• La Via Campesina and the Committee on World Food Security: a transnational public sphere? Identifying and interrogating dynamics of power and voice in transnational food and agricultural policy processes.

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Brem-Wilson, Joshua W. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2013-11-22)
      The transnationalisation of economic relations and the emergence of supranational sites of policy-making and governance have been of concern both to ¿affected publics¿ subject to the remote decisionmaking that such developments entail (and who have mobilised extensively to demonstrate their opposition to these bodies), and scholars keen to locate the possibilities for a democratic politics in the context of the state¿s subsequent diminishment (O¿Brien et al., 2000; Scholte, 2001; Patomäki and Teivainen, 2004; Rittberger et al., 2008). One such group of scholars are public sphere theorists, who, taking up an ongoing concern with the conditions for, and criteria of, effective democratic participation in politically authoritative policy debates, and responding to these new dynamics, have begun to define a new research agenda in search of ¿transnational public spheres¿ (Habermas, 1989; Fraser, 1991; Fraser 2007). That is, they have begun to look to the transnational for sites in which those affected by the exercise (or, indeed, absence) of political authority at this level strive to engage that authority in policy debate. In this thesis, I argue for the existence of one such transnational public sphere, which, being both provoked and constituted by the transnational peasant and small farmers social movement La Via Campesina, promises to be institutionally realised by the recently reformed United Nations Committee on World Food Security (CFS). Identifying and exploring key dynamics relevant to the CFS¿s aspirations for political centrality, inclusivity, and policy debate, moreover, I lay bare the challenges that confront the attainment of this promise.
    • The Labour Party and family income support policy; 1940-1979. An examination of the party's interpretation of the relationship between family income support and the labour market.

      Not named; Pratt, Alan (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Applied Social Studies, 2011-08-24)
      The first two chapters examine the party's policy towards the wage-stop and the poverty trap. Until 1963 the party ignored the wage-stop but from then until 1975 a section of the party campaigned against the regulation expressing moral revulsion and concern about its administration but only rarely opposition to the principle. A Labour government removed the stop when its operation affected only a tiny minority of families. The party was quickly involved in the development of the poverty trap debate being particularly drawn to its disincentive characteristics, but Labour governments, like their Conservative counterparts, soon came to regard the idea as a mere statistical abstraction. After confirming the party's historical ambivalence about Family Allowances the thesis demonstrated that whenever it advocated allowances it did so because it believed the programme would alleviate family poverty rather than augment work incentives. However Labour governments consistently upheld the principle of substitutability, thus conferring de facto support on that less-eligibility dimension of Family Allowances which Macnicol has established informed the coalition government's decision to legislate for the programme in 1945. Despite the party's opposition to Family Income Supplement it became an important element in the Labour government's anti-poverty strategy after the Child Benefits debate in 1976. F.I.S. was criticised because of its contribution to the poverty trap and its potential for assisting in the pauperisation of the low paid, while Child Benefit was supported because it appeared to be a more equitable technique of delivering support to families with dependent children although some in the party were sensitive to the scheme's potential link with improved work incentives. In general, the Labour Party is seen to have failed to develop any coherent and sustained alternative to the ideas and programmes of its political opponents in this critical area of social policy.
    • Laminar heat transfer to Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids in tubes. Temperature and velocity profiles were determined experimentally for heating and cooling of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in tubes and the results compared with theoretical predictions incorporating a temperature-dependent viscosity.

      Wilkinson, W.L.; Pavlovska-Popovska, Frederika (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemical Engineering., 2010-01-21)
      This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and experimental study of the hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of viscous fluids flowing in tubes under laminar conditions. Particular attention has been given to the effects of the rheological properties and their variation with temperature. A review of problems of this type showed that in spite of the many potential applications of the results in a wide range of industries the subject had not been well developed and further work is justified in order to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge. The early part of the thesis considers the justification of the work in this way and sets down the scope and objectives. A computer progracune was then developed to allow the governing equations of the problem to be solved numerically to give the velocity and temperature profiles and pressure drop for both heating and cooling conditions. The results were also presented in the form of Nusselt numbers as a function of the Graetz numberp since this form is useful for engineering design purposes. The validity of the predictions were then checked by a programme of experimental work. Temperature and velocity profiles have been measured in order to provide a more severe test of the theory than could be imposed by the measurement of overall heat transfer rates. A combined thermocouple probe/Pitot tube was developed to allow simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature to be made. A Newtonian oil and two non-Newtonian Carbopol solutions were studied. This is the first time that velocity and temperature profiles have been measured for non-Newtonian fluids in this type of situation. The results of the work heve shown that (a) the velocity and temperature profiles and pressure drops are greatly affected by the temperature dependence of the rheological properties and since real viscous fluids are normally very temperature-sensitive it is important that this effect is properly taken into account. (b) the engineering design correlations commonly used for the prediction of heat transfer coefficients can be seriously in error, especially for cooling conditions and when non-Nevitonian fluids are being considered. (c) a mathematical model can be developed which accurately describes all the phenomena and gives predictions which are very close to those observed experimentally. An important objective was to develop more accurate engineering design correlations for non-isothermal pressure drop and heat transfer rates.
    • Large-scale 3D environmental modelling and visualisation for flood hazard warning.

      Wan, Tao Ruan; Palmer, Ian J.; Wang, Chen (University of BradfordDepartment of Creative Technology. School of Computing, Informatics and Media., 2009-08-24)
      3D environment reconstruction has received great interest in recent years in areas such as city planning, virtual tourism and flood hazard warning. With the rapid development of computer technologies, it has become possible and necessary to develop new methodologies and techniques for real time simulation for virtual environments applications. This thesis proposes a novel dynamic simulation scheme for flood hazard warning. The work consists of three main parts: digital terrain modelling; 3D environmental reconstruction and system development; flood simulation models. The digital terrain model is constructed using real world measurement data of GIS, in terms of digital elevation data and satellite image data. An NTSP algorithm is proposed for very large data assessing, terrain modelling and visualisation. A pyramidal data arrangement structure is used for dealing with the requirements of terrain details with different resolutions. The 3D environmental reconstruction system is made up of environmental image segmentation for object identification, a new shape match method and an intelligent reconstruction system. The active contours-based multi-resolution vector-valued framework and the multi-seed region growing method are both used for extracting necessary objects from images. The shape match method is used with a template in the spatial domain for a 3D detailed small scale urban environment reconstruction. The intelligent reconstruction system is designed to recreate the whole model based on specific features of objects for large scale environment reconstruction. This study then proposes a new flood simulation scheme which is an important application of the 3D environmental reconstruction system. Two new flooding models have been developed. The first one is flood spreading model which is useful for large scale flood simulation. It consists of flooding image spatial segmentation, a water level calculation process, a standard gradient descent method for energy minimization, a flood region search and a merge process. The finite volume hydrodynamic model is built from shallow water equations which is useful for urban area flood simulation. The proposed 3D urban environment reconstruction system was tested on our simulation platform. The experiment results indicate that this method is capable of dealing with complicated and high resolution region reconstruction which is useful for many applications. When testing the 3D flood simulation system, the simulation results are very close to the real flood situation, and this method has faster speed and greater accuracy of simulating the inundation area in comparison to the conventional flood simulation models
    • Large-scale land acquisitions and minorities/indigenous peoples' rights under ethnic federalism in Ethiopia. A Case Study of Gambella Regional State

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Ojulu, Ojot Miru (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2014-05-01)
      The contemporary phenomenon of the global rush for farmland has generated intense debate from different actors. While the proponents embrace it as a "development opportunity", the critics dub it "land grabbing". Others use a neutral term: "arge-scale land acquisitions". Whatever terminology is used, one fact remains indisputable - since 2007 vast swathes of farmlands in developing countries have been sold or leased out to large-scale commercial farmers. Ethiopia is one of the leading countries in Africa in this regard and, as a matter of state policy, it promotes these investments in peripheral regions that are predominantly inhabited by pastoralists and other indigenous communities. So far, the focus of most of the studies on this phenomenon has been on its economic, food security and environmental aspects. The questions of land rights and political implications have been to a great extent overlooked. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to this knowledge gap by drawing upon the experience of the Gambella regional state - the epicentre of large-scale land acquisition in Ethiopia. To this end, this thesis argues that large-scale land acquisitions in Ethiopia is indeed redefining indigenous communities' right to land, territories and natural resources in fundamental ways. By doing so, it also threatens the post-1991 social contract - i.e. ethnic federalism - between the envisaged new Ethiopian state and its diverse communities, particularly the peripheral minorities and indigenous ethnic groups.
    • Late Quaternary vegetation history of Craven, Yorkshire Dales.

      Gillmore, Gavin; Taylor, Timothy F.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Rushworth, Garry (University of BradfordDivision of Archaeology, School of Life Sciences, 2014-05-01)
      This thesis investigates new late Quaternary vegetation records from four sites in the Craven District of the Yorkshire Dales. The chosen sites fall along an east-west transect broadly following the line of the south Craven Fault. The rationale for site selection was not based on conventional palynological considerations of potential for rich core samples, rather to provide a range of different locations within a distinct micro-region each existing in some specific proximity to known archaeological features. The logic was to attempt to get beyond broad ¿natural¿ climatological and vegetational inferences to understand the nature and level of potential anthropogenically produced change at a local scale as a sub-set of natural change in a broader regional zone over time. The sites reveal varied vegetation histories from the Late Glacial period to the present day and all show signs of being influenced by changes in their arboreal structure at some time, although no two sites have exactly the same vegetation communities until around 5000 BP when the tree canopy is opened to allow an open grassland to dominate. The results indicate the possibility that Betula values, in particular, might indicate cooling events found in the Greenland ice cores for Greenland Interstadial 1 as well as the Pre-boreal Oscillation and the Holocene 9.3 ka BP Event. Closer chronological control of such values could help to determine whether vegetational dynamics were synchronous with fluctuations in temperature and the speed with which trees respond to severe temperature fluctuations. Various hiatuses identified during analysis of the cores may be caused by human influence on the wetlands, given that archaeological evidence from caves shows human occupation of the Craven area from the late Upper Palaeolithic onwards.
    • The law and domestic violence against women. The history of law reforms in relation to domestic violence against women from the 18th to the 20th century and an analysis of women victims' needs in contemporary socio-legal discourse.

      Rose, Hilary; Hanmer, Jalna; Radford, Mary Therese (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Applied Social Studies, 2009-11-09)
      The thesis is divided into two parts, Part I contains four chapters which map the pattern of legal changes relating to domestic violence against women from the 18th century to the 1980s. The history is written from the viewpoint of the legal interventions available to and used by women victims of domestic violence. Statutory enactments, case law and procedural changes in the relevant areas of criminal, family (ecclesiastical) and welfare law are described. Throughout Part I the discussion of the remedies available and reforms implemented is supplemented by the inclusion of case examples and statistical evidence showing local and national patterns of use. Chapter 1 describes the period from the start of the 18th century to the begining of the 20th; Chapter 2,1900 to the 1960s, Chapter 3 from 1969 to 1977 and Chapter 4 the more recent history in the 10 years between 1977 to 1987. Part II contains five chapters and is based upon an analysis of women victim's needs in contemporary socio-legal discourse. Part II grew out of a concern about the part played by the law in the secondary assault of women. The main aim of the discussion is to look at how women victims' self defined needs inform the practice of the law and how the legal approach contributes to the creation of violent relations between men and women in the social institution of heterosexuality. Part II emphasises the use of written and spoken language in interactional settings to define women's needs. The discussion is based upon the analysis of: 1. a survey of women involved in 54 legal cases concerning their partners' behaviour supplemented by interviews with legal advisors; 2. case records obtained from solicitors' offices with the womens' permission; 3. over 300 decisions traced from the published Law Reports; 4.105 press reports of cases of domestic violence against women. Chapter 5 describes the method employed in the research for Part II. Chapter 6 contains the analysis of the women's cases; Chapter 7 the reported decisions and Chapter 8 the press reports. Chapter 9 offers a summary of academic discourse and the abuse of women as well as a concluding discussion on some possibilities for the empowerment of women in law.
    • Leadership effectiveness and cognitive style: A Malaysian government linked companies' (GLCs) perspectives

      Spicer, David P.; Ford, Jackie M.; Busari, Abdul Halim (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-12-02)
      The purpose of this study was to explore leadership effectiveness from the perspectives of the Full Range Leadership Model and Cognitive Style Theory within the framework of understanding both followers and leaders as individual¿s attitudes to leadership effectiveness. Leadership effectiveness was measured using newly developed self-report instrument, the Leadership Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) with three scales of effectiveness as suggested by Yukl (2002), which were: 1) aims, 2) followers¿ attitude towards the leader and, 3) group processes. The Full Range leadership approaches were measured using Bass & Avolio¿s (1997) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X-Short, whilst cognitive style was gathered by using Allinson & Hayes¿s (1996) Cognitive Style Index (CSI). A two stage (questionnaire survey followed by semi structured interviews) mixed method study was undertaken. Questionnaire data was gathered from 331 followers and 172 leaders in Malaysian Government-Linked Companies, and 10 leaders involved in the interviews. Findings from the survey suggest that a transformational approach was correlated significantly and positively with effectiveness. Intuitive Cognitive Style also correlated significantly with leadership effectiveness. Findings from the semistructured interviews identified a few more characteristics of an effective leadership such as balance and appreciative, whilst new dimensions of cognitive style identified such as rational and holistic.
    • Leadership Effectiveness from the Perspective of Chief Executive Officers in Kuwait

      Spicer, David P.; Alomar, Abeer S.A.E. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2015)
      This research explores leadership effectiveness in organisations in Kuwait from the perspective of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). This is an area that has been neglected by the extant literature, and no integrated model for assessing CEO effectiveness exists for us to fully understand the phenomenon. Based on a positivist qualitative research approach, evidence was drawn from 16 CEOs using semi-structured interviews. The evidence was corroborated by using data obtained from participant observations of two CEOs working in the same organisation as the researcher. The results indicated that CEOs perceive leadership effectiveness as driving execution and not necessarily the realisation of goals themselves. Their experiences of leadership lead to CEOs in Kuwait believing that leadership effectiveness depends on their leadership style, relationship with the Board and the Executives, experience and family ground, societal and organisational culture, the business environment and CEO characteristics. On the basis of the participants’ perceptions of leadership effectiveness, it is recommended that CEO leadership development in Kuwait should focus on these areas, as this should equip CEOs to be effective in formulating clear visions and executing strategies to enable economic development of the country, and this should help them to compete globally. As the study focused on private and public companies, future research could consider CEOs from governmental and not-for-profit organisations to expand the sample of CEOs.
    • Learning and skills development in a fragmented industry. The case of the UK television sector.

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Spicer, David P.; Stoyanova, Dimitrinka Draganova (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2010-05-19)
      This thesis discusses how the restructuring of the UK television industry in the 1980s and 1990s has affected learning and skills development in the sector. It is based on 71 semi-structured interviews with television freelancers and key informants in the industry, and a case study of a small regional independent company developed through semi-structured interviews and three months of participant observation. To investigate the current learning and skills development mechanisms, this thesis engages with community-based learning theories. These are discussed in relation to industry characteristics such as commissioning and independent production and labour market realities related to freelance work and educational provision. The findings reveal that the traditional on the job learning mechanisms within communities of practice are challenged under the new structural context characterised by unrestricted entry and progression and short-term projects within an uncertain employment context. Commercial pressures affect both the access to learning opportunities and the learning experience, mainly because of the lack of legitimate and gradual experiential learning possibilities, short-term involvement in the industry under pressures to perform. The thesis also discusses the realities of the work in a small regional independent production company as well as its benefits and limitations as a venue for community-based learning. This thesis concludes with several policy recommendations which address some of the main challenges to the sustainable skills development in UK television. These recommendations subscribe to the need for introducing legitimate traineeships, entry rules and detaching learning from the commercial pressures in the sector.
    • Learning journeys with international Masters students in UK higher education.

      Trueman, Myfanwy; Sture, Judi; Ford, Jackie M.; Sedgley, Martin T. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2015-07-01)
      International Masters students face daunting challenges in adjusting to a startlingly different UK academic discourse within a short time. Little research has been conducted into these challenges and successful transition strategies. A review of learning development literature identified a set of three models, which has not been related theoretically to international Masters students. The latest, critical model, Academic Literacies, especially offers important insights into these students’ difficulties and potential for integration. This research design explored these learning journeys in depth through interviews in a longitudinal study of MBA and MSc students during the 2009-10 academic year. The rich data were investigated through the qualitative methodology of narrative analysis, with twin aims of recognising similarities but also important differences across the students’ learning experiences. A majority experienced strongly emotional learning journeys. These followed an affective pattern with a downturn early in the academic year influenced by the degree of unfamiliarity in the new culture and academic discourse, mirrored by a corresponding improvement in emotional state during Semester 2 or 3 as these external issues became more familiar and comfortable. Self-efficacy emerged as an especially important factor in achieving academic success, and students’ progression was mapped against this variable using an established, U-shaped transition curve model. The study identifies practical learning development interventions, but also highlights the importance of educational practitioners becoming pedagogically self-reflective to empathise more genuinely with international students’ struggles, and to learn from their diverse experiences in ways that can enrich the process of internationalising western education.
    • Legitimacy of power in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

      O'Connell, James; Mohammadi, Mohammad (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies, 2010-06-23)
      Over the few years that led to the creation of the constitutional law of the Islamic republic of Iran, I (the author) noticed a series of ambiguous and often contradictory points in its contents. Discovering the roots and the causes of such contradictions became my priority. After the Iranian Revolution (1979) intellectuals were confronted with very new experiences. For example, Shi'ah has always been a minority in the history of Islam. Therefore, Shi 'ah Fuqaha never experienced direct rule over people. Direct pressures from this new experience brought about the desire and the need for a shift in certain interpretations of the Shi'ah tradition. It became evident that religious laws did not have in them the power and the wisdom to provide answers to the issues and dilemmas of the modern times, hence the need for a fresh approach. One such issue was the discussion of legitimacy of power. 18 years on, the heated debate is still ongoing. Traditional Shi'ah theorists believed that all rulers are illegitimate except the one that represents the 12th Imam who has been absent for the last 1000 years. According to Shi'ah, this representation can only be made by elite clergy who have the ability to understand, fully, the history of Islam and Shi'ah. They also claim that Shari 'ah laws must be implemented in their entirety and according to the teachings of Qur'an and the 12 Infallible Imam. They further argue that the people as a whole have no role in determining the legitimacy of the ruler, as He has been appointed to implement divine laws and people must obey. With time, though, such attitudes were modified. Especially after the Islamic revolution in Iran (1979), new interpretations began to surface. Discussion of three fundamental elements relating to the shift of the Islamic viewpoints during the last 100 years and in particular after the Iranian revolution (1979) forms the main body of this thesis. These are: " Divine law " Divine Ruler " Role of the People The hypothesis of the thesis is that fundamental philosophical positions on all of the above three issues have been the subject of change and modification, to some extent and according to "time" and "place". This change does not reflect the abandoning of the Islamic faith by Muslims, but rather indicates the ability of this dynamic religion to modify itself with time'. These changes have also been associated with varying degrees of ambiguity and contradiction, which will be the subject of detailed discussions in this work. Viewpoints of other outstanding scholars who tried to address these issues will also be presented. Two theories have been expressed in relation to the shift in the Shi'ah political thinking; " Islam's ability to adapt with "time" and "place" and new issues " "Change", in itself, defies the very existence of religion Both theories have been the subject of extensive debates. Traditional Muslims and Non-Muslims criticise Islam for supporting the latter view, whereas revivalists sympathise with the former. It must be mentioned also that reference throughout 1 Iqbal. Enayat. Lambton II this work is only made to those scholars who have used Islamic sources for their reasoning, i. e., not to many others who have engaged in these discussions as independent figures. Also discussed- will be the traditional Islam represented by the majority of the Assembly of the Islamic Experts (Majles-i Khobregan) which in effect was the main creator of the Iranian Constitution.
    • Lelov: cultural memory and a Jewish town in Poland. Investigating the identity and history of an ultra - orthodox society.

      Housden, Martyn; Hiden, John; Morawska, Lucja (University of BradfordSchool of Social and International Studies, 2016-02-26)
      Lelov, an otherwise quiet village about fifty miles south of Cracow (Poland), is where Rebbe Dovid (David) Biederman founder of the Lelov ultra-orthodox (Chasidic) Jewish group, - is buried. His grave is now a focal point of the Chasidic pilgrimages. The pilgrims themselves are a Chasidic hodgepodge, dressed in fur-brimmed hats, dreadlocked, and they all come to Lelov for the same reasons: to pray, love, and eat with their brethren. The number of pilgrims has grown exponentially since the collapse of Communism in Poland in 1989; today about three hundred ultra-orthodox Jews make a trek. Mass pilgrimage to kevorim (Chasidic graves), is quite a new phenomenon in Eastern Europe but it has already became part of Chasidic identity. This thesis focuses on the Chasidic pilgrimage which has always been a major part of the Jewish tradition. However, for the past fifty years, only a devoted few have been able to undertake trips back to Poland. With the collapse of Communism, when the sites in Eastern and Central Europe became more open and much more accessible, the ultra-orthodox Jews were among the first to create a ‘return movement’. Those who had been the last to leave Poland in search of asylum are now becoming the initiators of the re-discovery of Jewish symbols in this part of the world.
    • Liberalizing Trade in Tourism Services Under the CARIFORUM EU Economic Partnership Agreement in the OECS: Examining its Effect on Tourism Demand and Tourism Related Foreign Direct Investment

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Mykhayliv, Dariya; Alleyne, Alistair (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, School of Management, 2019)
      This thesis is a study on the liberalization of trade in tourism services that has taken place between the European Union and Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) under the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) -European Union (EU) Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). It focuses on Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. They are all members of the OECS, the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) and CARIFORUM and they are EPA signatories. Using Panel Auto Regressive Distributed Lag modelling, the study is the first to empirically test the effect of liberalizing trade in tourism services (proxied by the EPA) on inflows of tourism related foreign direct investment and European tourism demand regarding the aforementioned countries. It focuses on the period 1997 – 2013. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (GDPPC) is a statistically significant determinant of tourism related foreign direct investment. This supports the established hypothesis that market size measured by GDP per capita is a key determinant of FDI. Inflation rate (IR) and trade openness (OPEN) are also significant determinants of tourism related foreign direct investment whilst the EPA is not. Regarding European tourism demand income, prices, prices in a substitute destination and room supply are statistically significant determinants in the long run. Barbados is viewed as a complementary destination to the OECS EPA signatories. However, in the short run the EPA is not a statistically significant determinant of European tourism demand which it negatively affects.
    • Life story narratives of Ethiopian women activists: the journey to feminist activism

      Pankhurst, Donna T.; Macaulay, Fiona; Abye, Tigest (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies and International Development, 2016)
      Through the life story narratives of Ethiopian women activists, this research explores the journey of Ethiopian women activists during three political and historical periods (1955–1974; 1974–1991; 1991–2015). Thus, the study proposes a new perspective on the forms of Ethiopian women’s activism and subsequently the different types of feminism emerging from their narratives. Through examination of how the activists reflect on, reconstruct and give meaning to their life stories, this research unravels that their activism is informed by feminist principles. It also exposes that it is shaped by a long history of resistance to patriarchy, which enabled women in traditional Ethiopia to negotiate a certain level of “autonomy and liberty”. Contrary to the general expectation, the research demonstrates that the process of modernization (read: westernization) came with its own structure based on western patriarchy, and reinforced local patriarchy. In this new, formalized patriarchy, the rights that women had negotiated through their resistance in earlier times were diminished. This study on women activists, categorized for the purpose of this research as pioneers, revolutionaries and negotiators, suggests that Ethiopian women activists have since adopted different forms of engagement that tend to improve the social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Ethiopian women. Consequently, I argue that, while Ethiopian women’s activism and feminism is firmly embedded in the history of resistance of previous generations of Ethiopian women, the form of activism varies according to the political and historical context in which the activists negotiate and adapt the way they act.
    • Lightweight friction brakes for a road vehicle with regenerative braking. Design analysis and experimental investigation of the potential for mass reduction of friction brakes on a passenger car with regenerative braking.

      Day, Andrew J.; Olley, Peter; Qi, Hong Sheng; Sarip, S. Bin (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-11-02)
      One of the benefits of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles (HVs) is their potential to recuperate braking energy. Regenerative braking (RB) will minimize duty levels on the brakes, giving advantages including extended brake rotor and friction material life and, more significantly, reduced brake mass and minimised brake pad wear. In this thesis, a mathematical analysis (MATLAB) has been used to analyse the accessibility of regenerative braking energy during a single-stop braking event. The results have indicated that a friction brake could be downsized while maintaining the same functional requirements of the vehicle braking in the standard brakes, including thermomechanical performance (heat transfer coefficient estimation, temperature distribution, cooling and stress deformation). This would allow lighter brakes to be designed and fitted with confidence in a normal passenger car alongside a hybrid electric drive. An approach has been established and a lightweight brake disc design analysed FEA and experimentally verified is presented in this research. Thermal performance was a key factor which was studied using the 3D model in FEA simulations. Ultimately, a design approach for lightweight brake discs suitable for use in any car-sized hybrid vehicle has been developed and tested. The results from experiments on a prototype lightweight brake disc were shown to illustrate the effects of RBS/friction combination in terms of weight reduction. The design requirement, including reducing the thickness, would affect the temperature distribution and increase stress at the critical area. Based on the relationship obtained between rotor weight, thickness and each performance requirement, criteria have been established for designing lightweight brake discs in a vehicle with regenerative braking.
    • Lines Across the Land: A Biography of the Linear Earthwork Landscapes of the Later Prehistoric Yorkshire Wolds

      Armit, Ian; Gaffney, Christopher F.; Croucher, Karina T.; Fioccoprile, Emily A. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2015)
      During the first millennium BC, the people of the chalk landscapes of the Yorkshire Wolds began carving up their world with monumental linear earthworks. This project explores the meanings of the later prehistoric boundary systems of the Yorkshire Wolds. It writes a biography of the linear earthwork landscapes of the north-central Wolds, using geographic information systems (GIS), original fieldwork and theories of agency and memory. Tracing the construction, use and modification of particular linear earthworks, it examines how these monuments would have related to other features in the landscape, and how they could have exercised agency within networks of interconnected people, animals, objects and other places. Finally, the project attempts to situate these boundary systems within the larger context of Late Bronze Age and Iron Age society in order to understand how the later prehistoric people of East Yorkshire would have experienced their world. Taking a biographical approach to landscape and allowing linear earthworks to become the protagonists of this narrative, the project charts the life histories of the earthworks at Wetwang-Garton Slack and Huggate Dykes and investigates the collective authorship of the wider landscape. To understand the rural, monumental landscapes of the Wolds, we must consider the agency of not only people, but also of animals and of monuments themselves. By focussing on the relationships which bound together linear earthworks and other agents, we can begin to understand the ways in which monumentalised landscapes both reflected and generated the cosmologies of prehistoric communities.
    • Lipid profilling of polyunsaturated fatty acid - treated mouse brain and plasma. Investigation into polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-induced neuroprotection

      Obrenovitch, Tihomir P.; Nicolaou, Anna; Williams, Anest (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy, 2010-08-19)
      Pre-treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids or bioactive lipid mediators has been shown to reduce neuronal injury in rodent models of focal ischaemia, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection are unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether systemic administration of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) leads to changes in the profile of mouse brain phospholipid and bioactive lipid mediators in both mouse brain and plasma within the previously determined neuroprotection time window. Mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed us to detect and identify 47 phospholipids in mouse cerebral cortex, including several phospholipid species not previously reported in brain lipidomic studies. These included a phosphatidylethanolamine species with m/z 720 that has been associated with retinal stem cells. No widespread changes in cerebral cortex phospholipid composition were observed following intravenous ALA. Several significant changes in lipid mediators (P<0.05 with two-way ANOVA and post hoc Dunnett¿s t test) were detected in ALA-treated animals compared to untreated and vehicle-injected animals. Many of the affected lipid mediators are ligands for prostanoid receptors which have been demonstrated to play a role in the development of brain injury following cerebral ischaemia, implying that changes in bioactive lipid mediators or modulation of prostanoid receptors may occur following ALA pre-treatment in mice. This study illustrates the potential of advanced lipidomic analysis as a novel tool for neurochemists.
    • Literature of utopia and dystopia. Technological influences shaping the form and content of utopian visions.

      Stonier, Tom; Smith, Kenneth; Garvey, Brian T. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Science and Society, 2011-08-26)
      We live in an age of rapid change. The advance of science and technology, throughout history, has culminated in periods of transition when social values have had to adapt to a changed environment. Such times have proved fertile ground for the expansion of the imagination. Utopian literature offers a vast archive of information concerning the relationship between scientific and technological progress and social change. Alterations in the most basic machinery of society inspired utopian authors to write of distant and future worlds which had achieved a state of harmony and plenty. The dilemmas which writers faced were particular to their era, but there also emerged certain universal themes and questions: What is the best organisation of society? What tools would be adequate to the task? What does it mean to be human? The dividing line on these issues revolves around two opposed beliefs. Some perceived the power inherent in technology to effect the greatest improvement in the human condition. Others were convinced that the organisation of the social order must come first so as to create an environment sympathetic to perceived human needs. There are, necessarily, contradictions in such a division. They can be seen plainly in More's Utopia itself. More wanted to see new science and technique developed. But he also condemned the social consequences which inevitably flowed from the process of discovery. These consequences led More to create a utopia based on social reorganisation. In the main, the utopias of Francis Bacon, Edward Bellamy and the later H. G. Wells accepted science, while the work of William Morris, Aldous Huxley and Kurt Vonnegut rejected science in preference for a different social order. More's Utopia and Bacon's New Atlantis were written at a time when feudal, agricultural society was being transformed by new discoveries and techniques. In a later age, Bellamy's Looking Backward and Morris's News From Nowhere offer contrary responses to society at the height of the Industrial evolution. These four authors serve as a prelude to the main area of the thesis which centres on the twentieth century. Wells, though his first novel appeared in 1895, produced the vast bulk of his work in the current century. Huxley acts as an appropriate balance to Wells and also exemplifies the shift from utopia to dystopia. The last section of the thesis deals with the work of Kurt Vonnegut and includes an interview with that author. The twentieth century has seen the proliferation of dystopias, portraits of the disastrous consequences of the headlong pursuit of science and technology, unallied to human values. Huxley and Vonnegut crystallised the fears of a modern generation: that we create a soulless, mechanised, urban nightmare. The contemporary fascination with science in literature is merely an extension of a process with a long tradition and underlying theme. The advance of science and technology created the physical and intellectual environment for utopian authors which determined the form and content of their visions.
    • The lived experiences of designing modules at one UK university: a qualitative account of academic practice

      Hughes, Peter; Comerford Boyes, Louise; Walton, Sean; Hartley, Peter; Lindsey, Nigel J.; Binns, Carole L. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences, 2015)