of complex online environments and as a result, how the role of the researcher goes beyond netnography to virtualography is discussed.
    • A new model for worm detection and response. Development and evaluation of a new model based on knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to detect and respond to worm infection by integrating incident response, security metrics and apoptosis.

      Cullen, Andrea J.; Woodward, Mike E.; Mohd Saudi, Madihah (University of BradfordDepartment of Computing, School of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-04-17)
      Worms have been improved and a range of sophisticated techniques have been integrated, which make the detection and response processes much harder and longer than in the past. Therefore, in this thesis, a STAKCERT (Starter Kit for Computer Emergency Response Team) model is built to detect worms attack in order to respond to worms more efficiently. The novelty and the strengths of the STAKCERT model lies in the method implemented which consists of STAKCERT KDD processes and the development of STAKCERT worm classification, STAKCERT relational model and STAKCERT worm apoptosis algorithm. The new concept introduced in this model which is named apoptosis, is borrowed from the human immunology system has been mapped in terms of a security perspective. Furthermore, the encouraging results achieved by this research are validated by applying the security metrics for assigning the weight and severity values to trigger the apoptosis. In order to optimise the performance result, the standard operating procedures (SOP) for worm incident response which involve static and dynamic analyses, the knowledge discovery techniques (KDD) in modeling the STAKCERT model and the data mining algorithms were used. This STAKCERT model has produced encouraging results and outperformed comparative existing work for worm detection. It produces an overall accuracy rate of 98.75% with 0.2% for false positive rate and 1.45% is false negative rate. Worm response has resulted in an accuracy rate of 98.08% which later can be used by other researchers as a comparison with their works in future.
    • The new philanthropy and smallholder farmers' livelihoods. A case study of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) in the northern region of Ghana

      Morvaridi, Behrooz; Lawler, John A.; Asuru, Sumaila (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
      The new philanthropy is increasingly seen as a panacea and an alternative source of global development finance for rural development, especially in developing countries. The theoretical underpinning of the new philanthropy entails the idea that the private sector, led by philanthropists and civil society organisations in social policy issues can lead to more effective outcomes through partnership. The existing literature on the new philanthropy mainly focuses on its economic or commercial impact. This is particularly the case in the rural parts of Ghana; there has been very little research on the new philanthropy’s impact on the livelihoods of the poorest segments of society. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of new philanthropy on the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Northern Ghana in order to fill the gap. The study employed ethnographic research, utilising qualitative techniques involving 20 stakeholders in philanthropy and livelihood affairs and 100 smallholder farmers. The research findings suggest that there is a significant relationship between philanthropic sponsored interventions in Ghana and an increase in smallholder farmers’ yields. The few farmers who purchased improved seeds and other agricultural inputs registered significant increases. However, this study identified some bottlenecks inhibiting access to agricultural inputs by smallholder farmers. Majority of smallholder farmers revealed that they could not afford them (seeds, chemical fertilizer and other inputs) despite the subsidies. Furthermore, rainfall variability gives rise to fluctuating food production from one season to another; meanwhile, there is a lack of strategy from philanthropic practitioners to address the variability in rainfall. Through philanthropy, other methods of faming such as irrigation farming agroecology, and permaculture could be exploited to the benefits of smallholder farmers. The outcomes of this study have policy implications for philanthropic practitioners. This study shows that the failure to involve farmers directly in decisions that affect their livelihoods is a major cause of livelihood interventionist programme failures in Ghana. Thus, this study argues that understanding the socioeconomic dynamics in the Northern Region and amongst the farmers should be an important part of policy formulation for philanthropic involvements seeking to improve livelihood of smallholder farmers. Lastly, the study called for a separate policy framework for philanthropy that would have a key objective of mobilising private philanthropic resources to support steady economic growth and sustainable development, dealing directly with recipients.
    • New quality of service routing algorithms based on local state information. The development and performance evaluation of new bandwidth-constrained and delay-constrained quality of service routing algorithms based on localized routing strategies.

      Woodward, Mike E.; Aldosari, Fahd M. (University of BradfordSchool of Computing, Informatics and Media, 2012-04-16)
      The exponential growth of Internet applications has created new challenges for the control and administration of large-scale networks, which consist of heterogeneous elements under dynamically changing traffic conditions. These emerging applications need guaranteed service levels, beyond those supported by best-effort networks, to deliver the intended services to the end user. Several models have been proposed for a Quality of Service (QoS) framework that can provide the means to transport these services. It is desirable to find efficient routing strategies that can meet the strict routing requirements of these applications. QoS routing is considered as one of the major components of the QoS framework in communication networks. In QoS routing, paths are selected based upon the knowledge of resource availability at network nodes and the QoS requirements of traffic. Several QoS routing schemes have been proposed that differ in the way they gather information about the network state and the way they select paths based on this information. The biggest downside of current QoS routing schemes is the frequent maintenance and distribution of global state information across the network, which imposes huge communication and processing overheads. Consequently, scalability is a major issue in designing efficient QoS routing algorithms, due to the high costs of the associated overheads. Moreover, inaccuracy and staleness of global state information is another problem that is caused by relatively long update intervals, which can significantly deteriorate routing performance. Localized QoS routing, where source nodes take routing decisions based solely on statistics collected locally, was proposed relatively recently as a viable alternative to global QoS routing. It has shown promising results in achieving good routing performance, while at the same time eliminating many scalability related problems. In localized QoS routing each source¿destination pair needs to determine a set of candidate paths from which a path will be selected to route incoming flows. The goal of this thesis is to enhance the scalability of QoS routing by investigating and developing new models and algorithms based on the localized QoS routing approach. For this thesis, we have extensively studied the localized QoS routing approach and demonstrated that it can achieve a higher routing performance with lower overheads than global QoS routing schemes. Existing localized routing algorithms, Proportional Sticky Routing (PSR) and Credit-Based Routing (CBR), use the blocking probability of candidate paths as the criterion for selecting routing paths based on either flow proportions or a crediting mechanism, respectively. Routing based on the blocking probability of candidate paths may not always reflect the most accurate state of the network. This has motivated the search for alternative localized routing algorithms and to this end we have made the following contributions. First, three localized bandwidth-constrained QoS routing algorithms have been proposed, two are based on a source routing strategy and the third is based on a distributed routing strategy. All algorithms utilize the quality of links rather than the quality of paths in order to make routing decisions. Second, a dynamic precautionary mechanism was used with the proposed algorithms to prevent candidate paths from reaching critical quality levels. Third, a localized delay-constrained QoS routing algorithm was proposed to provide routing with an end-to-end delay guarantee. We compared the performance of the proposed localized QoS routing algorithms with other localized and global QoS routing algorithms under different network topologies and different traffic conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms outperform the other algorithms in terms of routing performance, resource balancing and have superior computational complexity and scalability features.
    • New trends in environmental and socially responsible management in the cement manufacturing.

      Huisingh, Donald; Barber, Kevin D.; Verma, Mangleshwar N. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2012-01-31)
      This thesis explores the environmental and social responsibilities being increasingly shouldered by cement manufacturing sector and outlines a new approach for these companies to accept their responsibilities and to utilise professional approaches to address the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainable business. Managing these three dimensions in business translates corporate responsibility into an integrated responsibility for doing business profitably, ethically and in sustainable manner. This three-pronged approach is sometimes called the Triple Bottom Line. It helps companies to fulfil their more holistic Corporate Social Responsibility. A critical review of the literature led the thesis author to develop the theoretical framework for environmental and social reporting to proceed on TBL/CSR journey within the cement industry. Data were collected from TBL/CSR reports from cement companies on key environmental and social performances. Based upon those data, a questionnaire was developed to obtain more information from the leading worldwide cement companies. The combined results of the responses to the questionnaire and the quantitative data derived from the TBL/CSR reports were used to establish best practice benchmarks to serve as performance targets for the author¿s case study company, Oman Cement Company (OCC). The contribution to knowledge of this research is the summarisation and prioritisation of the cement industry¿s implementation of TBL/CSR management systems, which integrate the elements of TBL/CSR into their strategic plans and daily operational procedures. Guidelines were derived from the Global Reporting Initiative, the United Nations Global Compact and the new ISO 26000 standard, which promotes a new way of working towards innovation, value creation and incremental actions for transforming businesses to become more responsible. The contributions to practice of this research are the practical and procedural insights, gained by quantitative analysis of environmental and social indicators, into how cement companies are making improvements in their processes and products in response to climate change, economic, governmental regulations and social pressures for improvement. Based upon the findings, recommendations and timetables were developed and are being implemented within the OCC as it progresses on its TBL/CSR journey.